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Chapter One

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  • 1. © 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, IncUpper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights ReservedCrisis InterventionWilliam HarmeningRoosevelt UniversityHarmening, Crisis Intervention: The Criminal Justice Response to Chaos, Mayhem, and DisasterChapter 1THE PROBLEM OF CRISIS
  • 2. © 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, IncUpper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights Reserved1.11.21.31.4To define the phenomenon of crisis in the context of the criminal justicemission in America.To explain the author’s four-level scheme for classifying crisis, and whyclassification is important.To summarize the history of crisis intervention in America from Colonialtimes to the present day.To define the five steps of crisis intervention, and to understand theimportance of each step.CHAPTER OBJECTIVES
  • 3. Understand the phenomenon of crisis in thecontext of the criminal justice mission inAmerica.Learning ObjectivesAfter this lecture, you should be able to complete the following Learning Outcomes1.1
  • 4. 41.1 Defining CrisisHurricane Katrina – The Perfect StormAugust 29, 2005Hurricane Katrina, and its aftermath, represents one ofthe saddest days in the history of American disasterresponse. The combined efforts of Federal, State, andLocal agencies failed the people of New Orleans. Thecost?1800 dead400,000 homeless$80 billion in damage - The costliest disaster in U.S.history
  • 5. 51.1 Defining CrisisHurricane Katrina – The Perfect StormAugust 29, 2005“We were abandoned. City officials did nothing to protect us. We were toldto go to the Superdome, the Convention Center, the Interstate Bridge forsafety. We did this more than once. In fact, we tried them all every day forover a week. We saw buses, helicopters, and FEMA trucks, but no onestopped to help us. We never felt so cut off in all our lives. When you feellike this you do one of two things, you either give up or go into survivalmode. We chose the latter. This is how we made it. We slept next to deadbodies, we slept on streets at least four times next to human feces andurine. There was garbage everywhere in the city. Panic and fear had takenover.”Patricia ThompsonNew Orleans Citizen and EvacueeSelect Committee HearingDecember 6, 2005
  • 6. 61.1 Defining CrisisHurricane Katrina – The Perfect StormAugust 29, 2005The Katrina disaster provides a perfect, albeit sad,example of the absolute necessity for systems, plans,and protocols to be in place and ready to implementfollowing such an event.CONTAINMENT + DE-ESCALATION = LIVES SAVED ANDPROPERTY PROTECTED
  • 7. 71.1 Defining CrisisWHAT IS CRISIS?Any event in which our systems of control, both internal andexternal, become stressed to the point of dysfunction,requiring third-party intervention to regain control andreturn those systems to a state of equilibrium.Two common themes to all crises…A LOSS OF EQUILIBRIUMTHE NEED FOR INTERVENTION
  • 8. 81.1 Defining CrisisWHAT IS CRISIS?INTERNAL SYSTEMS OF CONTROLSystems of control that include primarilyour cognitive and emotional copingmechanisms. These systems arebiopsychosocial in nature, and specific tothe individual.EXTERNAL SYSTEMS OF CONTROLSystems of control designed to maintainpublic order. This would include thepolice and other emergency responders,as well as public service andgovernmental agencies.EQUILIBRIUM
  • 9. 91.1 Defining CrisisTHE GOAL OF CRISIS RESPONDERSRESPONDCONTAINDE-ESCALATE
  • 10. Understand the author’s four-levelclassification scheme for crisis, and whyclassification is important.Learning ObjectivesAfter this lecture, you should be able to complete the following Learning Outcomes1.2
  • 11. 111.2 Defining CrisisBronfenbrenner’s Ecological ModelBronfenbrenner looked at child development asoccurring through the interconnected influenceof different systems.Example: A young child’s relationship with theirfather may be adversely effected by the amountof stress the father experiences at work. Highstress impacts the father’s ability to be aresponsive parent to the child. In this case thechild’s Exosystem (the father’s work) isimpacting their Microsystem (paret-childrelationship).
  • 12. 121.2 Defining CrisisBronfenbrenner’s Ecological ModelThe impact of external systems moves inwardto effect the development of the child.In similar fashion, the impact of crisis, unlesscontained, can move outward from the point ofcrisis to effect many other interconnectedsystems. Thus, containment becomes one of theprimary goals of those who respond to crisis.
