Intermolecular Forces of Attraction
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Intermolecular Forces of Attraction

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Intermolecular Forces of Attraction Intermolecular Forces of Attraction Presentation Transcript

  • What are Intermolecular Forces of Attraction?• We’ve discussed ionic and covalent bonds • involve attractions between atoms • involve the exchange or sharing of electrons between two or more atoms• The resulting molecules have different forces of attraction for one another • These are intermolecular forces
  • Why are Intermolecular Forces Important?• They often determine the phase a substance is more likely to be. • Solid, liquid, or gas• Life science applications: DNA
  • Types of Intermolecular Forces of Attraction• London (or van der Waals) Forces• Permanent Dipoles• Hydrogen Bonds
  • London Forces• Weakest force• Instantaneous Dipole• Electrons in constant motion• No permanent positive/ negative region• Strength of force depends on total # of electrons
  • London Forces• Weakest force• Instantaneous Dipole• Electrons in constant motion• No permanent positive/ negative region• Strength of force depends on total # of electrons
  • London Forces• Weakest force• Instantaneous Dipole• Electrons in constant motion• No permanent positive/ negative region• Strength of force depends on total # of electrons
  • London Forces• Weakest force• Instantaneous Dipole• Electrons in constant motion• No permanent positive/ negative region• Strength of force depends on total # of electrons
  • London Forces• Weakest force• Instantaneous Dipole• Electrons in constant motion• No permanent positive/ negative region• Strength of force depends on total # of electrons
  • London Forces• Weakest force• Instantaneous Dipole• Electrons in constant motion• No permanent positive/ negative region• Strength of force depends on total # of electrons
  • London Forces• Weakest force• Instantaneous Dipole• Electrons in constant motion• No permanent positive/ negative region• Strength of force depends on total # of electrons
  • London Forces• Weakest force• Instantaneous Dipole• Electrons in constant motion• No permanent positive/ negative region• Strength of force depends on total # of electrons
  • London Forces• Weakest force• Instantaneous Dipole• Electrons in constant motion• No permanent positive/ negative region• Strength of force depends on total # of electrons
  • London Forces• Weakest force• Instantaneous Dipole• Electrons in constant motion• No permanent positive/ negative region• Strength of force depends on total # of electrons
  • London Forces• Weakest force• Instantaneous Dipole• Electrons in constant motion• No permanent positive/ negative region• Strength of force depends on total # of electrons
  • London Forces• Weakest force• Instantaneous Dipole• Electrons in constant motion• No permanent positive/ negative region• Strength of force depends on total # of electrons
  • London Forces• Weakest force• Instantaneous Dipole• Electrons in constant motion• No permanent positive/ negative region• Strength of force depends on total # of electrons
  • London Forces• Weakest force• Instantaneous Dipole• Electrons in constant motion• No permanent positive/ negative region• Strength of force depends on total # of electrons
  • London Forces• Weakest force• Instantaneous Dipole• Electrons in constant motion• No permanent positive/ negative region• Strength of force depends on total # of electrons
  • Permanent Dipoles• More durable than London Force• Permanent imbalance of e- in molecule• Positive and Negative end• Example: Acetone Acetone
  • Hydrogen Bonds• Strongest of all of the intermolecular forces• Must have...• H-N; H-F; or H-O• N, F, O very high EN values• Higher than expected BP, MP Water
  • Electronegativity andIntermolecular Forces
  • Are There Exceptions?• Yes, the total number of intermolecular forces present is very important• Some waxes (CH -CH -CH ....CH ) have 3 2 2 3 very high melting points despite having only London Forces• SbH has a higher BP than H O 3 2 • How can this be explained?
  • A Few Closing Questions...• Describe the bonding in CH3Cl?• CH3-CH2-CH2-OH• What about CH3-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH3?• What force holds the base pairs (C,G,A,T) together in DNA? • Covalent bonds? London forces? Hydrogen Bonds? • Why?