1. © 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, IncUpper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights ReservedCrisis InterventionWilliam HarmeningRoosevelt UniversityHarmening, Crisis Intervention: The Criminal Justice Response to Chaos, Mayhem, andDisasterChapter 3CRISIS COMMUNICATION
2. © 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, IncUpper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights Reserved188.8.131.52.4To summarize the importance of communication to crisisintervention.To define the basic tenants of Transactional Analysis as a modelfor crisis communication.To list and explain the typical communication patterns of thosein crisis.To summarize the communication skills necessary to effectivelyde-escalate a person in crisis.CHAPTER OBJECTIVES
3. Understand the importance ofcommunication to the crisis interventionprocess.Learning ObjectivesAfter this lecture, you should be able to complete the following Learning Outcomes3.1
4. 3.1 The Role of CommunicationContainment and De-escalation• A police or correctional officer’s most effective weapon istheir ability to communicate. Done properly it can de-escalatea crisis. Done improperly it can have the opposite effect.• The primary goal of crisis communication is twofold:• CONTAINMENT• DE-ESCALATION• Communication is the first and most important step in the useof force. It is hoped that effective communication will render theuse of physical or deadly force unecessary.
5. 3.1 The Role of CommunicationContainment and De-escalation• Police and Correctional Departments invest large amounts ofmoney in communication training for its officers.• Most state-mandated academy programs now require acertain number of hours of training in this area.• The more effective officers are at communicating, the lessliability to the departments and ultimately the taxpaying public.HOW WELL AN OFFICER COMMUNICATES CAN MEAN THEDIFFERENCE BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH, INCLUDING THE OFFICER’SOWN.
6. Define the basic tenants of TransactionalAnalysis as a model for crisiscommunication.Learning ObjectivesAfter this lecture, you should be able to complete the following Learning Outcomes3.2
7. 3.2 Transactional AnalysisT.A. – A Communication Model• Developed by Dr. Eric Berne (1958), a Canadian psychiatristwho studied the communication patterns of his patients.• Referred to verbal and non-verbal exchanges between peopleas TRANSACTIONS.• People tend to shift between various styles of communicationduring transactions, depending on their motives.• According to Berne, people communicate from one of threeEGO STATES:PARENT • ADULT • CHILD
8. 3.2 Transactional AnalysisT.A. – A Communication ModelWhen We communicate from our PARENT, we arecommunicating in ways similar to how our parentscommunicated with us when we were children. This part ofour personality is the storehouse for all therules, imperatives, and values we were taught as children.ADULTPARENTCHILDFrom the ADULT we communicate on a cognitive level ratherthan an emotional one. The adult responds to information ina rational and objective way.The CHILD ego state includes all of our emotions andfeelings developed and learned during childhood.Communication from this ego state tends to beirrational, emotional, and egocentric. People in crisis tend tocommunicate from their child ego state.
9. 3.2 Transactional AnalysisT.A. – A Communication Model (Parent Ego State)• Developed during childhood as we internalize parentalnorms and expectations.• These norms and expectations influence us bothconsciously and unconsciously.• Simply put, when responding from our PARENT, we tend torespond in ways similar to how our parents responded to us.• We may respond from either our CRITICAL PARENT or ourNURTURING PARENT.• CRITICAL PARENT demands, directs, orders, and seekscompliance.• NURTURING PARENT demonstratescompassion, fairness, and honesty.ADULTPARENTCHILD
10. 3.2 Transactional AnalysisT.A. – A Communication Model (Parent Ego State)Both the critical and nurturing parent can be either positive ornegativeADULTPARENTCHILD •Authoritarian•Hypercritical•Oppositional•Inconsistent•Fearful•Needy•Insecure•Over-Protective•Authoritative•Fair•Demanding•Consistent•Care giving•Protective•Sympathetic•SupportivePositiveNurturingParentPositiveCriticalParentNegativeCriticalParentNegativeNurturingParent
11. 3.2 Transactional AnalysisT.A. – A Communication Model (Parent Ego State)FOUR FUNCTIONAL MODES (PARENT)• Positive Nurturing Parent (Caring)Officer: “I’m going to give you a ticket for speeding because I want you to learnfrom this. I don’t want to see you in a bad accident someday.”• Positive Critical parent (Authoritative)Officer: “I’m giving you a ticket just like I give everyone else. It’s against the law tospeed, and I’m here to enforce the law.• Negative Nurturing Parent (Needy)Officer: “I’ll let you go this time with a warning. I was a kid once. You should tellyour friends what a good guy I am.”• Negative Critical Parent (Oppositional)Officer: “If you want to race cars, go to the racetrack! You’re not going to act stupidlike this in my town!ADULTPARENTCHILD
