Climate Change

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  • Climate Change

    1. 1. Climate Change: Causes and Consequences “The atmosphere is the key symbol of global interdependence. If we can’t solve some of our problems in the face of threats to this global commons, then I can’t be very optimistic about the future of the world. “ Margaret Mead
    2. 2. What is the Greenhouse Effect?• Some key terms: • Troposphere • Greenhouse gases • CO2, CH4, CFC’s, H2O, N2O
    3. 3. The Greenhouse Effect
    4. 4. When did this topic gather momentum?• 1980’s and 1990’s• Eruption of Mt. Pinatubo, Philippines (1991)• James Hansen, NASA• 1988 creation of IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change)
    5. 5. What are The Causes?• Burning fossil fuels since the Industrial Revolution: coal, oil, natural gas • Electricity, industry, transportation• Agriculture • CH4, CO2, N2O• Deforestation• Manufacture of cement• Melting of permafrost
    6. 6. Fossil Fuels, CO2, and Global WarmingTraffic jam in Taiwan Coal-fired power plant in Germany
    7. 7. Global Food Productioncontributes to climate change Livestock and crops = CH4 and N2O
    8. 8. Cement Production and Urban Sprawl Cement production in China • CaCO3 CaO + CO2 • A leading contributor ofToronto global CO2
    9. 9. Understanding the Impacts...• Positive feedback loops lead to negative consequences: • Increased temperatures cause more water vapor to be formed • Increased water vapor=more global warming
    10. 10. Other negative effects of the positive feedback loops• Increased global temperature:• Increased incidence of forest fires• Decreased forest= decreased CO2 sequestration
    11. 11. What is the evidence?• 2006 IPCC Report • Earth is hottest it’s been in 400 years • Most of temperature increase has been since 1980 • Arctic temperatures have risen 2X as fast as the rest of the world • During 20th Century sea level rose by 4-8 inches
    12. 12. Keeling Curve Developed byCharles Keeling
    13. 13. Impacts of Global Warming on The Oceans Thermohaline Circulation Pattern• Melting polar ice and glaciers• Alteration of climate in countries• Colder temperatures in some areas• Warmer temperatures in other
    14. 14. The Ocean as a CO2 Sink• CO2 dissolves in the ocean• CO2 causes pH to drop• Slight changes in pH have impacts on food chains• Phytoplankton are Ocean Acidification sensitive to pH
    15. 15. Other Impacts ofWarming in the Arctic• Melting of permafrost • release of CO2 and CH4 Penn State Scientists in the Arctic
    16. 16. Melting Glaciers in Peru• Snow-melt is 1978 the source of their drinking water• Qori Kalis Today Glacier in Peru
    17. 17. Polar Regionsand Sea Level Rise A moulin on the Greenland Ice Sheet

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