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  • 1. © 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, IncUpper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights ReservedCrisis InterventionWilliam HarmeningRoosevelt UniversityHarmening, Crisis Intervention: The Criminal Justice Response to Chaos, Mayhem, andDisasterChapter 7THE CRISIS OF DOMESTIC VIOLENCE
  • 2. © 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, IncUpper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights Reserved7.17.2To explain the problem and prevalence of domestic violence inAmerica.To summarize the historical police response to domestic violence.7.3To list the typologies and behavioral characteristics of domesticabusers.CHAPTER OBJECTIVES7.4 To explain battered spouse syndrome and list its symptoms.7.5 To define the best practices for the police response to domesticviolence cases.
  • 3. To explain the problem andprevalence of domestic violence inAmerica.Learning ObjectivesAfter this lecture, you should be able to complete the following Learning Outcomes7.1
  • 4. 7.1 Domestic ViolenceThe Scope of the Problem• Of the almost 3.5 million violent crimes committed againstfamily members, 49 % were crimes against spouses.• 84% of spouse abuse victims were female, and 86% of victimsof dating partner abuse were females.• Males were 83% of spouse murderers, and 75% of datingpartner murderers.• 50% of offenders in state prison for spousal abuse had killedtheir victims. Wives were more likely to be killed by theirhusbands than vice versa. Wives made up 81% of all personskilled during acts of domestic violence.• On average, 3 women are murdered by their spouses orboyfriends every single day in America.Bureau of Justice Statistics (2005)
  • 5. 7.1 Domestic ViolenceThe Scope of the Problem• Predominantly a male problem.• Domestic violence knows no cultural or economic boundaries,and is not limited to any particular age group.• Domestic violence is not limited to just heterosexual couples.One study found significantly higher rates of violence amonggay and lesbian couples.• A 2003 study found that between 1 and 2 million Americansages 65 and older had been injured, exploited, or otherwisemistreated by someone they depended on for protection, inmany cases a spouse.
  • 6. 7.1 Domestic ViolenceWhat is Domestic Abuse/ Violence?• Can involve abuse/ violence between spouses, cohabitants,parents and their children, and even between siblings.- Physical abuse- Psychological abuse- Sexual abuse- Social isolation- Deprivation- Intimidation- Economic coercion
  • 7. To summarize the historical policeresponse to domestic violence.Learning ObjectivesAfter this lecture, you should be able to complete the following Learning Outcomes7.2
  • 8. 7.2 Historical ResponseThe Police Response• Prior to the 1980s, the police mostly viewed domestic violence,especially between spouses, as a family problem that needed tobe dealt with privately.• Many times an abused woman would even blamed byresponding officers for her own abuse. If she would just quit“nagging” him, maybe he would stop.• Abusers were only arrested in the most severe cases, and eventhen punishment was typically limited to probation and a fine.• The lack of response only enabled abusers to continue theirabusive patterns.
  • 9. To list the typologies and behavioralcharacteristics of domestic abusers.Learning ObjectivesAfter this lecture, you should be able to complete the following Learning Outcomes7.3
  • 10. 7.3 Typologies and CharacteristicsWhat is Domestic Abuse/ Violence?• Can involve abuse/ violence between spouses, cohabitants,parents and their children, and even between siblings.- Physical abuse- Psychological abuse- Sexual abuse- Social isolation- Deprivation- Intimidation- Economic coercion
  • 11. 7.3 Typologies and CharacteristicsThe Cycle of ViolenceThe same behavioral characteristics in both the abused and theabuser, as well as the same progression and escalation ofabuse, is found in almost all cases of ongoing domesticviolence. Most cases involve three stages before, during, andafter an abusive episode:• The tension-building stage• The violence stage• The honeymoon stage
  • 12. 7.3 Typologies and Characteristics
  • 13. 7.3 Typologies and CharacteristicsAbuser Typologies• Type I (Family-only aggressors): Aggression is limited to conflict in thehome. Aggressive behavior is typically linked to alcohol or drug abuse.They are characterized by poor communication skills. Outside the homethey appear quite normal.• Type II (Generally violent aggressors): Violent outside the home aswell. Many are themselves victims of child abuse, and thus haveinternalized aggression as a coping skill. Unable to experienceintimacy. Tend to display hostility toward women in general. Their angertends to be explosive, even toward responding police officers.• TYPE III (Emotionally volatile aggressors): Live in fear of abandonment.Extreme jealousy and feelings of inadequacy. Highest likelihood ofmurder or suicide. Controlling and manipulative. Psychological abuse ishigh among this group, as well as high levels of depression.
