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jb 3283 Persuasive Writing
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jb 3283 Persuasive Writing

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jb 3283 Persuasive Writing

jb 3283 Persuasive Writing

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  • Transcript

    • 1. Persuasive Writing
    • 2. We are PR Professionals
      • PR writers are advocates in the marketplace of public opinion
      • We must use persuasive techniques that are
        • Truthful
        • Socially acceptable
    • 3. Basics of Communication
      • Sender (advances the objectives of the organization/sender)
      • Message (what should they think, believe or do - research to find out what they know before you make the message)
      • Media (TV, billboard, newspaper, friend)
      • Receiver (public you must reach)
    • 4. Message Basics
      • Message must be –
        • Received
        • Attention
        • Understood
        • Believed
        • Remembered
        • Acted upon
    • 5. Persuasive Writing
      • Audience Analysis
        • Research
        • Know your audience/targeted public
      • Source Credibility
        • Expert/Charismatic/Sincere
      • Appeals to Self-Interest
        • “ What’s in it for me?”
      • Message Clarity
        • Copy-test on audience/public
        • Avoid jargon the public won’t understand
    • 6. Persuasive Writing Cont…
      • Timing & Context
        • Triggering events
        • Seasonal Events
      • Symbols, Slogans, Acronyms
      • Semantics
    • 7. Persuasive Writing Cont…
      • Content & Structure
        • Drama
          • Personalize/humanize
        • Statistics
          • Factual, people believe #s
        • Surveys/Polls
          • People want to know what others think
        • Examples
        • Testimonials
          • “ I use it”
        • Endorsements
          • Image-transfer
        • Emotional Appeals
    • 8. More About Persuasion
      • Generally speaking, positive appeals are more effective than negative appeals
      • Celebrity is most effective when audience has low involvement
      • Strong emotional appeals/fear appeals best when audience has interest in topic, concern
      • Highly fear-arousing appeals work only when immediate action can be taken
      • W/highly-educated audience use LOGICAL appeal, not emotional one
      • Repetition is key
        • Reminds them
        • Breaks down resistance to message
        • Helps overcome competing messages
    • 9. Examples
    • 10. Caution, Do Not…
      • Use false or distorted facts to support your argument
      • Do use illogical reasoning
      • Don’t say you’re an expert if you aren’t
      • Don’t use smear tactics
      • Don’t appeal to hatred or “God” to further your cause
      • Don’t conceal your real purpose
      • Do NOT advocate something you don’t believe
    • 11. What is a Theory?
      • A theory is an explanation for observable phenomena. It is a proposition that tries to explain the observed facts related to a specific problem
        • Magic Bullet
        • Two-Step Flow
        • Uses & Gratifications
        • Media Effects (Agenda-Setting)
        • Framing
        • Diffusion & Adoption
    • 12. Magic Bullet Theory
      • One of the earliest media theories
      • Direct effects
      • Passive audience
      • Media has powerful influence
    • 13. Two-Step Flow Theory
      • Use of opinion leaders (those who pay attention to the news/info)
      • People rely on more knowledgeable people to tell them how to vote, what to think
        • Message goes from opinion leaders to aware or interested public, then to unaware audiences
    • 14. Cognitive Dissonance Theory
      • People do not act on message if it’s contrary to their beliefs
      • Therefore you must introduce information that causes them to QUESTION their beliefs
    • 15. Media Effects (Agenda-Setting Theory)
      • Media has limited effects
      • Media doesn’t tell people what to think, but WHAT TO THINK ABOUT!
      • Above the fold? Leads the newscast?
    • 16. Framing
      • How media select certain facts, themes, words
      • How did Bush frame war with Iraq?
        • War on terror
        • Search for WMD
        • Saddam a threat to other countries
        • Saddam a threat to his own people
        • Non-compliance issue
    • 17. Framing Cont…
      • How media frames:
        • War on terror
        • Search for WMD
        • Saddam a threat to other countries
        • Saddam a threat to his own people
        • Non-compliance issue
    • 18. Diffusion & Adoption Theory
      • Five Steps
        • (1) Awareness
        • (2) Interest
        • (3) Trial
        • (4) Evaluation
        • (5) Adoption
      • ACTIVE v. PASSIVE audience/public
    • 19. Active or Passive?
      • Passive audiences need to be lured:
        • Lots of visuals
        • Catchy themes or slogans
        • Short messages only
      • WHAT MEDIA IS RIGHT FOR THIS TYPE OF AUDIENCE?
    • 20. Diffusion & Adoption Cont…
      • PR most influential in first two steps
        • (1) Awareness
        • (2) Interest
      • Friends/family most influential in trial & evaluation stages
      • A person does not necessarily go through all 5 stages with any given product/idea
    • 21. Factors that Affect Adoption Process
      • Relative Advantage
      • Compatibility
      • Complexity
      • Trialability
      • Observation
    • 22. Uses & Gratifications Theory
      • Media has limited effects
      • People CHOOSE what media they consume
      • Active audience members
    • 23. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
      • Physiological needs (food, clothing, shelter)
      • Safety needs (loss of life, protection against danger)
      • Social needs (friendship, love)
      • Ego needs (self-esteem, status)
      • Self-fulfillment needs (talent, intellect)
    • 24. Applying Theories to PR
      • Magic Bullet?
      • Two-Step Flow?
      • Media Effects (Agenda-Setting)?
      • Framing?
      • Diffusion & Adoption?
      • Uses and Gratification
    • 25. Agenda-Setting Theory A local newspaper decides to run a front page article on the drug bust of a prominent member of the community.
    • 26. Two-Step Flow Theory An anti-tobacco campaign that targets elementary students uses popular high school students to communicate the message.
    • 27. Uses & Gratifications Theory Shirley’s Green House develops a weekly gardening program that airs locally on TV Channel 31.