2. PROJECT MANAGEMENT
Unit – 1
Concepts of Project Management: Project – Meaning – Nature – Types of
project and project life cycle – Project management – Nature and scope of project
management – Project management as a profession – Role of project manager.
Unit – 2
Project Identification and Formation: Project environment – Identification
of investment opportunities – Project screening – preferability study – Project
selection – Project formulation – Stages in project formulation – Project report
preparation – Planning Commission’s guidelines for project formulation.
Unit – 3
Project Appraisal: Objectives, essentials of a project methodology – Market
appraisal – Technical appraisal – Financial appraisal – Socio-economic appraisal
– Managerial appraisal
Unit – 4
Project Planning and Scheduling: Objectives – Process or planning
components or good planning – Project designing and project scheduling and time
estimation – Scheduling to match availability of man power and release of funds –
Cost and time trade cost.
Unit – 5
Project Execution and Administration – Project contracting: Contract pricing,
Types – Project organization: Forms of organization – Project direction – Project
communication – Project coordination – Factors influencing effective project
management – Project time monitoring and cost monitoring – Project over runs.
Unit – 6
Project Control: Control techniques – PERT, CPM – Proper review –
Prasanna Chandra, Projects
Implementation and Review.
Gopalakrishnan P & Ramamoorthy V.E, Textbook of Project
Kerner Harold, Project Management.
Dennis Hock, Project Management Handbook.
Choudhry S, Project Management
Goel B.B, Project Management: A Development Perspective
4. LESSON 1
CONCEPTS OF PROJECT MANAGEMENT
To explain the nature and scope of Project management.
To give an over view about system approach and Project management.
To give an outline about the factors influencing effective Project
Projects are the building blocks to meet the enterprise objectives. Project
management is essentially involved in executing the projects. It is recognized as a
management philosophy in the recent past in addition to that of discipline. Project
management has always been central to the existence of industries like
construction, aerospace and defense, where schedule and cost goals are contract
The new design of maruti zen, concord supersonic jet aircraft, ship
vasundhara, Godrej puff refrigerator, compaque computer, L&T crane steel
rolling mill of the Tatas, New oil base for the ESSAR refinery, new production
line of J.K cement, highway roads of the country’s capital city, new fly over in
metropolitan cites etc have one thing common; indeed they are all purposefully
unique and they are project. The basis logic behind on the these projects are; a.
Investment of resources for a specific objective and b. a cause of irreversible
What is a project?
Project is a scientifically evolved work plan devised to achieve a specific
objective within a specific period of time. It can be considered as proposal
involving capital investment for the purpose of developing facilities to provide
goods a and services.
A project is a blue for print action oriented activities of an organization. A project
reflected the plan for action in its totality. Like a movie film it is projection
oriented process. The project has beginning middle and an end.
For example, cement project, manufacturing
Power project, refinery projects
Health project, Educational projects
Social project, construction projects etc.
5. DEEINITION OF PROJECT
A Project is a one-shot, time limited, goal directed, major undertaking,
requiring the commitment of varied skills and resources. It has also been
described a s a combination of human and non human resources pooled together
in a temporary organization to achieve a specific purpose. The purpose and the set
of activities which can achieve that purpose distinguish one project form another.
-Project Management Institute, U.S,A
‘’We mean by a project any scheme, or part of sachem, for investing
resources which can reasonably be analyzed and evaluated as an independent unit.
The definition is thus arbitrary. Almost any project could be broken down into
parts for separate consideration; each of these parts would then by definition a
- I.M.D. Little and J.A. Mirrless.
“A specific activity with a specific starting point and a specific ending
point intended to accomplish a specific objective. It is something you draw a
boundary around at least a conceptual boundary and say this is the Project”.
-J. Price Gettinger.
“Compilation of data which will enable an appraisal to be made of the
economic advantages and disadvantages attendant upon the allocation of
country’s resources to the production of specific goods and services.”
FEATURES OF A PROJECT
A project can be identified by its features. The special features of a project
that would differentiate from any other on going activity are given below:
A project fixed set of objectives. Once the objectives have been achieved,
the project ceases to exist.
