Walker, Chapter 10
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Walker, Chapter 10






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    Walker, Chapter 10 Walker, Chapter 10 Presentation Transcript

    • Police in America Chapter Ten Innovations in Police Strategy
    • Impetus for Change in Policing
      • Local police departments were isolated and alienated from important segments of the community.
      • Research had undermined the assumptions of traditional police management and police reform.
      • Recognition of the fact that the police role is complex.
      • Recognition of the importance of citizens as co-producers of police services
    • The Roots of Community Policing: Broken Window Hypothesis
      • Broken Windows Hypothesis : Developed by James Q. Wilson and George L. Kelling; argues that police should focus their resources on disorder problems that create fear of crime and lead to neighborhood decay. A broken window begins neighborhood decay.
      • Types of Disorder:
      • 1. Social Disorder (Social Disorganization): A condition said to exist when a group is faced with social change, uneven development of culture, maladaptiveness, disharmony, conflict, and lack of consensus.
      • 2. Physical Disorder: A form of societal neglect resulting from physical decay within a neighborhood; examples include vandalism, dilapidation and abandonment of buildings, and trash buildup.
    • Characteristics of Community Policing
      • Community Policing : A model of policing that stresses a two-way working relationship between the community and the police; the police become more integrated into the local community, and citizens assume an active role in crime control and prevention.
    • Community Policing
      • Community Partnerships
        • Collaboration between police and community
      • Consultation
        • Citizens can express problems and needs
        • Police can educate citizens about crime and disorder in community
        • Allows citizens to present complaints
        • Provides forum for police to inform the citizen about successes and failures
      • Mobilization
        • Neighborhoods
        • Civil and administrative law
        • Other municipal agencies
    • The Effectiveness of Community Partnernships
      • Foot Patrol
        • Increased citizens’ feelings of safety
        • Positive feelings toward police department
        • Varied feedback on effectiveness of crime reduction
      • Neighborhood Watch
        • Repeatedly found to have little impact on crime
      • Policing Where “Community” Has Collapsed
        • More successful among middle-income people, homeowners, and whites than among really poor renters and racial minorities
    • Organizational Change
      • Organizational Structure
      • Organizational Culture
      • Management
    • Evidence of Organizational Change
      • Little evidence to support the idea that police organizations are changing their structure as a consequence of community policing
      • However, increased police visibility as a result of community policing
      • Incorporation of community policing principles into academy training for officers
    • Problem Solving
      • Last element of community policing
        • When the police and the community engage in a cooperative effort to solve neighborhood problems
        • Requires participants to identify the underlying causes of problems rather than respond to the problems themselves
        • 58% of local police agencies encourage officers to engage in problem-solving projects
    • Pulling It All Together: Implementing Community Policing at the Departmental Level
      • Chicago Alternative Policing Strategy (CAPS) Program
        • The CAPS Plan
          • 1. Involvement of entire department and entire city
          • 2. Permanent beat assignment for officers
          • 3. Commitment to training
          • 4. Community involvement
          • 5. Link between policing and delivery of other city services
          • 6. Emphasis on crime analysis
    • (CAPS) Obstacles to Change
      • 1. Problem of resources
      • 2. Public opposition to planned closing of precinct station houses
      • 3. Getting rank-and-file officers committed to CAPS
      • 4. The 911 system
        • Traditional system would pull officers away from problem-solving activities
    • CAPS in Action
      • Citizen interaction with police important
        • Attempted through regular beat meetings where citizens could discuss neighborhood problems
          • Problems discussed included drug problems, youth problems, loud music, police disregard for citizens
      • Evaluation of CAPS
        • Mixed results
        • High level of awareness of program, but did not increase as time went on
        • Increased police visibility
        • More time spent on problem-solving
    • Community Policing: Problems and Prospects
      • A Legitimate Police Role?
        • A matter of policy choice
      • A Political Police?
        • Community policing expands police role and erodes traditional limits
        • The more they dig into the root of social problems, the more they place limits on individual liberties
      • Decentralization and Accountability
        • Decentralization creates a potential loss of control over police behavior
      • Impact on Poor and Minority Communities
        • Intrusive on lives of those living in low-income areas, more arrests, fewer men in these communities who can find jobs due to their criminal record
      • Conflicting Community Interests
        • - Especially financial interests
      • But Does Community Policing Work?
        • YES: Study funded by the COPS Office showed that the community policing strategy implemented by the Clinton administration was extremely effective
    • The Roots of Problem-Oriented Policing:
      • Herman Goldstein recognized complexity of the police role
        • Helped draft the American Bar Association standards that emphasized different responsibilities of police
        • Goldstein argues we should think of the police as a government agency providing a wide range of miscellaneous services
        • Also argues that the police are prisoners of their communication system
          • 911 forces them into a reactive role and makes them think in terms of isolated incidents
    • The Problem Solving Process (SARA)
      • 1. Scanning
        • Look for and identify possible problems
      • 2. Analysis
        • Collect information about the problem and attempt to identify its scope, nature and cause
      • 3. Response
        • Analysis information used to develop a strategy to address the problem
      • 4. Assessment
        • Evaluation of the effectiveness of the response
    • Effectiveness of Problem-Oriented Policing
      • Problem-Oriented Policing in Newport News
        • Increased police presence in area reduced reported burglaries by 60 percent
        • Utilized SARA model
      • Problem-Oriented Policing in San Diego
        • 70% of officers used some aspect of SARA model
        • However, most POP projects were not carried out in a traditional “text book” fashion
      • The Boston Gun Project: Operation Cease Fire
        • Reduced youth-gang homicides by 70%
        • Residents’ fear of crime reduced by 21%
        • Faith in police increased by 33%
    • Characteristics of Zero-Tolerance Policing
      • Zero-Tolerance Policing
        • Based on broken windows theory
        • Calls for the police to primarily focus on disorder, minor crime, and the appearance of crime
        • Characterized by interventions that aggressively enforce criminal and civil laws
        • Based on the presumption that communities that need the police the most are also the least likely to have strong community social institutions
        • Does not attempt to carefully identify problems or thoroughly analyze cause of problems
        • Focus on place-specific interventions
        • A back-to-basics strategy
    • Effectiveness of Zero-Tolerance Policing
      • Zero Tolerance Policing in NYC
        • Giuliani instituted zero-tolerance strategy that focused on enforcement efforts against panhandling, vandalism, public drunkenness, public urination, and prostitution
        • Result was a drop in serious crime rate, however this also came about as part of a general nation-wide trend in drops in crime rate
      • Operation Restoration
        • Chandler, AZ
        • Restructured police department and gave more responsibility to planning and development dept.
        • Result was a decrease in public morals crimes like prostitution and disorderly conduct
    • Potential Problems with Zero-Tolerance Policing
      • Conflict between police and the public
        • Encourages officers to be overly aggressive
        • Increase in no. of citizen complaints
      • Increase in crime in the long run
        • An arrest record has a long-term impact on a person’s immediate and future employment
      • Impact on poor and minority communities
        • Focus on minor offenses means poorer minority communities will be affected more