GSM Architecture                   By:                   •Hassan Amjad                   •Bilal Waheed                   •...
Intro to GSM:• GSM (Global System for Mobile  Communication)• It is a standard set developed by the ETSI.• It describe pro...
GSM Variants :Variant    Uplink        Downlink      Total         Duplex-   Channels           (MHz)         (MHz)       ...
GSM ArchitectureWhat so ever the variants are the basic architecture of GSM network remains the same as elaborated below:•...
Architecture Diagram :
ME:• Mobile equipment• Handset + SIM                 +
Handset:• is a device that can make and  receive telephone calls• over a radio link• Can moving around a wide  geographic ...
SIM:Subscriber identification moduleIt contains• IMSI ( international mobile subscriber identity )• PIN (personal identifi...
• IMSI ( used by operators to identify user)• IMSI = MCC+MNC+MSINi. MCC ( mobile country code)ii. MNC ( mobile network cod...
Base Station Subsystem:• The Base Station Subsystem is responsible for  managing the radio network, and it is controlled  ...
BSS consists of three element• BTS ( Base transceiver station)• BSC ( Base station controller )• TC ( Tran coder)
Base transceiver station: • Encoding, encrypting, multiplexing,   modulating, and feeding the RF   signals to the antenna....
Base station controller :• The BSC manages the radio resources for  one or more BTSs. It handles radio channel  setup, fre...
Transcoder:• In the air interface (between MS and BTS), the  media carrying the traffic is a radio frequency.• To enable a...
• For transmission over the air interface, the speech  signal is compressed by the mobile station to• 13 k bit/s (Full Rat...
Network switching subsystem (NSS)NSS typically consists of following elements• MSC (Mobile switching center)• HLR (Home lo...
HLR:• centralized network database• stores and manages all mobile  subscriptions belonging to a specific  operator.• a per...
VLR :• It is a temporary database .• Stores only information of subscriber  those are in that MSC.• Every MSC has its own ...
EIR :• Data base used to store mobile identity• Help us blocking calls from stolen MS
AUC:• AUC is a database connected to the HLR• Function is to authenticate the subscribers  attempting to use a network.
MSC & GMSC:• MSC performs the telephony switching functions  for the mobile network.• controls calls to and from other tel...
NMS:NMS consists of two element1. OMC ( Operation and maintenance center )2. NMC (Network management center )
OMC & NMC• OMC a computerized monitoring & maintenance  center which is connected MSCs and BSCs.• OMC is local.• In NMC ce...
GSM GEOGRAPHICAL NETWORKSTRUCTURELocal area (LA)• LA is as a group of cells.• Within the network, a subscriber’s location ...
MSC SERVICE AREA• An MSC service area is made up of a number of  LAs and• MSC use LA to route a call to MS
Hardware view of a sample network
Software view of a sample network
GMSK:• Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying.• Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying (GMSK) is a  form of continuous-phase FSK in which th...
continuous-phase :continuous-phase• In CPM the carrier phase is modulated in a  continuous manner in contrast to QPSK .
• CPM is typically implemented as a constant-  envelope waveform.• QPSK requires a relatively large percentage of  the pow...
MSK:• Minimum shifting keying .• It is similar to OQPSK• OQPSK gives us square wave which is difficult to  handle.• MSK gi...
GMSK:• Gaussian minimum shifting keying• MSK with Gaussian filter.•
Gaussian filter• Gaussian filters are designed to give no  overshoot to a step function input while  minimizing the rise a...
ExampleThe filter smoothes the binary pulses
signal is integrated over time to obtain a continuouswaveform which captures the bit transition information
• Send this wave to IQ modulator .• Integrate out put and send it
ADVANTAGES                     DISADVANTAGES• High spectral efficiency.    • Higher power level than• Reducing sideband   ...
Interleaving• Interleaving rearranges a group of bits in a parti  cular way.• Improve the performance of the error correct...