It has a specific life span.
Project has for a teamwork,
Project has a life cycle reflected by growth, maturity and decline similar.
Change is an inherent feature in any project out its life.
Project is based on successive principle and hence it is difficult to learn
fully the end results at any stage.
6. A project works for a specific set of goals with the complex set of
High level of sub-contraction of work can be done in a project.
Every project has risk and uncertainty associated with it.
Project needs feasibility any appraisal studies. So that the sponsors sweet
dream becomes realizable.
Types of projects
Much of what the project will comprise and consequently its management
will depend on the category it belongs to. The location, type, technology, size,
scope and speed are normally the factors which determine the effort needed in
executing a project. Though the characteristics of all projects are the same, they
cannot be treated alike. Recognition of this distinction is important for
management. Classification of project helps in graphically expressing and
highlighting the essential features of the project.
Projects are often categorized in terms of their speed of implementation as
♦ Adequate time is allowed for implementation.
♦ All the phases in a project are allowed to take their normal time.
♦ Minimum requirement of capital.
♦ No sacrifice in terms of quality.
Requires additional costs to gain time.
Maximum overlapping of phases is encouraged.
Anything needed to gain time is allowed in these projects. Around the
clock work is done at the construction site. Capital cost will go will go up very
high. Project time will get drastically reduced.
Besides that, projects in general are classified on several basis as give in the
following illustrative list.
United Nations Asian and Pacific Development Institute.
Categories of Projects
CLASSIFICATION OF PROJECT
The project can be classified on several basis. Major classification of the
projects are given below:
On the basis of Expansion:
1. Project expanding the capacity
2. Project expanding the supply of knowledge.
On the basis of Magnitude of the resources to be invested:
Giant projects affecting total economy
Big projects affecting at one sector of the economy
Medium size projects
Small size projects (depending on size, investment & impact)
On the basis of Sector:
On the basis of objective:
1. Social objective project
2. Economic objective project
On the basis of productivity:
1. Directivity productive project
2. Interactively productive project
On the basis of nature of benefits:
1. Quantifiable project
2. Non-quantifiable project
On the basis of government priorities:
1. Project without specific priorities
2. Project with specific priorities
On the basis of dependency
1. Independent project
2. Dependent project
On the basis of ownership
1. Public sector project
2. Private sector project
3. Joint sector project
On the basis of location
1. Project with determined location
2. Project with future impact
On the basis of social time value of the project
1. Project with present impact
2. Project with future impact
On the basis of National policy
1. Project determined by inward looking policy
2. Project determined by outward looking policy
On the basis of risk involved in the project
High risks project
Normal risks project
Low risks project
14. On the basis of economic life of the project
Long term project
Medium term project
Short tern project
15. On the basis of technology involved in the project
High sophisticated technology project
Advance technology project
Foreign technology project
Indigenous technology project
16. On the basis of resources required by the projects
Project with domestic resources
Project with foreign resources
17. On the basis of employment opportunities available in the project
Capital intensive project
Labour intensive project
18. On the basis of management of project
High degree of decision making attitude
Normal degree of decision making attitude
Low degree of decision making attitude
10. 19. On the basis of sources of finance
Project with domestic financing
Project with foreign financing
Project with mixed financing
Project with financial institutions
20. On the basis of legal entity
1. Project with their own legal entity
2. Project without their own legal entity
21. On the basis of role played by the project
1. Pilot project
2. Demonstration project
22. On the basis of speed required for execution of the project
1. Normal project
2. Crash project
3. Disaster project
PROJECT LIFE CYCLE
Every programme, project or product has certain phases of development.
The different phases of development in an investment proposal or project is called
life cycle. A clear understanding of these phases permits entrepreneurs, managers
and executives to have better control over existing and potential resources in the
achievement of the desire goals.
PHASES OF PROJECT LIFE CYCLE
Project life cycle is complex process consisting of different steps
arranged in a sequential order. Different authors have described these steps I
different sequential manner but the concept of the cycle is almost similar in each
According to United Nations Guidelines for Rural Centre Planning, there
are 7 steps in the project life cycle such as project identification and appraisal,
pre-feasibility study, feasibility study detailed design project implementation,
operation maintenance, monitoring and evaluation.
