Chapter Nine

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Chapter Nine

  1. 1. © 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, IncUpper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights ReservedCrisis InterventionWilliam HarmeningRoosevelt UniversityHarmening, Crisis Intervention: The Criminal Justice Response to Chaos, Mayhem, andDisasterChapter 9THE HOSTAGE CRISIS
  2. 2. © 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, IncUpper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights Reserved9.19.29.39.4To summarize the dangers associated with a hostage crisis.To list the various types of hostage-takers.To explain the structure of the police hostage team.To explain the response methodology of the police hostageteam, and to list the various signs of a successful negotiation.CHAPTER OBJECTIVES9.5To summarize the psychological experience of the hostageduring an active hostage crisis.
  3. 3. To summarize the dangers associatedwith a hostage crisis.Learning ObjectivesAfter this lecture, you should be able to complete the following Learning Outcomes9.1
  4. 4. 8.1 The Hostage CrisisOVERVIEWOne of the most stressful types of police intervention. Aninappropriate police response can lead to the deaths of innocentpeople.It is a crisis that can change on a moment’s notice from calm tochaotic.Multiple contingencies must be in place and ready to mobilize inthe event of changing circumstances.
  5. 5. 8.1 The Hostage CrisisWhen things go bad…• Moscow Theater (10/23/2002)50 Chechen rebels take 850 people hostage in a Moscow theater. Russian policeintroduced a chemical agent through the ventilation system and stormed thebuilding. All 39 rebels as well as 129 hostages lay dead in the aftermath.• Beslan School (09/01/2004)Chechen rebels take 1,100 people hostage at Beslan School in the NorthCaucasus region of Russia. Hostages included 777 children. Russian forcesstormed the school when negotiations were unsuccessful. Nearly 400 hostageswere killed, including 156 children.• Philippine Bus Incident (08/23/2010)A fired police officer takes 25 people hostage, most of them tourists. A chaoticstrike by the police resulted in the deaths of 8 of the hostages.
  6. 6. To list the various types of hostage-takers.Learning ObjectivesAfter this lecture, you should be able to complete the following Learning Outcomes9.2
  7. 7. 9.2 Hostage-takersIdeologicalPassive ViolentCriminalDefensive PurposefulDomesticCustody Relationship DefensiveFrustration-drivenFinal Statement PassiveThought-disorderedParanoid Mission-orientedHostage-taker Typologies
  8. 8. 9.2 Hostage-takersIdeologicalPassive ViolentHostage-taker TypologiesPassive-IdeologicalLess inclined to harm hostages. Conveying theirmessage is the most important factor. These types ofhostage situations typically end peacefully.EX: A corporate CEO is taken hostage by an animalrights group protesting animal experimentation.Violent-IdeologicalWilling to kill or be killed for what they believe to be ahigher calling or purpose. Most terrorists fit into thiscategory.EX: 1972 Munich Olympics/ 1979 Iranian Hostage Crisis
  9. 9. 9.2 Hostage-takersCriminalDefensive PurposefulHostage-taker TypologiesPurposeful-CriminalHostage-taking is an intended tactic carried out in the course of committing acrime.EX: A hostage being held for ransom.Defensive-CriminalHostage-taking is an unintended tactic that takes place as unexpected eventsunfold.EX: Bank employees taken hostage during a bank robbery gone bad.
  10. 10. 9.2 Hostage-takersFrustration-drivenFinal Statement PassiveHostage-taker TypologiesPassive-FrustrationNo intentions of hurting anyone. They just want to be heard.EX: A man whose home has been foreclosed on holds a public official hostage untilhe can talk to a reporter to tell his story.Final Statement-FrustrationThey intend to make their frustrations heard by being as dramatic as possible. Mostare suicidal or prepared to die at the hands of the police. They fully intend to endthe crisis violently.EX: A judge is held hostage after sentencing a family member. Hostage-taker fullyintends to murder judge after being publicly heard.
  11. 11. 9.2 Hostage-takersDomesticCustody Relationship DefensiveHostage-taker TypologiesDomestic-CustodyParents holds hostage or kidnaps their ownchildren after losing custody to the otherparent or the State. Extremely dangerous forthe kids, especially if the parent is suicidal.There is a high risk that they will kill thechildren before committing suicide.Domestic-RelationshipHostage-taker holds a spouse orintimate partner hostage following abreakup. Many times they start outonly wanting to talk, but as eventsunfold and the police are called, itbecomes a hostage situation.Domestic-DefensiveA person who barricades themselvesinside a house refusing to let anyoneleave, including their family, after thepolice show up for somethingunrelated, such as to serve an arrestwarrant, or to question the hostage-taker on an unrelated matter.
