Radiation 101

9,883 views
9,835 views

Published on

These slides were presentation at the Radiation 101 class at Creative Electron, July 7, 2012. Also included how to set up radiation monitoring network with iRad sensors.

0 Comments
2 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
9,883
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
40
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
66
Comments
0
Likes
2
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Radiation 101

  1. 1. inventing a better tomorrowRadiation 101 Dr. Bill Cardoso President and CEO bcardoso@creativeelectron.com 760.752.1192 253 Pawnee St. San Marcos, CA 92078 www.CreativeElectron.com
  2. 2. What is radiation? “Radia0on%is%energy%in%the%form%of%electroDmagne0c% waves%or%par0culate%maGer,%traveling%in%the%air.”% www.CreativeElectron.comThis%slide%contains%Crea0ve%Electron’s%proprietary%informa0on.%NOT%FOR%DISTRIBUTION%
  3. 3. What types of radiation exist? “In%order%to%answer%this%ques0on%we%first%need%to% learn%where%does%radia0on%come%from.”% www.CreativeElectron.comThis%slide%contains%Crea0ve%Electron’s%proprietary%informa0on.%NOT%FOR%DISTRIBUTION%
  4. 4. How radiation is created? www.CreativeElectron.comThis%slide%contains%Crea0ve%Electron’s%proprietary%informa0on.%NOT%FOR%DISTRIBUTION%
  5. 5. www.CreativeElectron.comThis%slide%contains%Crea0ve%Electron’s%proprietary%informa0on.%NOT%FOR%DISTRIBUTION%
  6. 6. www.CreativeElectron.comThis%slide%contains%Crea0ve%Electron’s%proprietary%informa0on.%NOT%FOR%DISTRIBUTION%
  7. 7. www.CreativeElectron.comThis%slide%contains%Crea0ve%Electron’s%proprietary%informa0on.%NOT%FOR%DISTRIBUTION%
  8. 8. www.CreativeElectron.comThis%slide%contains%Crea0ve%Electron’s%proprietary%informa0on.%NOT%FOR%DISTRIBUTION%
  9. 9. www.CreativeElectron.comThis%slide%contains%Crea0ve%Electron’s%proprietary%informa0on.%NOT%FOR%DISTRIBUTION%
  10. 10. α" β" neutron γ or X-ray " www.CreativeElectron.comThis%slide%contains%Crea0ve%Electron’s%proprietary%informa0on.%NOT%FOR%DISTRIBUTION%
  11. 11. Radioacve%Atom% alpha%parcle% X4ray% beta%parcle% gamma%ray% www.CreativeElectron.comThis%slide%contains%Crea0ve%Electron’s%proprietary%informa0on.%NOT%FOR%DISTRIBUTION%
  12. 12. Radiation can be of natural or artificial origin Natural background radiation comes from two primary sources: cosmic radiation and terrestrial sources. The worldwide average background dose for a human being is about 2.4 millisievert (mSv) per year.[9] This exposure is mostly from cosmic radiation and natural radionuclides in the environment (including those within the body). Natural origin entangles materials that contain radioactive atoms. Examples can include certain types of minerals found in nature like some types of granite as well as Radon. Radon Radon is a terrestrial source of ionizing radiation that is of particular concern because, although on average it is very rare, this intensely radioactive element can be found in high concentrations in many areas of the world, where it represents a significant health hazard. Radon is a decay product of uranium, which is relatively common in the Earths crust, but generally concentrated in ore-bearing rocks scattered around the world. Radon seeps out of these ores into the atmosphere or into ground water, and in these localities it can accumulate within dwellings and expose humans to high concentrations. The widespread construction of well insulated and sealed homes in the northern industrialized world has led to radon becoming the primary source of background radiation in some localities in northern North America and Europe. www.CreativeElectron.comThis%slide%contains%Crea0ve%Electron’s%proprietary%informa0on.%NOT%FOR%DISTRIBUTION%