12. 3.2 Transactional AnalysisT.A. – A Communication Model (Child Ego State)• Developed during childhood through interactions with ourparents.• Includes our feelings and felt emotions.• People in crisis tend to respond from their CHILD egostate, as do intoxicated people.• We may respond from either our NATURAL CHILD or ourADAPTED CHILD.• NATURAL CHILD is the raw emotional part of ourpersonality. Spontaneous, selfish, and with little concern forothers. It is how we naturally acted as a child, mostly whenour parents were not present.• ADAPTED CHILD seeks acceptance, and is manipulative togain it. The adapted child nags, complains, and protests toget its way. Includes the strategies we learned as children todeal with our parents.ADULTPARENTCHILD
13. 3.2 Transactional AnalysisT.A. – A Communication Model (Child Ego State)ADULTPARENTCHILDBoth the critical and nurturing parent can be either positive ornegative•Avoidant•Aggressive•Emotional•Impulsive•Manipulative•Passive-aggressive•Secretive•Calculating•Fun-loving•Playful•Personable•Spontaneous•Achieving•Compliant•Acceptance-seeking•SociablePositiveAdaptedChildPositiveNaturalChildNegativeNaturalChildNegativeAdaptedChild
14. 3.2 Transactional AnalysisT.A. – A Communication Model (Child Ego State)FOUR FUNCTIONAL MODES (CHILD)• Positive Adapted Child (Acceptance-seeking)Officer: “I’m not here to cause problems for anyone. We all have to live in this towntogether. Just slow it down please. I’ll let you go with a warning.”• Positive Natural Child (Fun-loving)Officer: “Hey man, I love your car! In fact, I love it so much I’m going to give you abreak!”• Negative Adapted Child (Manipulative)Officer: “I don’t see a phone number here on your driver’s license. Maybe if yougive it to me we can work something out later to avoid a ticket.”• Negative Natural Child (Aggressive)Officer: “You just ruined a perfectly good nap there hotrod! You’re definitely gettinga ticket!”ADULTPARENTCHILD
15. 3.2 Transactional AnalysisT.A. – A Communication Model (Adult Ego State)• The rational problem-solving component of ourpersonality.• The message of this ego state is “only the facts please.”• When an officer maintains a professional demeanor theyare responding from their adult ego state. They respondwithout emotion.• Responding from the adult ego state is an important factorin containing and de-escalating crisis.ADULTPARENTCHILD
16. 3.2 Transactional AnalysisT.A. – A Communication ModelDuring a transaction, people will shift between ego states. Police officers can use this to their advantage.Consider the classic “good cop-bad cop” interrogation method…Officer no. 1: “Look scumbag, we know you did it, and I want your confession now or I’mreally going to lose my temper!!”Suspect to officer no. 2: “Tell your friend to back off!Officer no. 2 to officer no. 1: “Hey man, take a break! You’ve had a long day.”Officer no. 2 to suspect: “Sorry man, I don’t know what got into him. He can act pretty stupidsometimes. Can I get you a cup of coffee?”Suspect to officer no. 2: “Just keep him out of here and this will go much better.”Officer no. 2 to suspect: “It’s just you and me now. You seem like the type of person whoneeds to get something like this off his chest? This is your chance to do the right thing. I’llhelp you anyway I can.”Suspect to officer no. 2: “I swear it was an accident!”PARENTCHILDCHILDPARENTCHILDADULTOfficer no. 2 to suspect: “I understand. Now let’s go back to the beginning. Tell me whathappened the night of February 6th.”
17. 3.2 Transactional AnalysisT.A. – A Communication Model (Contamination)PARENTCHILDADULTPARENTCHILDADULTParent contaminatedadultChildcontaminated adultWhen a person, including a police or correctional officer, experiencescontamination, their adult ego state has lost its ability to mediate internal conflictdue to the disproportionate influence of wither the parent or child ego state.The “tough guy” who tries tointimidate, bully, and controlothers as a routine way ofbehaving. Corrupt policeofficers tend to fall in thiscategory, as well as aggressiveoffenders, such as abusivehusbands and habitual brawlers.These individuals tend to beimpulsive, deceptive, andmanipulative. As policeofficers, they are routinelydishonest and less thanprofessional. They may lie intheir reports and even fabricateevidence. Habitual criminalssuch as bank robbers, thievesand pedophiles tend to fall inthis category.