Rondinelli, Dennis & Apsy Palia in their book “Project Planning and
implementation in Developing countries” identified the following 12 steps in the
project life cycle. Project identification and definition, project formation,
11. preparation and feasibility analysis, project design, project analysis, project
selection, project activation and organization, project implementation and
operation, project supervision (monitoring and control) project completion or
termination, output diffusion and transition to normal administration, project
evaluation follow-up and action.
World Bank Guidelines reveals the following six major steps in the project
life cycle. Conception (identification), Formation (preparation), Analysis
(appraisal), Implementation (supervision), operation and evaluation.
All the steps given in different studies can be grouped into three main phases viz.,
Implementation phase and
A brief description of each of these phases in given below:
The first phase of the cycle describes the preliminary evaluation of an
idea. It consists of identification of investment opportunities, preliminary project
analysis, feasibility study and decision-making. Project idea emanates from the
following problems; potential and the needs of the people of an area; plan
priorities when planning is done by the government demand and supply projection
of various goods and services; Pattern of imports and exports over a period of
time; natural resources which can serve as the base for potential manufacturing
activity; scope of extending existing lines of activity; consumption pattern in
other countries at comparable stages of economic stages of economic
On the basis of the investment opportunities, it is possible to conceive a
number of projects out of which a particular project may be consistent with
development objectives of the area. During this phase, the following aspects of a
project must be carefully designed so as to enable implementation.
Project infrastructure and enabling services
System design and basic engineering packages
Organization and manpower
Schedule and budgets
Licensing and government clearances
Systems and procedure
Identification of project manager
Design basis, general condition for purchase and contracts
Constriction resources and materials
This phase is involved with preparation for the project to take out smoothly.
Once a project opportunity is conceived, it needs to be examined.
Preliminary project analysis concerns with marketing, technical, financial and
economic aspects of the project. It seeks to determine whether the project is prima
facie worthwhile to justify a feasibility study and what aspects of the projects are
critical to its viability and hence call for an in depth investigation.
More details, through and complete feasibility study results in a
reasonably adequate formulation of the projects in terms of location, production
capacity production technology and material inputs. The feasibility study contains
fairly specific estimates of projects cost, means of financing sales revenues,
production costs, financial profitability and social profitability.
Based on the thorough feasibility study the project owner or sponsors or
financiers can decide whether to accept or reject particular project. In other
words, the decision whether investment on the project should be made or not has
to made at this stage.
The implementation phase of an industrial project involves setting up of
manufacturing facilities. After judging the worthiness, project needs to be
designed for implementation. Drawing, blue prints and the sequences in which the
various activities concerning the project need to be carried out. The main
activities under this phase are:
Project and engineering design: It consists of site probing and prospecting,
preparation of blue prints, plant design, plant engineering, selection of machinery,
Negotiations and contractions: It covers the activities like project
financing, acquisition of technology, construction of building and civil works,
provision of utilities supply of machine and equipment, marketing arrangement
Construction: This step involves the activities like site preparation,
construction of building, erection and installation of machinery and equipment.
Training engineers, technicians and workers.
13. OPERATION PHASE
It is the longest phase in terms of time span. It begins when the project is
commissioned and ends when the project is wound up. This is a transition phase
in which the hardware built with the active involvement of various agencies is
physically handed over for production. This phase is basically a clean up phase
for project personnel. The main concern of this phase is on smooth and
uninterrupted operation of machinery and plant, development of suitable norms of
productivity, establishment of a good quality fo rhte product and securing the
market acceptance of the product. It aims to realize the projection made in the
project regarding sales, production, cost and profits. Project monitoring and
project evaluation are two vital activities under this phase.
Project monitoring is a step towards achieving properly identified
objectives through a carefully laid down strategy. Each activity in the project
implementation should be carefully watched so that, the progress may be
measured and any deviation from the expected progress be identified in time.