  13. 13. Terrestrial sources •  Radioactive material is found throughout nature. It occurs naturally in the soil, rocks, water, air, and vegetation. The major radionuclides of concern for terrestrial radiation are common elements with low-abundance radioactive isotopes, like potassium and carbon, or the long- lived elements uranium and thorium and their decay products, some of which, like radium and radon are intensely radioactive but occur in low concentrations. Cosmic radiation •  Estimate of the maximum dose of radiation received at an altitude of 12 km January 20, 2005, following a violent solar flare. The doses are expressed in millionths of a Sievert per hour. •  The Earth, and all living things on it, are constantly bombarded by radiation from outer space. This radiation primarily consists of positively charged ions from protons to iron and larger nuclei derived sources outside our solar system. This radiation interacts with atoms in the atmosphere to create secondary radiation, including X-rays, muons, protons, alpha particles, pions, electrons, and neutrons. www.CreativeElectron.comThis%slide%contains%Crea0ve%Electron’s%proprietary%informa0on.%NOT%FOR%DISTRIBUTION%
  14. 14. Electromagnetic Spectrum www.CreativeElectron.comThis%slide%contains%Crea0ve%Electron’s%proprietary%informa0on.%NOT%FOR%DISTRIBUTION%
  15. 15. Radiation from Natural Sources www.CreativeElectron.comThis%slide%contains%Crea0ve%Electron’s%proprietary%informa0on.%NOT%FOR%DISTRIBUTION%
  16. 16. A%banana%equivalent%dose%(actually%biologically%effecve%dose,%abbreviated%BED)%is%a% whimsical%unit%of%radia0on%exposure,%informally%defined%as%the%addi0onal%dose%a%person%will% absorb%from%ea0ng%one%banana%(for%example).% The%major%natural%source%of%radioac0vity%in%plant%0ssue%is%potassium,%which%in%nature% contains%0.0117%%of%the%unstable%isotope%potassiumD40%(40K).% Although%the%amount%in%a%single%banana%is%small%in%environmental%and%medical%terms,%the% radioac0vity%from%a%truckload%of%bananas%is%capable%of%causing%a%false%alarm%when%passed% through%a%Radia0on%Portal%Monitor%used%to%detect%possible%smuggling%of%nuclear%material%at% U.S.%ports.% www.CreativeElectron.comThis%slide%contains%Crea0ve%Electron’s%proprietary%informa0on.%NOT%FOR%DISTRIBUTION%
  17. 17. Artificial radiation sources www.CreativeElectron.comThis%slide%contains%Crea0ve%Electron’s%proprietary%informa0on.%NOT%FOR%DISTRIBUTION%
  18. 18. Radiation from Manmade Sources www.CreativeElectron.comThis%slide%contains%Crea0ve%Electron’s%proprietary%informa0on.%NOT%FOR%DISTRIBUTION%
  19. 19. Frequent%aboveDground%nuclear%explosions%between%the%1940s%and%1960s% scaGered%a%substan0al%amount%of%radioac0ve%contamina0on.%Some%of% this%contamina0on%is%local,%rendering%the%immediate%surroundings%highly% radioac0ve,%while%some%of%it%is%carried%longer%distances%as%nuclear%fallout;% some%of%this%material%is%dispersed%worldwide.%The%increase%in%background% radia0on%due%to%these%tests%peaked%in%1963%at%about%0.15%mSv%per%year% worldwide,%or%about%7%%of%average%background%dose%from%all%sources.% www.CreativeElectron.comThis%slide%contains%Crea0ve%Electron’s%proprietary%informa0on.%NOT%FOR%DISTRIBUTION%
  20. 20. Ionizing radiation A%radia0on%is%said%to%be%ionizing%when%it%has%enough%energy%to%eject%one%or%more% electrons%from%the%atoms%or%molecules%in%the%irradiated%medium.%% www.CreativeElectron.comThis%slide%contains%Crea0ve%Electron’s%proprietary%informa0on.%NOT%FOR%DISTRIBUTION%
  21. 21. Types of Radiation and Penetration www.CreativeElectron.comThis%slide%contains%Crea0ve%Electron’s%proprietary%informa0on.%NOT%FOR%DISTRIBUTION%
  22. 22. QUANTIFICATION OF RADIATION There%are%four%different%but%interrelated%units%for%measuring%it;%radioac0vity,%exposure,%absorbed%dose,% and%dose%equivalent.%These%can%be%remembered%by%the%mnemonic%R4E4A4D.% Radioac0vity%refers%to%the%amount%of%ionizing%radia0on%released%by%a%material.%Whether%it%emits%alpha% or%beta%par0cles,%gamma%rays,%xDrays,%or%neutrons,%a%quan0ty%of%radioac0ve%material%is%expressed%in% terms%of%its%radioac0vity%(or%simply%its%ac0vity),%which%represents%how%many%atoms%in%the%material%decay% in%a%given%0me%period.%The%units%of%measure%for%radioac0vity%are%the%curie%(Ci)%and%becquerel%(Bq).%It%is% important%to%men0on%that%radiac0ve%material%decays%in%a%random%fashion,%and%not%in%a%con0nuous%or% periodic%way.% Exposure%describes%the%amount%of%radia0on%traveling%through%the%air.%Many%radia0on%monitors%measure% exposure.%The%units%for%exposure%are%the%roentgen%(R)%and%coulomb/kilogram%(C/kg).% Absorbed%dose%describes%the%amount%of%radia0on%absorbed%by%an%object%or%person%(that%is,%the%amount% of%energy%that%radioac0ve%sources%deposit%in%materials%through%which%they%pass).%The%units%for% absorbed%dose%are%the%radia0on%absorbed%dose%(rad)%and%gray%(Gy).