To explain the role of tacticalteams in the containment andde-escalation of crisis and thehistorical development of PoliceS.W.A.T.Learning ObjectivesAfter this lecture, you should be able to complete the following Learning Outcomes5.1
45.1 The Role of Tactical TeamsThe Advent of S.W.A.T. (Special Weapons and Tactics)• First used by the LAPD in the 1960s.• The idea was to form a specially trained and armed unit tomeet the new types of tactical situations the police were forcedto confront during that era involving well-armed radical groups.• During the 1970s the television show “S.W.A.T.” gave thepublic its first exposure to this type of police unit.• Today essentially every police department either has a tacticalunit patterned after the S.W.A.T. concept, or they have access toone through other mucipal, state, and federal agencies.
55.1 The Role of Tactical TeamsModern Tactical Units• ERT (Emergency Response Teams)• ESU (Emergency Services Units)• TRT (Tactical Response Teams)Regardless of the acronym used, the duties carried out by theseteams are essentially the same:- Hostage rescues- High-risk arrest and search warrants- Active shooter situations- Resolving situations involving barricaded subjects- Dealing with high-risk mentally ill or suicidal subjects- Terrorist threats
65.1 The Role of Tactical TeamsDefining a Tactical Situation• A situation in which the use of force is likely to bemet with force.• A situation of high-risk requiring special weaponsand tactics.• A situation that tends to go beyond the responsecapabilities of patrol officers.• A situation involving a police response that is barelydistinguishable from a military operation.
To explain the techniques for de-escalating an “active-shooter”crisis.Learning ObjectivesAfter this lecture, you should be able to complete the following Learning Outcomes5.2
85.2 The Active ShooterThe Active Shooter“An armed person who has used deadly force on otherpersons and continues to do so while havingunrestricted access to additional victims.”El Paso County (CO) Sheriff’s Procedure Manual (2003)
95.2 The Active ShooterThe Active ShooterRecent active shooter cases…• Columbine High School (1999): 12 students and a teacher killed.• Goleta, CA Postal facility (2006): 6 employees killed.• Virginia Tech (2007): 32 students killed.• Northern Illinois University (2008): 24 people shot, 5 of them fatal.• Fort Hood, Texas (2009): 13 soldiers killed, 30 others wounded.Since the publication of this text we have witnessed additional active shooter situations, includingthe Aurora CO theater shooting (12 dead, 58 wounded) and the Sandy Hook Elementary Schoolshooting (26 killed, including 20 children). Both occurred in 2012.
105.2 The Active ShooterThe Active ShooterThere was a time when the preferred tactic in this typeof situation was to set up a perimeter and wait forS.W.A.T. The law enforcement community’s thinkingchanged after Columbine.Researchers have concluded that the faster an activeshooter is confronted by police, the greater theprobability of de-escalating the situation without thefurther loss of life.Police officers are now trained to move in quickly withthe tools they have.
115.2 The Active ShooterThe Active ShooterIn short, the responding officers to an active shootersituation are tasked with immediately de-escalating ofthe crisis in front of them as they move toward theshooter while simultaneously containing the areabehind them.
To list and define police rapiddeployment tactics.Learning ObjectivesAfter this lecture, you should be able to complete the following Learning Outcomes5.3
135.3 Rapid DeploymentThe Active ShooterIn short, the responding officers to an active shootersituation are tasked with immediately de-escalating ofthe crisis in front of them as they move toward theshooter while simultaneously containing the areabehind them.
145.3 Rapid DeploymentRapid Deployment TacticsThere are four objectives to an active shooter response:• Make contact with shooter• Rescue the injured• Secure the perimeter• Evacuate potential victims away from theshooter
155.3 Rapid DeploymentResponse Team Structure and DutiesCONTACT TEAM• Task is to enter and attempt to make contact with the shooter.• Ideal number of officers is 4.• They maintain a “T” or “Diamond” formation as they move towardthe sound of the gunfire. This allows for a 360-degree field of view.• They neither enter rooms nor aid the wounded. Their only goal is toconfront and immobilize the shooter.• As they move forward they direct people to evacuate behind themand gather as much information as possible as they continue to moveforward swiftly.
165.3 Rapid DeploymentResponse Team Structure and DutiesRESCUE TEAMWhile the CONTACT TEAM continues to move forward toward the shooter, theRESCUE TEAM moves at a safe distance behind the CONTACT TEAM andrenders aid to the wounded and assists in the evacuation of potential victims.Their task is to set up a safe perimeter around the rescue area, alwaysmaintaining a vigilant eye for the shooter.