  • 13. 131.2 Classifying CrisisCLASSIFYING CRISISMacrocrisisExocrisisMesocrisisMicrocrisisWe can classify crisis along four differentdimensions depending on the potential for thecrisis event to impact other systems.
  • 14. 141.2 Classifying CrisisCLASSIFYING CRISISMacrocrisisExocrisisMesocrisisMicrocrisisThe Microcrisis: A crisis that at its outset islimited to a single individual or family and theirimmediate environment. There is little chancefor such a crisis to spread to other systems.EXAMPLE: A domestic dispute or a threatenedsuicide. Containment and de-escalation requirelimited resources, typically just the firstresponders.
  • 15. 151.2 Classifying CrisisCLASSIFYING CRISISMacrocrisisExocrisisMesocrisisMicrocrisisThe Mesocrisis: A crisis involving multiplesystems within a confined area that runs therisk of spreading unless contained. May requiresignificant resources.EXAMPLE: A school shooting such as the one atColumbine High School in 1999. Had the crisisnot been contained, and the two shootersescaped, then their murder spree may havespread to other targets in other locations.
  • 16. 161.2 Classifying CrisisCLASSIFYING CRISISMacrocrisisExocrisisMesocrisisMicrocrisisThe Exocrisis: A crisis involving multiple systemswithin a particular region, including thepotential to impact systems far removed fromthe actual crisis. Containment is critical to avoidfurther spreading.EXAMPLE: The LA riots of 1990. Unlesscontained, both physically and in terms ofpublic sentiment, riots could have broken out inother geographic areas. Also, worsening riotscould have caused a more severe economicdrain on the city, which in term would havecaused further crises in other areas andsystems.
  • 17. 171.2 Classifying CrisisCLASSIFYING CRISISMacrocrisisExocrisisMesocrisisMicrocrisisThe Macrocrisis: Whereas an exocrisis is limiteda particular region, the Macrocrisis has thepotential to spread to systems in other regions,or even around the world, unless contained.EXAMPLE: The terrorist attacks on 9/11/01. Theevent sparked a chain reaction of crises aroundthe world. Containment was attempted onmany different levels as systems far removedfrom the actual event became impacted.Hurricane Katrina would also be considered amacrocrisis.
  • 18. 181.2 Classifying CrisisCLASSIFYING CRISISMacrocrisisExocrisisMesocrisisMicrocrisisA classification scheme does the following:1. Facilitates effective planning and preparationby guiding the anticipated need, commitment,and positioning of resources.2. Provides a conceptual framework withinwhich crisis can be understood and studied inrelative terms, such as we do with hurricanes.3. Guides the development of public policy andprotocols, and may serve as a funding guide.
  • 19. Become familiar with the history of crisisintervention in America from Colonial timesto the present day.Learning ObjectivesAfter this lecture, you should be able to complete the following Learning Outcomes1.3
  • 20. 201.3 History of Crisis InterventionThe Whiskey Rebellion of 1794The beginning of crisis intervention in America. President George Washingtonmobilized a force of 13,000 militia to quell an uprising in westernPennsylvania by farmers upset with newly imposed whiskey tariffs.The episode marked the first use of the Militia Law of 1792, which gave thefederal government the right to suppress insurrections with federalizedtroops, and the first use of military force to contain and de-escalate a majorcrisis.Washington’s intervention brought a quick and peaceful end to the crisis.
  • 21. 211.3 History of Crisis InterventionSir Robert PeelThe Birth of Modern Policing - 1829Established the first modern police department, the London MetropolitanPolice Dept., to respond to crime and disorder without resorting to militaryforce.The use of routine patrol to proactively address the problem of crime andvictimization. One of the first preventative measures in the history of crisisintervention.This model led to the establishment of police departments in Boston (1838),New York City (1844), and Philadelphia (1854). Crisis intervention had nowmoved from the responsibility of the military to civilian authorities.
  • 22. 221.3 History of Crisis InterventionThe American Red CrossEstablished in 1881 by Clara Barton to respond to disaster, war, and publicdisorder.Primary goal was remediation - alleviating the suffering of the victims of crisisby providing food, clothing, shelter, and medical care.Responded to their first disaster in 1881 by assisting relief efforts for victims ofa deadly Michigan forest fire.In 1896 began their international mission in Constantinople, bringing relief toArmenian victims of Turkish oppression.Responsible for moving crisis intervention into the domain of volunteerism.
