H Human: This particular virus can only infecthuman beings .I immunodeficiency: HIV weakens your immunesystem by destroying important cells that fight diseaseand infection. A "deficient" immune system cantprotect you.V Virus: A virus can only reproduce itself by takingover a cell in the body of its host.
A Acquired: AIDS is not something you inherit from yourparents. You acquire AIDS after birth.I immuno: Your bodys immune system includes all theorgans and cells that work to fight off infection or disease.D deficiency: You get AIDS when your immune system is"deficient," or isnt working the way it should.S Syndrome: A syndrome is a collection of symptomsand signs of disease. AIDS is a syndrome, rather than a singledisease, because it is a complex illness with a wide range ofcomplications and symptoms.Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome is the final stage of HIV infection.People at this stage of HIV disease have badly damaged immune systems,which put them at risk for opportunistic infections (OIs).You will be diagnosed with AIDS if you have one or more specific OIs,certain cancers, or a very low number of CD4 cells. If you have AIDS, you willneed medical intervention and treatment to prevent death.
HIV/AIDSHIV can hide for long periods of time in the cells of your bodyand that it attacks a key part of your immune system – your T-cells or CD4 cells. Your body has to have these cells to fightinfections and disease, but HIV invades them, uses them to makemore copies of itself, and then destroys them.Over time, HIV can destroy so many of your CD4 cells that yourbody cant fight infections and diseases anymore. When thathappens, HIV infection can lead to AIDS.
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus(a member of the retrovirus family) that causesacquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), acondition in humans in which progressive failureof the immune system allows life-threateningopportunistic infections and cancers to thrive.The most common way to spread HIV isthrough sexual contact.
HIV was discovered in the early 1980’s. A group of gaymen suddenly started to develop rare infections andcancer that didn’t seem to be curing with any type ofmedication.Scientist believe that HIV is the descendant of theSimian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV). SIV is a lent virusthat is found in animals like monkeys. ? How is it possible for a disease from monkeys get diagnosed to a human being
This graph shows how much peopleOver 38,000,000 people around the world are diagnosed with would be affected withHIV. HIV in 2010. This graph shows the percentageTop 5 countries: of the causes of1. South Africa – 5,700,000 HIV.2. Nigeria – 2,600,0003. India – 2,400,0004. Kenya – 1,900,0005. Zimbabwe – 1,800,00
HIV TransmissionHIV enters the blood stream through:•Open Cuts•Breaks in the Skin•Mucus Membranes•Direct Injection
HIV TransmissionCommon fluids that are a means oftransmission:•Blood•Semen•Vaginal Secretions•Breast Milk
Particles in 1ml 18,000 11,000 7,000 4,000 1 Blood Semen Vaginal Amniotic Saliva Fluid FluidAverage number of HIV particles in1ml of these body fluids
Sexual Contact •Male-to-Male •Male-to-Female or vice versa •Female-to-femaleBlood Exposure •Injecting drugs use needle/sharing •Occupational Exposure •Transfusion of Blood ProductsPerinatal: •Transmission from mom to baby •Breast Feeding
Entry to the cellHIV enters macrophages and CD4+ T cells by theadsorption of glycoproteinson its surface toreceptors on the target cell followed by fusion ofthe viral envelope with the cell membrane andthe release of the HIV capsid into the cell.
Replication and transcriptionShortly after the viral capsid entersthe cell, an enzyme called reversetranscriptase liberates the single-stranded (+)RNA genome from theattached viral proteins and copiesit into a complementary DNA(cDNA) molecule. The process ofreverse transcription is extremelyerror-prone, and the resultingmutations may cause drugresistance or allow the virus toevade the bodys immune system.
This is the period of time after becoming infected when anHIV test is negative infected when an HIV test is negative90 percent of cases test positive within three months ofexposure three months of exposure10 percent o fcases test positive within three to six monthsof exposure three to six months of exposure
Importance of Early Testing and Diagnosis•Allows for early treatment to maintainand stabilize the immune systemresponse stabilize the immune systemresponse•Decreases risk of HIV transmission frommother to newborn baby mother to newborn baby•Allows for risk reduction education toreduce or eliminate high-risk behavior
HIV requires a couple of different molecules(receptors) on thesurface of cells to gain entrance and infect the cells. It hasrecently been found that some people have mutations in one ofthese receptors. This alters the molecule in such a way that HIVcannot get in or has great difficulty in getting in. This finding hascreated a new body of research that is finding compoundswhich mimic the blocking of HIV entrance into the cell. There arealso other individuals who are heavily exposed, but do not havethis receptor mutation.They may have other genetic determinants (such as humanleukocyte antigen,HLA differences)among others which preventHIV infection. Lastly, some exposed, but uninfected people areable to demonstrate immune reactions to HIV in the test tube. Allof these observations are the subject of intense research.
•Once a person is infected they are alwaysinfected•Medications are available to prolong life but theydo not cure the disease•Those who are infected are capable of infectingothers without having symptoms or knowing of theinfections (as incubation period may be up to 10years or more)
Human Immunodeficiency Virus is a lot like otherviruses, including those that cause the "flu" or thecommon cold. But there is an important difference –over time, your immune system can clear mostviruses out of your body. That isnt the case with HIV –the human immune system cant seem to get rid ofit. Scientists are still trying to figure out why.
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