175.3 Rapid DeploymentResponse Team Structure and DutiesPERIMETER TEAMThe PERIMETER TEAM’S task is to block off and secure any potential escaperoutes the shooter may attempt to use. They also keep citizens out of the“hot” zone. Additionally, they have the task of searching the area inside theperimeter for evidence and additional threats, such as a bomb in the shooter’svehicle or perhaps accomplices.
185.3 Rapid DeploymentResponse Team Structure and DutiesEVACUATION TEAMTheir task is to assist evacuees to a safe location outside the “hot” zone. Asthey do, they also maintain a watchful eye for the shooter and provide cover inthe event the shooter begins shooting at the evacuees.
195.3 Rapid DeploymentResponse Team SummaryPERIMETERTEAMEVAUATIONTEAMRESCUETEAMCONTACTTEAMActiveShooterConfronts andimmobilizes shooter asquickly as possibleMoves behind ContactTeam to render aid andget people outLeads evacuees andwounded safely awayfrom hot zoneShuts off potentialescape routes andsecures hot zone
To list and define the varioustypes of tactical entry.Learning ObjectivesAfter this lecture, you should be able to complete the following Learning Outcomes5.4
215.4 Tactical EntryTactical OptionsWhen a high-risk entry becomes necessary, the operational commander canattempt any of the following:RUSEThe operational commander can attempt to entice the person out of thebuilding or to a different location inside the building through some pretense inorder to make it easier to affect an arrest, or if hostages are involved, to movethe person to a position in sight of a police sniper.SURROUND AND CALL OUTBREACH AND HOLDDELIBERATE ENTRYDYNAMIC ENTRY
225.4 Tactical EntryTactical OptionsWhen a high-risk entry becomes necessary, the operational commander canattempt any of the following:RUSESURROUND AND CALL OUTUsing this option, the police surround the location, announce theirpresence, and direct the individual to walk out with their hands in plain view.BREACH AND HOLDDELIBERATE ENTRYDYNAMIC ENTRY
235.4 Tactical EntryTactical OptionsWhen a high-risk entry becomes necessary, the operational commander canattempt any of the following:RUSESURROUND AND CALL OUTBREACH AND HOLDThe team breaches an entry point, such as a door, but holds their positionswithout entering. This option makes it clear to the suspect that significantforce is waiting to enter the premises. It also gives the entry team time tomethodically clear the area inside the entry point of potential threats.DELIBERATE ENTRYDYNAMIC ENTRY
245.4 Tactical EntryTactical OptionsWhen a high-risk entry becomes necessary, the operational commander canattempt any of the following:RUSESURROUND AND CALL OUTBREACH AND HOLDDELIBERATE ENTRYUsing this option the team breaches an entry point and immediately moves in.They move through the location slow and methodically, clearing each areabefore moving on to the next. As people are encountered they are searchedand secured before moving on.DYNAMIC ENTRY
255.4 Tactical EntryTactical OptionsWhen a high-risk entry becomes necessary, the operational commander canattempt any of the following:RUSESURROUND AND CALL OUTBREACH AND HOLDDELIBERATE ENTRYDYNAMIC ENTRYA quick and focused entry. Like the deliberate entry, once an entry point isbreached, the team moves in immediately, but rather than moving slow andmethodically toward their objective, they instead do so as rapidly as possible.People who do not appear to be a threat are passed by. This is the desiredentry when hostages are involved.
265.4 Tactical EntryPhases of a Tactical Entry• SCOUTING PHASE• PLANNING PHASE• BRIEFING PHASE• EXECUTION PHASE• DEBRIEFING PHASE
275.4 Tactical EntryTactics and TechniquesSuspectOfficer1234“Slicing the Pie”If the team breaches andholds their positions, this isthe standard method forclearing the area inside thebreach point. One officerslowly moves across thebreach point away fromthe structure. Doneproperly, they will see asuspect before the suspectsees them.
285.4 Tactical EntryTactical Options123 1 2 3“The Crisscross Entry”Team members stack oneither side of the door andenter by crossing eachothers path and moving tothe opposite side of theroom. The officer in the firstposition immediately movesto a position of dominancewith the officer in thesecond position scanningthe room for threats andproviding cover. A suspectwill almost always focus onthe first person through thedoor.
295.4 Tactical EntryTactical Options“The Buttonhook Entry”Team members stack onboth sides of the breachpoint and instead ofcrossing each other’spaths, they enter byrounding the door jam andmoving to a point ofdomination on the sameside of the room. Like thecrisscross entry, havingofficers on both sides of theroom allows them to“triangulate” a suspect andquickly immobilize them.123 1 2 3
305.4 Tactical EntryTactical Options“The Combination Entry”Team members stack onthe same side of the doorand alternate their entrybetween crisscross andbuttonhook.1236 5 4