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Climate Change

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    • 1. Climate Change: Causes and Consequences “The atmosphere is the key symbol of global interdependence. If we can’t solve some of our problems in the face of threats to this global commons, then I can’t be very optimistic about the future of the world. “ Margaret Mead
    • 2. What is the Greenhouse Effect?• Some key terms: • Troposphere • Greenhouse gases • CO2, CH4, CFC’s, H2O, N2O
    • 3. The Greenhouse Effect
    • 4. When did this topic gather momentum?• 1980’s and 1990’s• Eruption of Mt. Pinatubo, Philippines (1991)• James Hansen, NASA• 1988 creation of IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change)
    • 5. What are The Causes?• Burning fossil fuels since the Industrial Revolution: coal, oil, natural gas • Electricity, industry, transportation• Agriculture • CH4, CO2, N2O• Deforestation• Manufacture of cement• Melting of permafrost
    • 6. Fossil Fuels, CO2, and Global WarmingTraffic jam in Taiwan Coal-fired power plant in Germany
    • 7. Global Food Productioncontributes to climate change Livestock and crops = CH4 and N2O
    • 8. Cement Production and Urban Sprawl Cement production in China • CaCO3 CaO + CO2 • A leading contributor ofToronto global CO2
    • 9. Understanding the Impacts...• Positive feedback loops lead to negative consequences: • Increased temperatures cause more water vapor to be formed • Increased water vapor=more global warming
    • 10. Other negative effects of the positive feedback loops• Increased global temperature:• Increased incidence of forest fires• Decreased forest= decreased CO2 sequestration
    • 11. What is the evidence?• 2006 IPCC Report • Earth is hottest it’s been in 400 years • Most of temperature increase has been since 1980 • Arctic temperatures have risen 2X as fast as the rest of the world • During 20th Century sea level rose by 4-8 inches
    • 12. Keeling Curve Developed byCharles Keeling
    • 13. Impacts of Global Warming on The Oceans Thermohaline Circulation Pattern• Melting polar ice and glaciers• Alteration of climate in countries• Colder temperatures in some areas• Warmer temperatures in other
    • 14. The Ocean as a CO2 Sink• CO2 dissolves in the ocean• CO2 causes pH to drop• Slight changes in pH have impacts on food chains• Phytoplankton are Ocean Acidification sensitive to pH
    • 15. Other Impacts ofWarming in the Arctic• Melting of permafrost • release of CO2 and CH4 Penn State Scientists in the Arctic
    • 16. Melting Glaciers in Peru• Snow-melt is 1978 the source of their drinking water• Qori Kalis Today Glacier in Peru
    • 17. Polar Regionsand Sea Level Rise A moulin on the Greenland Ice Sheet

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