% Dose%equivalent%(or%effec0ve%dose)%combines%the%amount%of%radia0on%absorbed%and%the%medical%effects% of%that%type%of%radia0on.%For%beta%and%gamma%radia0on,%the%dose%equivalent%is%the%same%as%the% absorbed%dose.%By%contrast,%the%dose%equivalent%is%larger%than%the%absorbed%dose%for%alpha%and%neutron% radia0on,%because%these%types%of%radia0on%are%more%damaging%to%the%human%body.%Units%for% dose%equivalent%are%the%roentgen%equivalent%man%(rem)%and%sievert%(Sv),%and%biological%dose%equivalents% are%commonly%measured%in%1/1000th%of%a%rem%(known%as%a%millirem%ormrem).% www.CreativeElectron.comThis%slide%contains%Crea0ve%Electron’s%proprietary%informa0on.%NOT%FOR%DISTRIBUTION%
  23. 23. For%prac0cal%purposes,%1%R%(exposure)%=%1%rad%(absorbed%dose)%=%1%rem%or%1000%mrem% (dose%equivalent).% Note%that%a%measure%given%in%Ci%tells%the%radioac0vity%of%a%substance,%while%a%measure%in% rem%(or%mrem)%tells%the%amount%of%energy%that%a%radioac0ve%source%deposits%in%living% 0ssue.%For%example,%a%person%would%receive%a%dose%equivalent%of%1%mrem%from%any%one%of% the%following%ac0vi0es:% 3%days%of%living%in%Atlanta% 2%days%of%living%in%Denver% 1%year%of%watching%television%(on%average)% 1%year%of%wearing%a%watch%with%a%luminous%dial% 1%coastDtoDcoast%airline%flight% 1%year%living%next%door%to%a%normally%opera0ng%nuclear%power%plant% www.CreativeElectron.comThis%slide%contains%Crea0ve%Electron’s%proprietary%informa0on.%NOT%FOR%DISTRIBUTION%
  24. 24. Real time data from iRad Geigers around the world *Color%coded%–%green%%OK,%red%%high%radia0on%levels% www.CreativeElectron.comThis%slide%contains%Crea0ve%Electron’s%proprietary%informa0on.%NOT%FOR%DISTRIBUTION%
  25. 25. iRad Geiger www.CreativeElectron.comThis%slide%contains%Crea0ve%Electron’s%proprietary%informa0on.%NOT%FOR%DISTRIBUTION%
  26. 26. How does it work? Cosm% Private%Key%1% Public%Key%2% Feed%1% …Feed%n% Feed%1% ID%1,2,3…% ID%1,2,3…% ID%1,2,3…% www.CreativeElectron.comThis%slide%contains%Crea0ve%Electron’s%proprietary%informa0on.%NOT%FOR%DISTRIBUTION%
  27. 27. 1: Create account at cosm.com www.CreativeElectron.comThis%slide%contains%Crea0ve%Electron’s%proprietary%informa0on.%NOT%FOR%DISTRIBUTION%
  28. 28. 2: Add device, “Something Else” www.CreativeElectron.comThis%slide%contains%Crea0ve%Electron’s%proprietary%informa0on.%NOT%FOR%DISTRIBUTION%
  29. 29. Configure your Device/Feed •  Step 1 – Data –  No, I will push data to Cosm •  Step 2 – Title –  My iRad Geiger Feed •  Step 3 – Tags –  radiation, southern california (plus any other searchable tags) •  Step 4 – Create –  Create your new feed! www.CreativeElectron.comThis%slide%contains%Crea0ve%Electron’s%proprietary%informa0on.%NOT%FOR%DISTRIBUTION%
  30. 30. Feed configured! www.CreativeElectron.comThis%slide%contains%Crea0ve%Electron’s%proprietary%informa0on.%NOT%FOR%DISTRIBUTION%
  31. 31. Delete Private Access key www.CreativeElectron.comThis%slide%contains%Crea0ve%Electron’s%proprietary%informa0on.%NOT%FOR%DISTRIBUTION%
  32. 32. www.CreativeElectron.comThis%slide%contains%Crea0ve%Electron’s%proprietary%informa0on.%NOT%FOR%DISTRIBUTION%
  33. 33. Copy key and email to iRad Host www.CreativeElectron.comThis%slide%contains%Crea0ve%Electron’s%proprietary%informa0on.%NOT%FOR%DISTRIBUTION%
  34. 34. Add “irad” tag to datastream www.CreativeElectron.comThis%slide%contains%Crea0ve%Electron’s%proprietary%informa0on.%NOT%FOR%DISTRIBUTION%
  35. 35. Cosm setup completed www.CreativeElectron.comThis%slide%contains%Crea0ve%Electron’s%proprietary%informa0on.%NOT%FOR%DISTRIBUTION%
  36. 36. Select Setup in iRad App www.CreativeElectron.comThis%slide%contains%Crea0ve%Electron’s%proprietary%informa0on.%NOT%FOR%DISTRIBUTION%
  37. 37. Click on Pachube www.CreativeElectron.comThis%slide%contains%Crea0ve%Electron’s%proprietary%informa0on.%NOT%FOR%DISTRIBUTION%
  38. 38. Enter info from Cosm www.CreativeElectron.comThis%slide%contains%Crea0ve%Electron’s%proprietary%informa0on.%NOT%FOR%DISTRIBUTION%
  39. 39. Real time data from your iRad www.CreativeElectron.comThis%slide%contains%Crea0ve%Electron’s%proprietary%informa0on.%NOT%FOR%DISTRIBUTION%
  40. 40. Visualize data www.CreativeElectron.comThis%slide%contains%Crea0ve%Electron’s%proprietary%informa0on.%NOT%FOR%DISTRIBUTION%

×