Local police departments were isolated and alienated from important segments of the community.
Research had undermined the assumptions of traditional police management and police reform.
Recognition of the fact that the police role is complex.
Recognition of the importance of citizens as co-producers of police services
The Roots of Community Policing: Broken Window Hypothesis
Broken Windows Hypothesis : Developed by James Q. Wilson and George L. Kelling; argues that police should focus their resources on disorder problems that create fear of crime and lead to neighborhood decay. A broken window begins neighborhood decay.
Types of Disorder:
1. Social Disorder (Social Disorganization): A condition said to exist when a group is faced with social change, uneven development of culture, maladaptiveness, disharmony, conflict, and lack of consensus.
2. Physical Disorder: A form of societal neglect resulting from physical decay within a neighborhood; examples include vandalism, dilapidation and abandonment of buildings, and trash buildup.
Community Policing : A model of policing that stresses a two-way working relationship between the community and the police; the police become more integrated into the local community, and citizens assume an active role in crime control and prevention.