Interleaving
Gsm architecture with gmsk
Gsm architecture with gmsk
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Gsm architecture with gmsk

  1. 1. GSM Architecture By: •Hassan Amjad •Bilal Waheed •Mohsin Amin
  2. 2. Intro to GSM:• GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication)• It is a standard set developed by the ETSI.• It describe protocols for 2G digital cellular networks.• Full duplex.• GPRS & EDGE facilities.
  3. 3. GSM Variants :Variant Uplink Downlink Total Duplex- Channels (MHz) (MHz) Bandwidth frequencyGSM-400 451-458 and 461-468 and Twice 14 MHz 10 MHz Twice 72 479-486 489-496GSM-900 890-915 935-960 Twice 25 MHz 45 MHz Twice 124(primaryband)Extended 880-915 925-960 Twice 35 MHz 45 MHz Twice 174GSM-900GSM-R 876-880 921-925 Twice 4 MHz 45 MHz Twice 19DCS-1800 1,710-1,785 1,805-1,880 Twice 75 MHz 95 MHz Twice 373PCS-1900 1,850-1,910 1,930-1,990 Twice 60 MHz 80 MHz Twice 300
  4. 4. GSM ArchitectureWhat so ever the variants are the basic architecture of GSM network remains the same as elaborated below:• BSS (Base Station Subsystem)• NSS ( Network Switching Subsystem )• NMS ( Network Management Subsystem )
  5. 5. Architecture Diagram :
  6. 6. ME:• Mobile equipment• Handset + SIM +
  7. 7. Handset:• is a device that can make and receive telephone calls• over a radio link• Can moving around a wide geographic area.
  8. 8. SIM:Subscriber identification moduleIt contains• IMSI ( international mobile subscriber identity )• PIN (personal identification number )• PUK ( personal un blocking code )• ICCID ( integrated circuit card identification )
  9. 9. • IMSI ( used by operators to identify user)• IMSI = MCC+MNC+MSINi. MCC ( mobile country code)ii. MNC ( mobile network code)iii. MSIN ( mobile user identification number )• ICCID (SIM is internationally recognized by this number )• Usually printed on SIM
  10. 10. Base Station Subsystem:• The Base Station Subsystem is responsible for managing the radio network, and it is controlled by an MSC.• A BSS itself may cover a considerably large geographical area consisting of many cells (a cell refers to an area covered by one or more frequency resources).
  11. 11. BSS consists of three element• BTS ( Base transceiver station)• BSC ( Base station controller )• TC ( Tran coder)
  12. 12. Base transceiver station: • Encoding, encrypting, multiplexing, modulating, and feeding the RF signals to the antenna. • Time and frequency synchronizing • Decoding, decrypting, and equalizing received signals • Random access detection • Uplink channel measurements
  13. 13. Base station controller :• The BSC manages the radio resources for one or more BTSs. It handles radio channel setup, frequency hopping, and handovers.• The BSC is the connection between the mobile and the MSC.• Control of frequency hopping• Performing traffic concentration to reduce the number of lines from the MSC• Reallocation of frequencies among BTSs• Time and frequency synchronization• Power management
  14. 14. Transcoder:• In the air interface (between MS and BTS), the media carrying the traffic is a radio frequency.• To enable an efficient transmission of digital speech information over the air interface, the digital speech signal is compressed.• We must however also be able to communicate with and through the fixed network, where the speech compression format is different.• Somewhere between the BTS and the fixed network, we therefore have to convert from one speech compression format to another, and this is where the Transcoder comes in.
  15. 15. • For transmission over the air interface, the speech signal is compressed by the mobile station to• 13 k bit/s (Full Rate and Enhanced Full Rate),• 5.6 k bit/s (Half Rate),• 12.2 k bit/s (Enhanced Full Rate).• AMR (Adaptive Multirate Coding) which is more flexible since it produces speech with bitrates similar to older solutions but adapted to link conditions.• However, the standard bit rate for speech in the PSTN is 64 Kbits/s. The modulation technique is called "Pulse Code Modulation" (PCM). This requires the GSM network to perform bit rate adaptation of speech.
