Walker, Chapter 10
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Walker, Chapter 10






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Walker, Chapter 10 Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Police in America Chapter Ten Innovations in Police Strategy
  • 2. Impetus for Change in Policing
    • Local police departments were isolated and alienated from important segments of the community.
    • Research had undermined the assumptions of traditional police management and police reform.
    • Recognition of the fact that the police role is complex.
    • Recognition of the importance of citizens as co-producers of police services
  • 3. The Roots of Community Policing: Broken Window Hypothesis
    • Broken Windows Hypothesis : Developed by James Q. Wilson and George L. Kelling; argues that police should focus their resources on disorder problems that create fear of crime and lead to neighborhood decay. A broken window begins neighborhood decay.
    • Types of Disorder:
    • 1. Social Disorder (Social Disorganization): A condition said to exist when a group is faced with social change, uneven development of culture, maladaptiveness, disharmony, conflict, and lack of consensus.
    • 2. Physical Disorder: A form of societal neglect resulting from physical decay within a neighborhood; examples include vandalism, dilapidation and abandonment of buildings, and trash buildup.
  • 4. Characteristics of Community Policing
    • Community Policing : A model of policing that stresses a two-way working relationship between the community and the police; the police become more integrated into the local community, and citizens assume an active role in crime control and prevention.
  • 5. Community Policing
    • Community Partnerships
      • Collaboration between police and community
    • Consultation
      • Citizens can express problems and needs
      • Police can educate citizens about crime and disorder in community
      • Allows citizens to present complaints
      • Provides forum for police to inform the citizen about successes and failures
    • Mobilization
      • Neighborhoods
      • Civil and administrative law
      • Other municipal agencies
  • 6. The Effectiveness of Community Partnernships
    • Foot Patrol
      • Increased citizens’ feelings of safety
      • Positive feelings toward police department
      • Varied feedback on effectiveness of crime reduction
    • Neighborhood Watch
      • Repeatedly found to have little impact on crime
    • Policing Where “Community” Has Collapsed
      • More successful among middle-income people, homeowners, and whites than among really poor renters and racial minorities
  • 7. Organizational Change
    • Organizational Structure
    • Organizational Culture
    • Management
  • 8. Evidence of Organizational Change
    • Little evidence to support the idea that police organizations are changing their structure as a consequence of community policing
    • However, increased police visibility as a result of community policing
    • Incorporation of community policing principles into academy training for officers
  • 9. Problem Solving
    • Last element of community policing
      • When the police and the community engage in a cooperative effort to solve neighborhood problems
      • Requires participants to identify the underlying causes of problems rather than respond to the problems themselves
      • 58% of local police agencies encourage officers to engage in problem-solving projects
  • 10. Pulling It All Together: Implementing Community Policing at the Departmental Level
    • Chicago Alternative Policing Strategy (CAPS) Program
      • The CAPS Plan
        • 1. Involvement of entire department and entire city
        • 2. Permanent beat assignment for officers
        • 3. Commitment to training
        • 4. Community involvement
        • 5. Link between policing and delivery of other city services
        • 6. Emphasis on crime analysis
  • 11. (CAPS) Obstacles to Change
    • 1. Problem of resources
    • 2. Public opposition to planned closing of precinct station houses
    • 3. Getting rank-and-file officers committed to CAPS
    • 4. The 911 system
      • Traditional system would pull officers away from problem-solving activities
  • 12. CAPS in Action
    • Citizen interaction with police important
      • Attempted through regular beat meetings where citizens could discuss neighborhood problems
        • Problems discussed included drug problems, youth problems, loud music, police disregard for citizens
    • Evaluation of CAPS
      • Mixed results
      • High level of awareness of program, but did not increase as time went on
      • Increased police visibility
      • More time spent on problem-solving
  • 13. Community Policing: Problems and Prospects
    • A Legitimate Police Role?
      • A matter of policy choice
    • A Political Police?
      • Community policing expands police role and erodes traditional limits
      • The more they dig into the root of social problems, the more they place limits on individual liberties
    • Decentralization and Accountability
      • Decentralization creates a potential loss of control over police behavior
    • Impact on Poor and Minority Communities
      • Intrusive on lives of those living in low-income areas, more arrests, fewer men in these communities who can find jobs due to their criminal record
    • Conflicting Community Interests
      • - Especially financial interests
    • But Does Community Policing Work?
      • YES: Study funded by the COPS Office showed that the community policing strategy implemented by the Clinton administration was extremely effective
  • 14. The Roots of Problem-Oriented Policing:
    • Herman Goldstein recognized complexity of the police role
      • Helped draft the American Bar Association standards that emphasized different responsibilities of police
      • Goldstein argues we should think of the police as a government agency providing a wide range of miscellaneous services
      • Also argues that the police are prisoners of their communication system
        • 911 forces them into a reactive role and makes them think in terms of isolated incidents
  • 15. The Problem Solving Process (SARA)
    • 1. Scanning
      • Look for and identify possible problems
    • 2. Analysis
      • Collect information about the problem and attempt to identify its scope, nature and cause
    • 3. Response
      • Analysis information used to develop a strategy to address the problem
    • 4. Assessment
      • Evaluation of the effectiveness of the response
  • 16. Effectiveness of Problem-Oriented Policing
    • Problem-Oriented Policing in Newport News
      • Increased police presence in area reduced reported burglaries by 60 percent
      • Utilized SARA model
    • Problem-Oriented Policing in San Diego
      • 70% of officers used some aspect of SARA model
      • However, most POP projects were not carried out in a traditional “text book” fashion
    • The Boston Gun Project: Operation Cease Fire
      • Reduced youth-gang homicides by 70%
      • Residents’ fear of crime reduced by 21%
      • Faith in police increased by 33%
  • 17. Characteristics of Zero-Tolerance Policing
    • Zero-Tolerance Policing
      • Based on broken windows theory
      • Calls for the police to primarily focus on disorder, minor crime, and the appearance of crime
      • Characterized by interventions that aggressively enforce criminal and civil laws
      • Based on the presumption that communities that need the police the most are also the least likely to have strong community social institutions
      • Does not attempt to carefully identify problems or thoroughly analyze cause of problems
      • Focus on place-specific interventions
      • A back-to-basics strategy
  • 18. Effectiveness of Zero-Tolerance Policing
    • Zero Tolerance Policing in NYC
      • Giuliani instituted zero-tolerance strategy that focused on enforcement efforts against panhandling, vandalism, public drunkenness, public urination, and prostitution
      • Result was a drop in serious crime rate, however this also came about as part of a general nation-wide trend in drops in crime rate
    • Operation Restoration
      • Chandler, AZ
      • Restructured police department and gave more responsibility to planning and development dept.
      • Result was a decrease in public morals crimes like prostitution and disorderly conduct
  • 19. Potential Problems with Zero-Tolerance Policing
    • Conflict between police and the public
      • Encourages officers to be overly aggressive
      • Increase in no. of citizen complaints
    • Increase in crime in the long run
      • An arrest record has a long-term impact on a person’s immediate and future employment
    • Impact on poor and minority communities
      • Focus on minor offenses means poorer minority communities will be affected more