Project evaluation refers to post-investment analysis. It aims at finding out
whether the project has achieved the objectives for which it was taken up and
whether it has created the anticipated or intended impact. This helps in developing
an insight for future investment and better planning.
Thus the life cycle of a project narrates the methodology of developing,
maintaining nd controlling an investment proposal at its various phases in the life
cycle. The various steps in the project life cycle are given in the following
14. Diagram 1
PROJECT LIFE CYCLE
1. Information input 2. Investigation of
4. Preliminary evaluation
3. Final reports
2. Establish goals
Development & Construction
1. Install and field
2. Quality control
3. Advertising begins
4. De-bug and
3. Model building
4. Design review
1. Prototype development
2. First units to test
3. Begin campaign
4. Progress report
PROJECT LIFE CYCLE CURVES
The project life cycle phases from an interesting pattern indicative of
growth, maturity and decline almost similar to product life cycle. The following
figure shows the typical project life cycle curve.
15. Diagram 2
It can be seen from that curve that effort built up in a project is very slow
but effort withdrawals is very sharp. It can also be seen that time taken in the
formative and clean up stages together is more than the implementation stage.
This parabolic patterns of growth, maturity and decline itself in all phases of the
project life. This curve enable a project manager to ascertain the state of health of
any project at any point of time.
Project management is an existing new profession which receives much
attention in these days. It is concerned with the management of resources
successfully to complete the project, the resources being time, money, materials
and equipment and the most expensive resources of all- namely the human
Project management is concerned with achieving a specific goal in a given
time using resources available for that period only.
Project management can mean different thing to different people. Project
management as regard ongoing project within a company refers the art of creating
that illusion that any outcome is the result of a series of predetermined, deliberate
acts when, in fact, it was dumb luck It is designed to make better use of existing
resources by getting work to flow horizontally as will as, vertically within a
An overview definition of project management is the planning, organizing,
directing and controlling company resources for a relatively short term objective
that has been established to complete specific goals and objective. Further more,
project management utilizes the system approach to management by having
function personnel assigned to a specific project
Project Management has been evolved as a distinct discipline ever since
the Second World War. Though it is special discipline it got elevated only in the
recent times, it has been in practice ever since the times of construction activities
in this world. Constructions such as British Aisles, the Taj Mahal, Eiffel Tower,
London Bridge etc., stand testimony to the fact that the doctrine of Project
Management are not new.
Project management resembles functional management in all aspects for
all practical purposes with a little difference. It is concerned with the management
16. of resources successfully to complete the project, the resources being time,
money, materials and equipment and the most expensive resource of all – namely
the human resource. To understand the project management one must first
understand the basic concepts and different approaches to the study of
management. An overview of different management approaches with specific
emphasis on System approach to management approaches with specific emphasis
on System approach to management and its relevance to project management,
brief mention about the steps in project management, benefits and limitation of
project management, and also an outline about effective project management are
discussed in this lesson.
Thus, the project management is designed to manage or control company
resources on a given activity, within time, within cost and within performance.
This has been depicted in the following diagram.
OVERVIEW OF PROJECT MANAGEMENT
GOOD CUSTOMER RELATIONS
Project management involves project planning and project monitoring and
includes such item as
Definition of work requirements
Definition of quantity of work
Definition of resources needed
Tracking progress, comparing actual to predicated
Analysis impact and making adjustments.
Thus, the successful project management can be defined as the process of
achieving the project objectives within the cost (budget), at the desired
performance and within the allocated time.
Development of a Project system
The three major groups of management theorists – the structuralists, the
functionalists and the behavioruists – differ some what on how the project
17. manager deals with problems shifting job environments but they are unanimous
on the utility of the task force as a useful device in group problem solving
The structuralists argue that the project manager, as a unifying agent,
integrates the parochial interests of autonomous organizational elements towards
a common objective through the formation of some standard organization instead
of functional or product departmentalization.
The funtionalists argue that project management is in reality simply the
application of the systems concept to organizational problems. They visualize
integration into a separate organizational system of activities related to particular
projects or programmes, Management science techniques, computer simulation
approaches and information decision systems are just a few of the tools that will
make it possible for management to visualize the firm as a total system.