  • 14. 7.3 Typologies and CharacteristicsAbuser TypologiesOne study (White and Gondolph, 2000) looked at spousal abuse interms of personality dysfunction. They concluded that abusers arecharacterized by either narcissistic or avoidant personality disorders.Narcissistic PersonalityAvoidant PersonalitySeverity of Personality DisorderAssertiveDependentAngerFearfulOppressiveParanoid
  • 15. 7.3 Typologies and CharacteristicsAbuser TypologiesThe Narcissistic Abuser• Self-centered• Insensitive to the feelings of others• Insecure• Unable to handle their dominance being challenged• May physically prevent a spouse from leaving• Manipulative, will feign feelings of concern for spouse• When manipulations fail, aggression may resultThe Avoidant Abuser• Extremely fragile and insecure• Emotionally dependent on spouse• Paranoid and fearful of rejection• Distrustful of spouse. May spy, follow, or tap phones• Highest likelihood of murder-suicide if spouse leaves
  • 16. To explain battered spouse syndromeand list its symptomsLearning ObjectivesAfter this lecture, you should be able to complete the following Learning Outcomes7.4
  • 17. 7.4 Battered Spouse SyndromeDefinitionLenore Walker (1984) surveyed abused women over a3-year period. She adapted Seligman’s (1967) theoryof learned helplessness to explain why abusedwomen remain in abusive relationships.Seligman administered electric shock to lab rats untilthey were simply unable to escape the painfulsituation even when the route of escape was readilyapparent to rats that were not being shocked.Seligman argued that in these situations, perception isdistorted to the point that the correctness of apossible action (route of escape) becomesunpredictable.
  • 18. 7.4 Battered Spouse SyndromeSymptoms• Feeling helpless to stop the abuse• Accepting blame for the abuse• Hyperarousal and high levels of anxiety• Avoidance behaviors and social isolation
  • 19. 7.4 Battered Spouse SyndromeVictim-oriented TheoriesPsychological Entrapment Theory (Brockner & Rubin, 1985)Argues that women remain in an abusive situation because they simply have toomuch invested to let go of it. They are motivated by an idealistic view of what arelationship should look like, and tey live in the hope that the abuser will stop.Traumatic Bonding Theory (Dutton & Painter, 1981)Makes the connection between a spouse’s abuse and their earlier abuse at thehands of a parent. They form an unhealthy and insecure attachment to the abusiveparent(s), and then carry that dysfunctional attachment pattern into adulthood andadult relationships.Multifactor Ecological Theory (Crowell & Burgess, 1996)Suggests that women remain in abusive relationships for a number of reasonsworking together, including finances, children, societal and cultural norms, andreasons related to family history.
  • 20. 7.4 Battered Spouse SyndromeEffects on ChildrenDomestic violence is devastating for the children who are forcedto witness and experience it. It is estimated that over 15 millionchildren in America live in households where violence hasoccurred in the last year (Whitefield et al., 2003). In 60-70% homeswhere women are the victims of physical abuse, the children tooare physically abused, and the risk of sexual abuse is increaseddramatically (Osofsky, 1999).SYMPTOMS:• Academic problems• Depression• Feelings of not belonging• Low self-esteem• Low empathic awareness• PTSD and suicidal behaviors
  • 21. To define the best practices for thepolice response to domestic violencecasesLearning ObjectivesAfter this lecture, you should be able to complete the following Learning Outcomes7.5
  • 22. 7.5 The Police ResponseThe Minneapolis Project1981 – Minneapolis Police Dept. tested the efficacy of arrest in cases ofdomestic violence. They looked at the outcomes of three differentcourses of action:• The officer would attempt to mediate the problem on-scene by givingboth parties advice on possible corrective actions and coping strategies.In this case, no arrest was made.• The officer would require the abuser to leave the premises for an eight-hour period in order to avoid arrest.• The officer would arrest the abuser if probable cause for the arrest werepresent.Only misdemeanor cases were involved, and the course of actionselected was randomly assigned by someone other than the officer.
