Walker, Chapter 15


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Walker, Chapter 15

  1. 1. Police in America Chapter 15 The Future of Policing in America
  2. 2. Police Technology <ul><li>Major technology applications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Database and information technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Computerized systems that operate like a card-file index and allow the police to store large amounts of information from a variety of sources </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Computer-aided dispatch (CAD) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce officer confusion, send clear messages instantaneously to officers’ mobile computers, keep officers safe, prioritize calls for serves </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Records management systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used to input and organize information from different types of reports in an easy-to-access format </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. Mobile computing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Primary mechanism used by officers to access and deposit information </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eliminates all the paper generated by reports </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. The Use of Technology in the Field <ul><li>COMPSTAT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides timely data on crime and disorder by neighborhood </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Early Intervention (EI) Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An application of personnel records management for the purpose of increasing the accountability of police officers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>License Plate Readers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Installed on police vehicles and fixed sites such as traffic intersections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Five potential uses: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. Crime analysis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. Alerts and hot lists </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3. Tracking individuals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4. Identifying previously undetected crimes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>5. Revenue generation </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. The Future of Police Information Technology <ul><li>Technology to increase information sharing between law enforcement agencies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>National Crime Information Center (NCIC) of the FBI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Global Justice XML Data Model (GJXDM) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allows criminal justice agencies to maintain their information in a standardized language </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Automated Regional Justice Information System (ARJIS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increased effectiveness and job performance at the San Diego sheriff’s department </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Technologically Advanced Weapons <ul><li>Taser: An acronym for Tom Swift’s Electric Rifle. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>introduced in early 1975, designed as a non-lethal weapon resembling a handgun. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Once the trigger is depressed, two small barbed contacts trailing fine conducting wires are shot from one of the cassettes along the line of aim into the target. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The dart-like contacts need not actually touch the skin. If the darts are imbedded in clothing, the electrical charge is capable of reaching the body, since the Taser provides a 1½-inch spark from its high-voltage power supply. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Crime Analysis <ul><li>Functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collect, Analyze, Disseminate Crime-Related Data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify crime-suspect correlations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support Patrol Officers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assist Investigations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify conditions that facilitate crime and incivility </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tactical Crime Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Involves identification of specific crime problems in particular geographic areas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategic Crime Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Focuses on long-term crime trends </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Administrative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provides summary statistics and data to police managers </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Crime Mapping <ul><li>Permits analysts to identify spatial patterns and hot spots for different types of crime </li></ul><ul><ul><li>About 13% of police departments use crime mapping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Department of Justice (DOJ) is allocating substantial resources toward promoting the use of crime mapping at police agencies around the country </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. The Outlook for Police Employment <ul><li>Opportunities in Local, County, and State Law Enforcement </li></ul><ul><li>Local, County, and State Salaries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Average annual salary of $47,460 in 2006 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Detectives make around $58,260 annually </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Opportunities in Federal Law Enforcement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Department of Homeland Security </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Federal Salaries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FBI agents begin at about $60,199 a year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Salaries of most federal law enforcement officers is determined by the General Schedule (GS) pay system </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. The Future of Police Research <ul><li>Research Revolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Product of large investment of funds, mostly from federal government, into scientific research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Law Enforcement Assistance Administration (LEAA) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Does Research Do Any Good? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Yes! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kansas City Preventative Patrol Experiment found that increasing level of patrol did not deter crime more effectively than normal amount of patrol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rand Corporation study found that traditional detective work did not increase number of crimes solved </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Future of Federal Funding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Very uncertain, varies year to year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poses a serious threat for the future of American police </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Demographic Change <ul><li>Immigration Trends </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hispanics/Latinos </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other Groups </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The New Minority: Hispanic/Latino Population </li></ul><ul><li>Potential Problems and Conflicts </li></ul><ul><li>What laws do you think should be passed? </li></ul>
  11. 11. Impact of the War on Terrorism <ul><li>Foreign Policy </li></ul><ul><li>Domestic Policy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Role Expansion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Immigration Enforcement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Racial & Ethnic Profiling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personnel Shortages </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Role Expansion <ul><li>1. Investigating suspected terrorists </li></ul><ul><li>2. Preparing for and responding to specific terrorist acts </li></ul><ul><li>3. Preparing for possible terrorist acts involving weapons of mass destruction </li></ul>
  13. 13. Immigration Enforcement <ul><li>Post 9/11, Justice Department called for a multiagency approach, although enforcing immigration laws was not a traditional job of state and local authorities </li></ul><ul><li>287(g) Program </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Permit local police to enforce immigration law after they have received required training from Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) personnel </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Racial and Ethnic Profiling <ul><li>War on terrorism has lead to increased stereotypes about Arab Americans </li></ul><ul><li>As a result, Department of Justice created a four-hour cultural competency course to educate local and federal law enforcement officers about Arab and Muslim culture and customs </li></ul>
  15. 15. Personnel Changes <ul><li>Post 9/11: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobilization of National Guard and military reserves led to loss of personnel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Especially detrimental to small agencies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing demands to fulfill homeland security needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Leading to diversion from regular patrol </li></ul></ul></ul>
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