  12. 12. 9.2 Hostage-takersThought-disorderedParanoid Mission-orientedHostage-taker TypologiesThought disordered - ParanoidTypically a mentally ill individual who believes someone or some force is out to getthem. An example is the man who takes his neighbor hostage because he believeshe is a CIA agent spying on him. Extremely dangerous situations because of theinherent difficulties negotiating with these types of irrational individuals.Thought disordered – Mission-orientedMostly delusional individuals who believetheir action is necessary to counteract someperceived threat. An example is theindividual who holds bank employeeshostage because he believes they arefunneling money to a secret group thatintends to overthrow the government. Notmotivated by what they perceive to be apersonal attack, so there is a possibility thatnegotiators can build rapport with this type ofperson.
  13. 13. To explain the structure of the policehostage team.Learning ObjectivesAfter this lecture, you should be able to complete the following Learning Outcomes9.3
  14. 14. 9.3 The Hostage TeamComponents of the Hostage Team• Team Leader• Primary Negotiator• Secondary Negotiator• Intelligence Officer• Communications Officer• Public Information Officer• Team Psychologist
  15. 15. 9.3 The Hostage TeamComponents of the Hostage Team• Team Leader• Primary Negotiator• Secondary Negotiator• Intelligence Officer• Communications Officer• Public Information Officer• Team PsychologistThe person responsible for overallcommand of the team. They interactwith the tactical team leader andtogether make the decision when atactical entry must be attempted.When that decision is made, thencommand of the operation is handedover to the tactical team leader.
  16. 16. 9.3 The Hostage TeamComponents of the Hostage Team• Team Leader• Primary Negotiator• Secondary Negotiator• Intelligence Officer• Communications Officer• Public Information Officer• Team PsychologistThe person responsible for makingcontact with the hostage-taker andnegotiating the safe release of thehostages. The negotiator selected bythe team leader to serve as theprimary will depend on thecircumstances of the situation. Onlyone negotiator will maintain contactwith the hostage-taker unlesscircumstances demand differently.
  17. 17. 9.3 The Hostage TeamComponents of the Hostage Team• Team Leader• Primary Negotiator• Secondary Negotiator• Intelligence Officer• Communications Officer• Public Information Officer• Team PsychologistThis person serves as a backup in theevent the primary negotiator is unableto establish rapport with the hostage-taker, or is unable to continue thenegotiations for some reason. Thesecondary works side by side with theprimary negotiator throughout thecrisis.
  18. 18. 9.3 The Hostage TeamComponents of the Hostage Team• Team Leader• Primary Negotiator• Secondary Negotiator• Intelligence Officer• Communications Officer• Public Information Officer• Team PsychologistThis person is responsible for findingout as much as possible about thehostage-taker as well as the hostages.The more the negotiator knows aboutthe various players, the more powerthey have to control the negotiation.When the hostage-taker makes areference to something, it is the job ofthe intelligence officer to attempt todetermine what the reference means,and the weight of its relevance.
  19. 19. 9.3 The Hostage TeamComponents of the Hostage Team• Team Leader• Primary Negotiator• Secondary Negotiator• Intelligence Officer• Communications Officer• Public Information Officer• Team PsychologistThe communications officer isresponsible for all vitalcommunications equipment. Theywork to maintain an unobstructed lineof communication between negotiatorand hostage-taker, as well asbetween team leader and otherresponse components, such as thetactical team.
  20. 20. 9.3 The Hostage TeamComponents of the Hostage Team• Team Leader• Primary Negotiator• Secondary Negotiator• Intelligence Officer• Communications Officer• Public Information Officer• Team PsychologistResponsible for the dissemination ofinformation about the event to mediaoutlets both during and after the crisis.Any release of information during thecrisis must be heavily weighed giventhat the hostage-taker(s) may haveaccess to television, radio, or theinternet.
  21. 21. 9.3 The Hostage TeamComponents of the Hostage Team• Team Leader• Primary Negotiator• Secondary Negotiator• Intelligence Officer• Communications Officer• Public Information Officer• Team PsychologistThe team psychologist has multiplefunctions. They can assist indeveloping behavioral profiles of thehostage-taker, act as a consultant tothe negotiator, conduct on-scene riskassessments, and monitor the behaviorand effectiveness of the negotiator.They also take responsibility for anycritical incident debriefing followingthe crisis.
