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Modern Model of the Atom

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    • 1. Modern Model of The Atom• Rutherford’s Model: Pro’s and Con’s • Improved on (Thomson’s) Plum Pudding Model • Protons inside, Electrons outside • Couldn’t explain how electrons stayed outside
    • 2. Niels Bohr and The Planetary Model of The Atom• Inspired by Niels Bohr the work of Bunsen and Kirchoff• Emission spectra of Spectrometer elements Bunsen and Kirchoff
    • 3. Bohr: Electrons are ‘quantized’• Emission spectra Emission Spectra• Electrons in of a Few Elements Energy Levels• Electrons • Ground State Ground State vs. Excited and Excited State State
    • 4. Bohr Model=Planetary Model• Bohr’s Model Pro’s and Con’s • Explained small atoms well • Failed to explain where electrons were in larger atoms Nitrogen Atom
    • 5. Quantum Mechanic Model of The Atom• Erwin Schrodinger and Werner Heisenberg Schrodinger• 1925-30• Refined Bohr’s Model• Wave or Cloud Model of Electrons• Electrons in orbitals of Heisenberg differing energy
    • 6. Quantum Mechanic Rules• Energy level (n=energy level)• Type of orbital (s,p,d,f) s-orbital• Shape of orbital p-orbital • sphere, dumbbell, rosette, d-orbital complex f-orbital• Number of Electrons in orbital Shapes • s=2; p=6; d=10; f=14 of Orbitals
    • 7. Quantum Mechanic Rules Continued...• Aufbau Principle • electrons occupy orbitals of lower energy first • (s<p<d<f)• Hund’s Rule • electrons occupy adjacent orbitals before pairing• Pauli Exclusion Principle • electrons occupying the same orbital must have opposite spin
    • 8. The Periodic Table:Where Are The S, P, D, and F Orbitals? s-orbitals d-orbitals p-orbitals f-orbitals
    • 9. Orbital Diagrams and Electron Configurations• orbital diagrams show us where bonding occurs• We’ll do elements 1-10• You will do elements 11-18, tonight Aufbau Diagram

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