Chemical TransformationsChemical reactions occur when one or moresubstances are converted to a new substance(s)with composition and properties different fromthe original substance(s). Reactants Products 1. It takes energy to break a bond 2. Energy is released when a bond is formed
Types of Chemical Reactions• Combination Reactions • Acid/Carbonate Reactions• Decomposition Reactions • Combustion Reactions• Single Replacement Reactions• Double Replacement Reactions• Neutralization Reactions
Combination and Decomposition ReactionsCombination Reactions A + B AB (two reactants, one product)A + B ABNa + Cl2 ---> NaCl (unbalanced)2 Na + Cl2 ---> 2 NaCl (balanced)Mg + O2 ---> MgO (balanced?)Decomposition Reactions AB A + B (one reactant, two or more products)AB A + BNaClO3 NaCl + O2 (balanced?)
Single Replacement Reactions (use Activity Series handout) A + BC B + AC or A + BC C + BA Zn + Cu(NO3)2 Cu+ Zn(NO3)2 (balanced?) Cl2+ NaBr Br2 + NaCl (balanced?)
Activity Series and Solubility ChartFor Double Replacement Reactions For Single Replacement Reactions Text
Double Replacement Reactions and Neutralization ReactionsDouble Replacement Reactions • Reactions produce precipitate or water and a salt • Use a solubility handoutAB + CD AD + CBBa(NO3)2 + (NH4)2SO4 BaSO4 + NH4NO3 (balanced?)HC2H3O2 + KOH HOH (H2O) + KC2H3O2 (balanced?)Which reaction above produces water (neutralization) and which produces aprecipitate?
Two Special Reactions...Acid and Carbonate Reactions • Reactions produce CO2, a salt, and water • Look for an acid and a compound containing CO3-2Na2CO3 + HCl NaCl + H2O + CO2Combustion Reactions • Contain a hydrocarbon plus oxygen • Produce water and CO2C3H8 + 5 02 3 CO2 + 4 H2O