  • 23. 231.3 History of Crisis InterventionFederal Emergency Management AgencyEstablished by President Jimmy Carter in 1979Allowed for the merger of many of the nearly 100 federal agenciesinvolved in crisis response.This new agency placed much emphasis not only on response,containment, and de-escalation, but also on remediation andprevention (preparedness).
  • 24. Understand the five steps of crisisintervention.Learning ObjectivesAfter this lecture, you should be able to complete the following Learning Outcomes1.4
  • 25. 251.4 The Intervention ProcessThe Five Steps of Crisis InterventionCrisisInterventionResponseContainmentDe-escalationRemediationPrevention
  • 26. 261.4 The Intervention ProcessCrisisInterventionResponseContainmentDe-escalationRemediationPreventionThe Five Steps of Crisis InterventionThe initial response by those tasked withconfronting and evaluating the crisis.
  • 27. 271.4CrisisInterventionResponseContainmentDe-escalationRemediationPreventionThe initial response by those tasked withconfronting and evaluating the crisis.Actions taken to preventthe crisis from worseningor spreading to othersystems.The Intervention ProcessThe Five Steps of Crisis Intervention
  • 28. 281.4CrisisInterventionResponseContainmentDe-escalationRemediationPreventionThe initial response by those tasked withconfronting and evaluating the crisis.Actions taken to preventthe crisis from worseningor spreading to othersystems.Actions taken to bring the crisis toan end in order to return systemsimpacted to a state of equilibriumThe Intervention ProcessThe Five Steps of Crisis Intervention
  • 29. 291.4CrisisInterventionResponseContainmentDe-escalationRemediationPreventionThe initial response by those tasked withconfronting and evaluating the crisis.Actions taken to preventthe crisis from worseningor spreading to othersystems.Actions taken to bring the crisis toan end in order to return systemsimpacted to a state of equilibriumActions taken to alleviate thenegative residual effects of thecrisisThe Intervention ProcessThe Five Steps of Crisis Intervention
  • 30. 301.4CrisisInterventionResponseContainmentDe-escalationRemediationPreventionThe initial response by those tasked withconfronting and evaluating the crisis.Actions taken to preventthe crisis from worseningor spreading to othersystems.Actions taken to bring the crisis toan end in order to return systemsimpacted to a state of equilibriumActions taken to alleviate thenegative residual effects of thecrisisActions taken to preventthe crisis from occurringagain in the futureThe Intervention ProcessThe Five Steps of Crisis Intervention
  • 31. © 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, IncUpper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights ReservedThe phenomenon of crisis can be defined as a loss of equilibrium in ourinternal and/or external systems of control, requiring third-partyintervention to regain homeostasis.A crisis can be classified according to it’s potential for effecting othersystems and expanding beyond the immediate crisis event. We can classifythese events as microcrisis, mesocrisis, exocrisis, and macrocrisis.America has a long history of crisis intervention, beginning with theWhiskey Rebellion of 1794. In 1829, Sir Robert Peel established theLondon Metropolitan Police Dept., beginning the modern era of policing,which led to the establishment of police departments in Boston,Philedelphia, and NYC. The American Red Cross was established in 1881,and in 1979, President Carter established FEMA.The five components of modern crisis intervention are response,containment, de-escalation, remediation, and prevention.CHAPTER SUMMARY1.11.21.31.4
  • 32. © 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, IncUpper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights ReservedDISCUSSION QUESTIONS1. Select any recent national or international crisis and discuss theresponse to that event in terms of the crisis intervention continuum.Was the response successful? Was it criticized?2. Many times large amounts of resources are spent de-escalating amicrocrisis involving a single individual. For example, a large numberof police and other emergency personnel may be deployed tointervene in the case of an individual threatening to jump from abuilding or bridge. Should we as a society weigh the decision tointervene in such a crisis against the potential costs to the taxpayer?Why or why not?3. In the event of a macrocrisis, like the events of September 11, 2001, isit an acceptable measure at times to limit the rights and freedoms ofAmerican citizens in order to contain and de-escalate the crisis?

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