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  • 1. © 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, IncUpper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights ReservedCrisis InterventionWilliam HarmeningRoosevelt UniversityHarmening, Crisis Intervention: The Criminal Justice Response to Chaos, Mayhem, andDisasterChapter 15THE COST OF CRISIS
  • 2. © 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, IncUpper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights Reserved15.115.215.3To identify the various types of stress impacting criminal justiceprofessionals.To explain the impact of the police culture on an officer’sresponse to stress.To describe both PTSD and PTS and their diagnostic criteria andstages.CHAPTER OBJECTIVES15.4To describe accepted intervention strategies, including thecritical incident stress debriefing and psychological first aid.
  • 3. To identify the various types of stressimpacting criminal justiceprofessionals.Learning ObjectivesAfter this lecture, you should be able to complete the following Learning Outcomes15.1
  • 4. 415.1 Types of Stress“Whoever fights monsters should see to it thatin the process he does not become a monster.And, when you look in the abyss, the abyss alsolooks into you”—Friederich Nietzsche
  • 5. 515.1 Types of StressThe High Cost of Job-related Stress• From 1990 thru 1998, 22 Chicago police officers committedsuicide.• During this same period, 20 LAPD officers killed themselves.• From 1985 to 1998, 87 NYPD officers committed suicide.The rate of suicide is even worse among correctional officers.
  • 6. 615.1 Types of StressTypes of Stress• VICARIOUS STRESSStress that results indirectly from interacting with or observing others incrisis.• OCCUPATIONAL STRESSStress resulting from the demands, risks, and dangers experienced while onthe job.• PROFESSIONAL STRESSStress resulting from the organizational-logistical demands of the job.
  • 7. 715.1 Types of StressTypes of StressProfessional stress may be related to the following…• Shift work and its impact on the family• Unproductive management styles• Unnecessary paperwork• Minimal sentences for offenders• Lack of training and equipment• lack of respect by the public• Antagonistic cliques and subcultures• Self-doubts about performance
  • 8. To explain the impact of the policeculture on an officer’s response tostress.Learning ObjectivesAfter this lecture, you should be able to complete the following Learning Outcomes15.2
  • 9. 915.2 The Police CultureThe Role of the Police Culture in Stress• The police culture is empowered by an us vs. them attitude among officers.This leads to social isolation.• Masculine social structures within the profession create a situation whereofficers have few viable options for managing their stress, and the optionsthat are selected, such as excessive drinking and aggression, are oftentimesunhealthy and unethical.• The perception is typically such that officers believe that to be effective theymust present themselves to the public as fearless, authoritative, anduncompromising. To facilitate this, they adopt a new identity, the policeidentity.• Correctional officers have their own unique identity that includes theabsolute necessity of never showing weakness in front of the inmatepopulation.
  • 10. 1015.2 The Police CultureThe Role of the Police Culture in StressObstacles to effectively dealing with stress…• A law enforcement culture that emphasizes strength and control.• Negative perceptions and distrust of mental health providers.• The stigma associated with seeking help.• General concern about loss of privacy.• Embarrassment and shameThe police culture is a double-edged sword for those officers who choose toimmerse themselves in it. It can bolster an officer’s ability to physicallyprotect themselves, but it can just as effectively cause their emotionaldecline.
  • 11. To describe both PTSD and PTS andtheir diagnostic criteria and stages.Learning ObjectivesAfter this lecture, you should be able to complete the following Learning Outcomes15.3
  • 12. 1215.3 PTSD and PTSPost-traumatic Stress DisorderThe most common diagnosis given to criminal justiceprofessionals suffering the debilitating effects ofaccumulated stress and trauma.Came to the forefront of the mental health profession’sawareness during and after the Vietnam War.Symptoms include:• Re-experiencing symptoms• Avoidance symptoms• Hyperarousal
  • 13. 1315.3 PTSD and PTSPolice Trauma SyndromeBecause police and correctional officers don’t alwayseasily fit the PTSD diagnosis, Dr. Beverley Anderson(2002) developed the PTS diagnosis.PTS develops over time and follows a particularsequence of stages…
  • 14. 1415.3 PTSD and PTSPolice Trauma Syndrome• The Rookie stageDuring this stage the officer tries to maintain an ideological view of the job. At this stage they simplyrepress stress-related emotions in order to maintain what they believe to be the appropriate policeimage.• The John Wayne stageDuring this stage the officer tends to move from repressing emotions to acting out their opposites(reaction-formation). Now they may joke in the presence of dead bodies and project an image oftoughness in response to feelings of weakness.• The Professional stageNow they simply deny any emotions. They dehumanize, depersonalize, and desensitize.• The Burnout stageNow their defenses are breaking down. Their self-image begins to unravel and they lose their senseof mission and purpose. Intervention is critical at this point.• Police Trauma Syndrome(Next slide)
  • 15. 1515.3 PTSD and PTSPolice Trauma Syndrome (symptoms)• Sleep difficulties• Anxiety attacks and depression• Flashbacks and intrusive thoughts• Extreme mood swings with periods of rage• Social isolation• Drug and alcohol abuse• Suicidal ideation
  • 16. To describe accepted interventionstrategies, including the criticalincident stress debriefing andpsychological first aid.Learning ObjectivesAfter this lecture, you should be able to complete the following Learning Outcomes15.4
  • 17. 1715.4 InterventionsCritical Incident Stress DebriefingThe debriefing is intended to provide a safe forum for those exposed to atraumatic event to describe and externalize their emotions before they rely onunhealthy defense mechanisms to cope with the stress.The debriefing consists of seven phases…• Introduction phase• Fact phase• Thought phase• Reaction phase• Symptom phase• Teaching phase• Re-entry phase
  • 18. 1815.4 InterventionsCritical Incident Stress DebriefingThe debriefing is intended to provide a safe forum for those exposed to atraumatic event to describe and externalize their emotions before they rely onunhealthy defense mechanisms to cope with the stress.The debriefing consists of seven phases…• Introduction phase• Fact phase• Thought phase• Reaction phase• Symptom phase• Teaching phase• Re-entry phaseDuring this phase team members attempt to create asafe atmosphere for officers. They introduce themselvesand explain how they became part of the team. Duringthis phase officers are also assured of the confidentialnature of the meeting.