18. List and explain the typicalcommunication patterns of those in crisis.Learning ObjectivesAfter this lecture, you should be able to complete the following Learning Outcomes3.3
19. 3.3 Communication PatternsTransactionsIt is critical that police and correctional officers be able to answer fourimportant questions when engaged in a transaction, especially oneinvolving a crisis.• From which ego state is the other person communicating?• From which ego state are they communicating?• Which ego state would be the most effective with this particularindividual and situation?• How can they influence the other person’s ego state in order to getthem to a place where effective communication can take place?
20. 3.3 Communication PatternsTransactions – The Parallel TransactionBoth parties clearly understand the words and intentions of theother. They are effectively communicating, though the substanceof the communication is not always best for the given situation. Itcan be said that they are “on the same wavelength.”Even a verbal confrontation, though not desirable, can beparallel when both combatants clearly understand each other.
21. 3.3 Communication PatternsParent-Child Parallel TransactionOfficer: “Is there a reason you’redriving like a maniac?”Speeder: “I’m sorry officer. Please giveme a break. It’ll be my third ticket.”Officer: “Your problems are not myfault. Now give me your license. You’regetting a ticket!”Speeder: “Please officer, I’m beggingyou. I’ll lose my job!”In this short exchange the officer isresponding from their negative criticalparent, and the speeder from their negativeadapted child. There are nomisunderstandings. Because it’sparallel, each reinforces the other’scommunication style.ADULTPARENTCHILDADULTPARENTCHILD
22. 3.3 Communication PatternsChild-Child Parallel TransactionOfficer: “It looks like this just isn’t yourday, pal!”Speeder: “Why don’t you find somereal criminals to harass!”Officer: “Why should I when I havejerks like you to mess with?”Speeder: “You’re a big tough guywhen you can hide behind thatbadge.”Officer: “Well why don’t I just take thisbadge off and you can find out howtough I am!”In this exchange, neither party is actingrational. They are both responding withemotion from their child ego state. Theirtransaction is predictable, making it parallel.ADULTPARENTCHILDADULTPARENTCHILD
23. 3.3 Communication PatternsTransactions – The Crossed TransactionThis occurs when two people are no longer effectivelycommunicating, either with good or bad intentions. It can be saidthat they have their “wires crossed.”In this case, the transaction is not predictable because one of theparticipants is communicating from an ego state other than theone to whom the other person is directing their communication.
24. 3.3 Communication PatternsTransactions – The Crossed TransactionADULTPARENTCHILDADULTPARENTCHILDOfficer: “Is there a reason you’redriving like a maniac?”Speeder: “Look pal, you don’t knowwho I am! You better get back in thatsquad car and forget you everstopped me!”Officer: “I need to see yourlicense, and NOW!”Speeder: “Who do you think youare, talking to me like that?”In this exchange, both parties areresponding from their critical parent to theother’s child. Simply put, they are bothtalking down to the other.Now let’s see what happens when thetransaction continues….
25. 3.3 Communication PatternsTransactions – The Crossed TransactionOfficer: “I’m the law, that’s who I am!”Speeder: “Yeah, you’re right officer. Iguess I’m just having a bad day.”Officer: “Your license please.”Speeder: “I guess I blew my chancesfor a break?”Officer: “I would have written the ticketanyway. You really need to slow downin this part of town. There’s a schoolright around the corner.”Now the officer continues to respond fromtheir critical parent, but from a positivefunctional mode. And the speeder hasswitched to their positive adaptive child. Wenow have a parallel transaction.ADULTPARENTCHILDADULTPARENTCHILD
26. 3.3 Communication PatternsTransactions – The Crisis Transaction• People in crisis tend to respond from either their negativenatural or adapted child. They are almost always highlyemotional, irrational, and unpredictable.• There are two predominant goals of crisis communication;first, to maintain a parallel transaction; and second, to HOOK theperson into an adult-adult parallel transaction.• Hooking is a communication device that is intended tomanipulate the person into communicating from a rational, non-emotional, and non-confrontational mode.
