Walker, Chapter 15
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  • 1. Police in America Chapter 15 The Future of Policing in America
  • 2. Police Technology
    • Major technology applications
      • 1. Database and information technology
        • Computerized systems that operate like a card-file index and allow the police to store large amounts of information from a variety of sources
      • 2. Computer-aided dispatch (CAD)
        • Reduce officer confusion, send clear messages instantaneously to officers’ mobile computers, keep officers safe, prioritize calls for serves
      • 3. Records management systems
        • Used to input and organize information from different types of reports in an easy-to-access format
      • 4. Mobile computing
        • Primary mechanism used by officers to access and deposit information
        • Eliminates all the paper generated by reports
  • 3. The Use of Technology in the Field
      • Provides timely data on crime and disorder by neighborhood
    • Early Intervention (EI) Systems
      • An application of personnel records management for the purpose of increasing the accountability of police officers
    • License Plate Readers
      • Installed on police vehicles and fixed sites such as traffic intersections
      • Five potential uses:
        • 1. Crime analysis
        • 2. Alerts and hot lists
        • 3. Tracking individuals
        • 4. Identifying previously undetected crimes
        • 5. Revenue generation
  • 4. The Future of Police Information Technology
    • Technology to increase information sharing between law enforcement agencies
      • National Crime Information Center (NCIC) of the FBI
      • Global Justice XML Data Model (GJXDM)
        • Allows criminal justice agencies to maintain their information in a standardized language
      • Automated Regional Justice Information System (ARJIS)
        • Increased effectiveness and job performance at the San Diego sheriff’s department
  • 5. Technologically Advanced Weapons
    • Taser: An acronym for Tom Swift’s Electric Rifle.
      • introduced in early 1975, designed as a non-lethal weapon resembling a handgun.
      • Once the trigger is depressed, two small barbed contacts trailing fine conducting wires are shot from one of the cassettes along the line of aim into the target.
      • The dart-like contacts need not actually touch the skin. If the darts are imbedded in clothing, the electrical charge is capable of reaching the body, since the Taser provides a 1½-inch spark from its high-voltage power supply.
  • 6. Crime Analysis
    • Functions
      • Collect, Analyze, Disseminate Crime-Related Data
      • Identify crime-suspect correlations
      • Support Patrol Officers
      • Assist Investigations
      • Identify conditions that facilitate crime and incivility
    • Types
      • Tactical Crime Analysis
        • Involves identification of specific crime problems in particular geographic areas
      • Strategic Crime Analysis
        • Focuses on long-term crime trends
      • Administrative
        • Provides summary statistics and data to police managers
  • 7. Crime Mapping
    • Permits analysts to identify spatial patterns and hot spots for different types of crime
      • About 13% of police departments use crime mapping
      • The Department of Justice (DOJ) is allocating substantial resources toward promoting the use of crime mapping at police agencies around the country
  • 8. The Outlook for Police Employment
    • Opportunities in Local, County, and State Law Enforcement
    • Local, County, and State Salaries
      • Average annual salary of $47,460 in 2006
      • Detectives make around $58,260 annually
    • Opportunities in Federal Law Enforcement
      • Department of Homeland Security
    • Federal Salaries
      • FBI agents begin at about $60,199 a year
      • Salaries of most federal law enforcement officers is determined by the General Schedule (GS) pay system
  • 9. The Future of Police Research
    • Research Revolution
      • Product of large investment of funds, mostly from federal government, into scientific research
      • Law Enforcement Assistance Administration (LEAA)
    • Does Research Do Any Good?
      • Yes!
      • Kansas City Preventative Patrol Experiment found that increasing level of patrol did not deter crime more effectively than normal amount of patrol
      • Rand Corporation study found that traditional detective work did not increase number of crimes solved
    • The Future of Federal Funding
      • Very uncertain, varies year to year
      • Poses a serious threat for the future of American police
  • 10. Demographic Change
    • Immigration Trends
      • Hispanics/Latinos
      • Other Groups
    • The New Minority: Hispanic/Latino Population
    • Potential Problems and Conflicts
    • What laws do you think should be passed?
  • 11. Impact of the War on Terrorism
    • Foreign Policy
    • Domestic Policy
      • Role Expansion
      • Immigration Enforcement
      • Racial & Ethnic Profiling
      • Personnel Shortages
  • 12. Role Expansion
    • 1. Investigating suspected terrorists
    • 2. Preparing for and responding to specific terrorist acts
    • 3. Preparing for possible terrorist acts involving weapons of mass destruction
  • 13. Immigration Enforcement
    • Post 9/11, Justice Department called for a multiagency approach, although enforcing immigration laws was not a traditional job of state and local authorities
    • 287(g) Program
      • Permit local police to enforce immigration law after they have received required training from Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) personnel
  • 14. Racial and Ethnic Profiling
    • War on terrorism has lead to increased stereotypes about Arab Americans
    • As a result, Department of Justice created a four-hour cultural competency course to educate local and federal law enforcement officers about Arab and Muslim culture and customs
  • 15. Personnel Changes
    • Post 9/11:
      • Mobilization of National Guard and military reserves led to loss of personnel
        • Especially detrimental to small agencies
      • Increasing demands to fulfill homeland security needs
        • Leading to diversion from regular patrol