  • 19. 1915.4 InterventionsCritical Incident Stress DebriefingThe debriefing is intended to provide a safe forum for those exposed to atraumatic event to describe and externalize their emotions before they rely onunhealthy defense mechanisms to cope with the stress.The debriefing consists of seven phases…• Introduction phase• Fact phase• Thought phase• Reaction phase• Symptom phase• Teaching phase• Re-entry phaseDuring this phase each participant in turn discusses theirinvolvement in the matter. This allows officers to begintalking about the event on a cognitive level, and in anon-threatening way. It also reduces self-doubt byproviding reassurance to all the officers that things weredone properly.
  • 20. 2015.4 InterventionsCritical Incident Stress DebriefingThe debriefing is intended to provide a safe forum for those exposed to atraumatic event to describe and externalize their emotions before they rely onunhealthy defense mechanisms to cope with the stress.The debriefing consists of seven phases…• Introduction phase• Fact phase• Thought phase• Reaction phase• Symptom phase• Teaching phase• Re-entry phaseDuring this phase each participant discusses what theywere thinking during the event. It personalizes the eventfor each officer and prepares the way to discuss theiremotions.
  • 21. 2115.4 InterventionsCritical Incident Stress DebriefingThe debriefing is intended to provide a safe forum for those exposed to atraumatic event to describe and externalize their emotions before they rely onunhealthy defense mechanisms to cope with the stress.The debriefing consists of seven phases…• Introduction phase• Fact phase• Thought phase• Reaction phase• Symptom phase• Teaching phase• Re-entry phaseNow the officers begin to explore their emotions duringand after the event. This is oftentimes the mostthreatening point in the debriefing. They are not askedto share their feelings unless they choose to do so. Byexternalizing these emotions, they can avoid repressingthem or dealing with them in unhealthy ways.
  • 22. 2215.4 InterventionsCritical Incident Stress DebriefingThe debriefing is intended to provide a safe forum for those exposed to atraumatic event to describe and externalize their emotions before they rely onunhealthy defense mechanisms to cope with the stress.The debriefing consists of seven phases…• Introduction phase• Fact phase• Thought phase• Reaction phase• Symptom phase• Teaching phase• Re-entry phaseDuring this phase the officers discuss any changes thathave taken place since the event. This is also aneducational phase, as team members discuss theeffects and symptoms of stress-related disorders.
  • 23. 2315.4 InterventionsCritical Incident Stress DebriefingThe debriefing is intended to provide a safe forum for those exposed to atraumatic event to describe and externalize their emotions before they rely onunhealthy defense mechanisms to cope with the stress.The debriefing consists of seven phases…• Introduction phase• Fact phase• Thought phase• Reaction phase• Symptom phase• Teaching phase• Re-entry phaseDuring this phase the officers learn about healthycoping strategies and community resources that areavailable if needed.
  • 24. 2415.4 InterventionsCritical Incident Stress DebriefingThe debriefing is intended to provide a safe forum for those exposed to atraumatic event to describe and externalize their emotions before they rely onunhealthy defense mechanisms to cope with the stress.The debriefing consists of seven phases…• Introduction phase• Fact phase• Thought phase• Reaction phase• Symptom phase• Teaching phase• Re-entry phaseA way to gain closure before ending the meeting.Questions are answered, and team memberssummarize what took place. Participants areencouraged to continue processing the event inhealthy ways, and the meeting is concluded.
  • 25. 2515.4 InterventionsPsychological First AidAn alternative to CISD. It is not about having participants verbalize theirthoughts and feelings, but about providing various types of support whileofficers process traumatic events as they normally do. The process has threemain goals:1. Re-create a sense of safety2. Reestablish meaningful social connections3. Reestablish a sense of efficacy, or a belief in oneself that theyperformed appropriately, and that they are capable of returning to theirjobs and conducting themselves in a professional manner.The type of support offered depends on the circumstances of the event. It mayinvolve logistical support, a mental health referral, or something as simple aslistening while they talk. Or it may involve nothing at all.
  • 26. © 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, IncUpper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights ReservedPolice and correctional officers are under a tremndous amountof stress everyday. They suffer the effects of vicarious,occupational, and professional stress. Their suicide rates arehigher than the national average.The police culture has a significant impact on how officers dealwith stress. It prevents them at times from processing traumaticevents in a healthy way, and may even contribute to unhealthyways of dealing with the stress, such as alcohol or aggression.Prolonged exposure to trauma and stress may result in adiagnosis of PTSD when the officer is no longer able to performtheir duties. Police Trauma Syndrome is a model that shows aclear progression to serious stress disorder.To proactively head off the negative effects of stress following atraumatic event, many departments have their officers gothrough a critical incident stress debriefing (CISD) to externalizetheir emotions in a safe environment.CHAPTER SUMMARY15.115.215.315.4
  • 27. © 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, IncUpper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights ReservedDISCUSSION QUESTIONS1. Discuss our cultural view of police officers, and how this hascontributed to the development of the modern police culture.2. Discuss the importance of a correctional officer’s demeanor to theirpersonal safety on the job, and how their demeanor may impact theirability to deal with stress in a healthy manner.3. Discuss the suicide rates among police officers as outlined in thechapter, and give some reasons why you believe those rates are ashigh as they are.