Strategic management<br /> Strategic management is defined as the set of decisions and actions resulting in the formulation and implementation of strategies designed to achieve the objectives of the organization (John A. Pearce II and Richard B. Robinson, Jr.).<br />
Functions of strategic management<br />Reviewing aims and objectives<br />Organizational performance<br />Recognizing change<br />Teams and groups<br />
Leadership<br /> leadership is the art of motivating a group of people to act towards achieving a common goal.<br />
FIGUREHEAD: the manager performs ceremonial and symbolic duties as head of the organisation;
LEADER: fosters a proper work atmosphere and motivates and develops subordinates;
LIASION: develops and maintains a network of external contacts to gather information;
MONITOR: gathers internal and external information relevant to the organisation;
DISSEMINATOR: transmits factual and value based information to subordinates;</li></li></ul><li>SPOKESPERSON: communicates to the outside world on performance and policies.<br />ENTREPRENEUR: designs and initiates change in the organisation;<br />DISTURBANCE HANDLER: deals with unexpected events and operational breakdowns;<br />RESOURCE ALLOCATOR: controls and authorises the use of organisational resources;<br />NEGOTIATOR: participates in negotiation activities with other organisations and individuals.<br />
Contact manager -- figurehead and liaison<br />Political manager -- spokesperson and negotiator<br />Entrepreneur -- entrepreneur and negotiator<br />Insider -- resource allocator<br />Real-time manager -- disturbance handler<br />Team manager -- leader<br />Expert manager -- monitor and spokesperson<br />New manager -- liaison and monitor<br />
Direct vs. indirect leadership<br />Direct leadership<br />Leaders direct influence on immediate subordinates<br />Leaders direct influence on lower level employees<br />Indirect leadership<br />Influence over formal programs , management systems and structural forms<br />Influence over organizational culture<br />
Leaders expect a employees to display a formal, business-like attitude in the workplace and between each other.
2.Managers gain instant authority with their position, because rules demand that employees pay them certain privileges, such as being able to sign off on all major decisions. As a result, leaders suffer from ‘position power’. Leadership development becomes pointless, because only titles and roles provide any real control or power.
3. Employees are rewarded for their ability to adhere to the rules and follow procedure perfectly.
4.Bureaucratic systems usually gradually develop over a long period of time, and hence are more commonly found in large & old businesses.</li></li></ul><li>Charismatic leadership<br />Charismatic leaders inspire others and encourage them to be their best. Employees and group members want to impress a charismatic leader, so they work hard and strive to succeed.<br />
Laissez leadership<br /> laissez-faire leadership is characterized by:<br />Very little guidance from leaders<br />Complete freedom for followers to make decisions<br />Leaders provide the tools and resources needed<br />Group members are expected to solve problems on their own<br />