27. 3.3 Communication PatternsTransactions – The Crisis TransactionConsider the following…..Subject: “I’m tired of living! Just leaveme alone and let me shoot myself!”Officer: “Sir, you’re in violation of thelaw by having that weapon. I’m goingto ask you to put it down and placeyour hands against the wall.”Here we have a crossed andineffective transaction. The subject willinterpret the officer’s demeanor asunresponsive and uncaring, potentiallyescalating the situation.Now let’s look at this example from adifferent perspective….ADULTPARENTCHILDADULTPARENTCHILD
28. 3.3 Communication PatternsTransactions – The Crisis TransactionSubject: “I’m tired of living! Just leaveme alone and let me shoot myself!”Officer: “Believe me, I understand whatyou’re saying. Life is not easy for any ofus at times. Mine’s as screwed up asthe next guy’s!”This type of transaction can beeffective, but must be used withcaution. It’s purpose is to make aconnection with the person in crisis inan effort to hook them into a paralleltransaction.In this case the officer determines thatto respond from his nurturing parentwill not be effective. Instead heresponds from his child ego state.ADULTPARENTCHILDADULTPARENTCHILD
29. 3.3 Communication PatternsTransactions – The Crisis TransactionSubject: “I’m tired of living! Just leaveme alone and let me shoot myself!”Officer: “Believe me, I understand whatyou’re saying. Life isn’t easy for any ofus at times. Mine’s as screwed up asthe next guy’s!”Subject: “But at least you still have ajob!”Officer: “Yeah, and a failed marriageand more bills than I can pay!”Subject: “Man I know that story well…”Now the officer has hooked thesubject into responding to hischild, thus creating a paralleltransaction.ADULTPARENTCHILDADULTPARENTCHILD
30. 3.3 Communication PatternsTransactions – The Crisis TransactionSubject: “I guess I’m just tired of living!No one loves me, or cares if I live ordie”Officer: “I’m here to help, and I care ifyou live or die.”Now the officer has moved thetransaction from a child-child paralleltransaction (the hook), to a child-nurturing adult parallel transaction, anideal transaction in this type ofscenario.ADULTPARENTCHILDADULTPARENTCHILD
31. Summarize the communication skillsnecessary to effectively de-escalate aperson in crisis.Learning ObjectivesAfter this lecture, you should be able to complete the following Learning Outcomes3.4
32. 3.4 Active Listening SkillsBuilding RapportIn order to contain and de-escalate a person in crisis, the officer mustestablish rapport with the individual. This accomplished through a series oftechniques we refer to as ACTIVE LISTENING techniques.• Minimal Encouragements: Short verbal replies that demonstrate the officer’s concern for whatthe person in crisis is saying. “I understand”… “I see.”• Paraphrasing: Repeating the person’s words back to them to demonstrate that they arelistening and that they understand.• Emotion-labeling: Paraphrasing what the person has said by attaching a label to theemotion, such as “it sounds as though the fight with your wife made you very angry.” Thisdemonstrates to the person that officer understands not only what they are saying, but alsofeeling.• Open-ended questions: Invites the person to talk. The more they talk, the more likely theofficer will be able to de-escalate the crisis.• “I” messages: This will personalize the officer and facilitate a connection.• Effective pauses: Silence is uncomfortable, and may cause the person to keep talking. Mayalso diffuse a confrontational exchange.
33. © 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, IncUpper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights ReservedAn officer’s most effective weapon is his or her ability to communicate. Itcan mean the difference between life and death, and is the first step inthe use of force. Mosr departments go to great expense training theirofficers to communicate.Transactional Analysis is a communication model that looks atcommunication in terms of motives and ego states. People communicatefrom either their PARENT, ADULT, or CHILD ego state, all of which developduring childhood through the child’s interactions with their parent(s).There are various types of transactions, including parallel and crossed.Parallel transactions allow people to effectively communicate. Crossedtransactions preclude effective communication. The goal of crisiscommunication is to hook the person into a parallel transaction to beginthe process of de-escalation.In order to de-escalate a crisis, the officer must establish rapport with the person incrisis. This is done through a series of communication techniques referred to as ACTIVELISTENING techniques.CHAPTER SUMMARY184.108.40.206.4
34. © 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, IncUpper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights ReservedDISCUSSION QUESTIONS1. Consider a male police officer responding to a domesticdispute involving a verbally abusive husband. How mightthe officer respond, and what types of things might hesay, if he were to respond from his critical parent? From hisadult? From his natural child?2. Think of someone in your life who is routinelyargumentative, perhaps a friend or family member.Describe the tactic you typically employ to thwart theirefforts to suck you into the argument, and then relate thattactic to “hooking.”3. Should male and female criminal justice professionals usethe same communication style and tactics in any givensituation, or are there gender differences in terms of whatcommunication style works best?