  16. 16. Network switching subsystem (NSS)NSS typically consists of following elements• MSC (Mobile switching center)• HLR (Home location register )• VLR ( visitor location register )• AUC (Authentication center )• EIR ( Equipment identity register)• GMSC ( Gate way mobile switching center )
  17. 17. HLR:• centralized network database• stores and manages all mobile subscriptions belonging to a specific operator.• a permanent store for subscriber until that subscription is canceled.It stores1. Subscriber identity2. Subscriber supplementary services3. Subscriber location information4. Subscriber authentication information
  18. 18. VLR :• It is a temporary database .• Stores only information of subscriber those are in that MSC.• Every MSC has its own VLR• When a subscriber roams into a new MSC service area, the VLR connected to that MSC requests information about the subscriber from the subscribers HLR.
  19. 19. EIR :• Data base used to store mobile identity• Help us blocking calls from stolen MS
  20. 20. AUC:• AUC is a database connected to the HLR• Function is to authenticate the subscribers attempting to use a network.
  21. 21. MSC & GMSC:• MSC performs the telephony switching functions for the mobile network.• controls calls to and from other telephony and data systems, such as the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN), Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN).• In GMSC Gateway functionality enables an MSC to interrogate a networks HLR in order to route a call to a Mobile Station (MS).• Any MSC can be GMSC
  22. 22. NMS:NMS consists of two element1. OMC ( Operation and maintenance center )2. NMC (Network management center )
  23. 23. OMC & NMC• OMC a computerized monitoring & maintenance center which is connected MSCs and BSCs.• OMC is local.• In NMC centralized control of a network is done.• One NMC per network to control many OMCs.• OMC and NMC functionality can be combined in the same physical network node.
  24. 24. GSM GEOGRAPHICAL NETWORKSTRUCTURELocal area (LA)• LA is as a group of cells.• Within the network, a subscriber’s location is known by the LA.• The identity of the LA in which an MS is currently located is stored in the VLR.
  25. 25. MSC SERVICE AREA• An MSC service area is made up of a number of LAs and• MSC use LA to route a call to MS
  26. 26. Hardware view of a sample network
  27. 27. Software view of a sample network
  28. 28. GMSK:• Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying.• Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying (GMSK) is a form of continuous-phase FSK in which the phase change is changed between symbols to provide a constant envelope. Consequently it is a popular alternative to QPSK.• The RF bandwidth is controlled by the Gaussian low-pass filter.
  29. 29. continuous-phase :continuous-phase• In CPM the carrier phase is modulated in a continuous manner in contrast to QPSK .
  30. 30. • CPM is typically implemented as a constant- envelope waveform.• QPSK requires a relatively large percentage of the power to occur outside of the intended band.• CPM is attractive because the phase continuity yields high spectral efficiency.• The primary drawback is the high implementation complexity required for an optimal receiver.
  31. 31. MSK:• Minimum shifting keying .• It is similar to OQPSK• OQPSK gives us square wave which is difficult to handle.• MSK gives us half cycle sinusoidal wave for a symbol
  32. 32. GMSK:• Gaussian minimum shifting keying• MSK with Gaussian filter.•
  33. 33. Gaussian filter• Gaussian filters are designed to give no overshoot to a step function input while minimizing the rise and fall time.• Gaussian filter has the minimum possible time delay
  34. 34. ExampleThe filter smoothes the binary pulses
  35. 35. signal is integrated over time to obtain a continuouswaveform which captures the bit transition information
  36. 36. • Send this wave to IQ modulator .• Integrate out put and send it
  37. 37. ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES• High spectral efficiency. • Higher power level than• Reducing sideband QPSK. power. • Requiring more complex• Excellent power channel equalization efficiency due to constant algorithms such as an envelope. adaptive equalizer at the• Good choice for voice receiver. modulation. • Inter symbol interference
  38. 38. Interleaving• Interleaving rearranges a group of bits in a parti cular way.• Improve the performance of the error correction mechanisms• The interleaving decreases the possibility of losing whole bursts during the transmission.
  39. 39. Interleaving
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