  • 23. 7.5 The Police ResponseThe Minneapolis ProjectVictim and SuspectDemographicsA. UnemploymentVictims 61%Suspects 60%B. Relationship of Suspect to VictimDivorced or separated husband 3%Unmarried male lover 45%Current husband 35%Wife or girlfriend 2%Son, brother, roommate, Other 15%C. Prior Assaults and Police InvolvementVictims assaulted by suspect, last 6 months 80%Police intervention in domestic dispute, last six months 60%Couple in counseling program 27%D. Prior Arrests of Male SuspectsEver arrested for any offense 59%Ever arrested for crime against person 31%Ever arrested on domestic violence statute 5%Ever arrested on an alcohol offense 29%E. Mean AgeVictims 30 yearsSuspects 32 yearsF. EducationVictim Suspect <high school 43% 42%high school only 33% 36%high school 24% 22%G. Race (Victim Suspect)White 57% 45%Black 23% 36%Native-American 18% 16%Other 2% 3%
  • 24. 7.5 The Police ResponseThe Minneapolis ProjectOf the 330 cases handled during the period of the study, researchers wereable to maintain contact with 205 of the victims.0.00%5.00%10.00%15.00%20.00%25.00%30.00%Arrest Advise/ PoliceActionSend SuspectAwayPercentage of Suspects Repeating Violence10%19%24%
  • 25. 7.5 The Police ResponseResponse ModelThe Minnesota ModelsAggressive arrest policy, but not mandatory. If no arrest made,officer must explain and document why. In most cases, arrest islooked upon as best option by the police.The Duluth ModelCollaborative initiative involving the police, Courts, prosecutor’soffice, mental health agencies, and domestic violence shelters.Holistic victim-oriented approach. Coordinated response.The North Carolina ModelMandatory arrest for felonies, and misdemeanors if committed inofficer’s presence. If neither, then offender offered mandatorycounseling in lieu of arrest. Victim offered transport to a shelter andassistance with an emergency order of protection.
  • 26. © 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, IncUpper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights ReservedThe problem of domestic violence knows no economic or racial boundaries. It is predominantlya male problem, with over 84% of victims being female. Studies have found that violenceamong gay and lesbian couples is even higher, and violence involving elderly victims is on therise.Historically the police have been less than aggressive in responding to domestic violence. It wasviewed as a family problem to be dealt with by the family without police involvement. Offenderswho were arrested seldom received more than probation and fines.Domestic offenders are either Type I (Family-only aggressors), Type II (Generally violentaggressors), or Type III (Emotionally-volatile aggressors). Narcissistic and Avoidant personalitydisorders have been found to play a key role in domestic violence.Battered Spouse Syndrome is commonly seen in victims of domestic abuse. It is a form oflearned helplessness in which the victim may even accept blame for their abuse. They engagein avoidance behaviors and isolate themselves from friends and family.CHAPTER SUMMARY7. police response to domestic violence has evolved from an ineffective response, to a strictmandatory arrest policy, to where it is now; a holistic victim-oriented approach involvingmultiple agencies working together to get the victim and her children the help they need, andto deal with the offender in a way that will be the most effective in stopping their violence.7.5
  • 27. © 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, IncUpper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights ReservedDISCUSSION QUESTIONS1. When deciding whether to arrest a domestic abuser, shouldthe police consider the financial impact the arrest mayhave on the abuser’s family? Or is it always best to makethe arrest regardless, especially if it is a repeat offender?2. What are the positive and negative aspects of mandatoryarrest policies.3. Discuss some of the reasons why an adolescent exposed todomestic violence in the home is at higher risk for juveniledelinquency.