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Walker, Chapter 2
Walker, Chapter 2
Walker, Chapter 2
Walker, Chapter 2
Walker, Chapter 2
Walker, Chapter 2
Walker, Chapter 2
Walker, Chapter 2
Walker, Chapter 2
Walker, Chapter 2
Walker, Chapter 2
Walker, Chapter 2
Walker, Chapter 2
Walker, Chapter 2
Walker, Chapter 2
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Walker, Chapter 2


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  • 1. Police in America Chapter Two The History of American Police
  • 2. The Relevance of History
    • Knowledge of the development of policing contributes to our understanding of contemporary practices and problems.
    • Police organization, reforms, and police-community relations today are deeply rooted in the past.
  • 3. The Relevance of History
    • The study of police history can:
      • Dramatize the fact of change
      • Put current problems into perspective
      • Help us understand what reforms have worked
      • Alerts us to the unintended consequences of reforms
  • 4. The English Heritage
    • The Constable, Sheriff, & Justice of the Peace
    • The Watch System
    • Sir Robert Peel
    • London Metropolitan Police (1829)
      • Mission, Strategy, Organizational Structure
  • 5. First Modern America Police
    • New York - first police department with a day and night shift (1844)
    • Did not wear uniforms but had a hat and badge
    • Did not carry firearms
    • Officers hired based on who they knew
  • 6. Three Eras of American Policing
    • The political era (1830s-1900)
    • The professional era (1900-1960s)
    • The era of conflicting pressures (1960s-present)
  • 7. Law Enforcement in Colonial America
    • Sheriff
      • Appointed by colonial governor
      • Chief local government official
        • Law enforcement
        • Collect taxes
        • Conduct elections
        • Maintain bridges and roads
    • Constable
      • Some responsibility for enforcing law and maintaining order
        • Originally elected, later appointed
    • Watch
      • Watchmen patrolled to guard against
        • Fire
        • Crime
        • Disorder
      • Originally, only night watch
      • All males were expected to serve
    • Slave Patrol
      • Distinctly American
        • Guard against slave revolts and capture runaway slaves
  • 8. American Policing in the 19 th Century
    • Establishment of Modern Police Forces
      • Urbanization, Industrialization, Immigration
      • Breakdown in Law and Order
    • The Political Era
    • Police Personnel
      • Selection based on political connection
  • 9. Patrol
      • Foot patrol
      • No communications system
        • In time, call boxes emerged
      • Weak supervision
      • Major social welfare institution
        • Corruption
        • Reforms
  • 10. American Policing in the 20 th Century
    • Police Professionalism
      • August Vollmer
      • “Father of American Police Professionalism”
      • Advocated higher education for police officers
      • Chief of Berkeley, California
      • Wrote Wickersham Commission Report (1931)
  • 11. Professionalization Movement
    • Reformers sought to define policing as a profession
    • Sought to eliminate the influence of politics on policing
    • Argued for hiring qualified police chiefs
    • Tried to raise standards for patrol officers
    • Applied modern management principles
    • Create specialized units like traffic, vice
  • 12. The Diary of a Police Officer: Boston, 1895
    • The recently discovered 1895 diary of Boston police officer Stillman S. Wakeman provides a revealing glimpse into actual police work 100 years ago.
    • Officer Wakeman was “an officer of the neighborhood.” He spent most of his time on patrol responding to little problems that neighborhood residents brought to him: disputes, minor property crimes, and so on. He spent relatively little time on major offenses: murder, rape, robbery. He resolved most of the problems informally, acting as a neighborhood magistrate.
    • Officer Wakeman’s role was remarkably similar to that of contemporary patrol officers. He was reactive and a problem solver. The major difference was the absence of modern police technology: the patrol car and the 911 telephone system.
  • 13. Important Issues in American Policing in the 20 th Century
    • Police Subculture
    • Racial/Ethnic Conflict
    • Crisis of the 1960s
    • The Research Revolution
    • State Police Agencies
    • Federal Bureau of Investigation
    • New Technology
    • Supreme Court Decisions
  • 14. New Technologies
    • Patrol car just before WWI
    • Two-way radio, late 1930s
    • Telephone for citizens to call police
  • 15. New Developments
    • Changing police officer
        • Race and gender
    • Control of police discretion
      • Policies and SOP
      • Lawsuits
    • Unions
      • Significant improvement in salaries and benefits
    • Community policing and problem-oriented policing