  22. 22. To explain the response methodologyof the police hostage team, and tolist the various signs of a successfulnegotiation.Learning ObjectivesAfter this lecture, you should be able to complete the following Learning Outcomes9.4
  23. 23. 9.4 The Police ResponseBuilding RapportThe most critical step in the response is for the negotiator toestablish contact with the hostage-taker and build rapport. Thiscan be accomplished by doing the following:• Statement of Introduction that conveys confidence the crisis will be resolvedpeacefully.• Address the hostage-taker in a way he/she wishes to be addressed.• Calm and steady voice modulation.• Allow the person to vent initially.• Keep the focus on the hostage-taker and off the hostages.• Downplay what the hostage-taker has done to that point.• Compliment the hostage-taker for any positive actions taken.
  24. 24. 9.4 The Police ResponseDemands• Cardinal rule: The hostage-taker never gets anything without givingsomething.• Never solicit a demand.• Never deliver more than what was agreed to. To do so will onlyempower the hostage-taker and tip the balance of power.• Avoid saying “no.”• If the demand is unrealistic, bring the negotiations back to a morerealistic dialogue.• Ignore talk of deadlines and deflect conversation to another issue.• When bargaining for the release of hostages, allow the hostage-takerto suggest how many will be released, and negotiate from there.
  25. 25. 9.4 The Police ResponseDanger Signs• Depressed hostage-taker who denies thoughts of suicide.• No rapport• Subject insists of face-to-face negotiations• Subject sets deadlines for their own death• Verbal will• Refusal to Negotiate• Hostage-taker insists on a particular person being brought to scene• Isolation or Dehumanization of hostages• Weapon tied or taped to hostage-taker• Excessive ammunition and multiple weapons• No clear demands, outrageous demands, changing demands
  26. 26. 9.4 The Police ResponseSigns of a Successful Negotiation• Trusting relationship with Negotiator• Talk of personal needs and issues• Longer periods of talk• Non-violent subject• Expectations have been reduced• A decrease in threatening behavior• Humanizing subjects• Passing a deadline without incident• Release of hostages• Routine exchange of material goods for hostages• Defensive threats
  27. 27. 9.4 The Police ResponseSigns of a Successful Negotiation• Trusting relationship with Negotiator• Talk of personal needs and issues• Longer periods of talk• Non-violent subject• Expectations have been reduced• A decrease in threatening behavior• Humanizing subjects• Passing a deadline without incident• Release of hostages• Routine exchange of material goods for hostages• Defensive threatsWhen the negotiator feels the timeis appropriate, they will seekcommitment from hostage-takerto bring the crisis to an end. Theywill then agree to a SURRENDERRITUAL, or the manner in which thehostage-taker wishes to be takeninto custody.
  28. 28. To summarize the psychologicalexperience of the hostage during anactive hostage crisis.Learning ObjectivesAfter this lecture, you should be able to complete the following Learning Outcomes9.5
  29. 29. 9.5 The Hostage ExperienceStockholm SyndromeThe positive feelings of the captives toward their captor(s) thatare accompanied by negative feelings toward the police. Thesefeelings are frequently reciprocated by the captor(s). To achievea successful resolution of a hostage crisis, law enforcement mustencourage and tolerate the first two phases so as to induce thethird and thus preserve the lives of all participants.Four conditions must be present for the syndrome to develop:1. The presence of a perceived threat to one’s physical or psychologicalsurvival, and the belief that the hostage-taker will carry out the threat.2. The presence of a perceived small kindness from the abuser to the victim.3. Isolation from perspectives other than those of the hostage-taker.4. The perceived inability to escape the situation.
  30. 30. © 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, IncUpper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights ReservedThe hostage crisis is one of the most dangerous and volatile situations thepolice confront.There are numerous types of hostage-takers, all with differentmotivations. Some intend to take hostages, while others do so in amoment of panic.Hostage negotiators must first and foremost establish contact and buildrapport with the hostage-taker. They must be aware of both the dangersigns and the signs that the negotiation is successful.CHAPTER SUMMARY9.19.29.4The police hostage team is composed of a number of differentcomponents, all with a very specific and critical role to play.9.3Many times hostages will develop positive feelings toward their captors.This circumstance, the Stockholm Syndrome, should be encouraged bypolice activities.9.5
  31. 31. © 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, IncUpper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights ReservedDISCUSSION QUESTIONS1. Think of a movie you have seen in which a hostagesituation was portrayed. What kind of hostage-taker(s) wasinvolved, and how effective was the police response?Some of the more popular hostage movies includes:The NegotiatorDog Day AfternoonJohn QDie HardMan on FireThe Taking of Pelham2. Discuss some of the personal qualities that may be requiredin order for a police officer to be an effective hostagenegotiator.3. Discuss some of the reasons why you think a hostage mightdevelop positive feelings toward their captors (i.e.,Stockholm Syndrome).

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