The behaviouralists see the task force as organized around problems (not
products, programmes, projects or tasks) arranged in an organic rather than a
mechanical model in which the executive becomes the link pin or coordinator but
human speaking the diverse languages or research and who has skills to realay
information and mediate between groups. People will be differentiated not
vertically according to rank and status but flexibly and functionally according to
skill and professional training and replacing bureaucracy as we know it.
Components of a Project Management System
The vital components of a project from the systems perspective are:
Objective: The fundamental rationale of a system that must be
Requirement: A sine qua non or a fundamental and irreducible constident
of a whole system that may even satisfy the objective to some extent.
Alternative: A surrogate, a secondary course of action, if one fails out the
other will substitute and fulfill the needs of a system
Selection criteria: The matter of ‘carrying out’ is focused on assessing the
choice and selecting the best course of action.
Constrain: A demarcation point which describes the frontiers of a system
within which the alternatives must move and devote their resources.
It can be inferred that the basic theories and philosophies, governing the
age-old corps and projects had a stormy attack by the systems approach to
management. Owing to the fact that project management is a subset of total
management cult, it would be comforting oneself to describe the principles of
general systems theory. The general systems approach can be squared with a
18. management approach which attempts to integrate and unify scientific
information across many fields of knowledge. Systems theory attempts to strike at
problems with a holistic view rather than through and analysis of the individual
STEPS IN PROJECT MANAGEMENT
Project Management basically consist of the following steps.
Grouping work into packages which acquires the properties of a project.
This means that the works so grounded are related on each other, contribute to the
same goals and can be bound by definite time, cost and performance targets.
Entrusting the whole project to a single responsibility centre known as the
project manager, for coordinating directing and controlling the project.
Supporting and servicing the project internally within the organization by
matrixing or through total projectisation, and
Building up commitment through negotiations, coordinating and direceing
towards goals through schedules, budgets and contracts.
Ensuring adherence through negotiations, coordinating and directing
towards goals through schedules, budgets and contracts.
Defining what is to be done, maintaining its integrity and ensuring that it
is done and performed as desired, within time and cost budgets fixed for it
through a modular work approach, using organizational and extra-organizational
resources is what is project management.
PROJECT MANAGEMENT ENVIRONMENT
Project management performance will largely depend on the real-world
environment. The project management environment in India, is very different
from any other country. There are many problems which are peculiar to our
country and these are experienced by all those who are concerned in the execution
of both small and big projects. One has to aware of these problems in order to be
able to cope with the same for successful implementation of a project.
The most important problem is lack of mutual trust and respect amongst
the participating agencies: owner, financial institutions, consultants, vendors and
contractors. The owner believes that the agencies/contractors would take his for a
ride and, therefore, he should, as far as possible, do things himself. When
consultants are not appointed, projects are likely to have congenial weakness
such as wrong selection of technology, wrong site, high risk element, etc.
Sometimes the owner may appoint a consultant for a nominal fee and ask him to
19. prepare a report which he can sell to the bank. These reports often do not reflect
reality as they are made without any in-depths study, and if cleared, would give
birth to defective projects. This, doubt, reflects on a consultant’s lack of
professional ethics and can be avoided if the financial institutions use a proper
accreditation, system for consultants.
However, accreditation of consultants may not set everything right. A site
may often be selected purely on personal rather than on techno-economic
considerations. The same may happen with the selection of technology or even
with the selection of the consultant.
It is often suggested that besides technical and financial appraisal of a
project the financial institutions should appraise the entrepreneur himself. It is
also suggested that the financial institutions should introduce an on-going audit
system to prevent diversion of funds and other forms of financial irregularities. In
other words, the financial institutions may not trust the owner/promoter since an
owner may disown a project and the financial institutions have more stake in the
project than the owner himself.
Sometimes a promoter may intentionally underestimate the project cost
with the intention of reducing his contribution. This would inevitably lead to cost
overrun which normally the financial institutions are expected to finance. Of
course, the financial institutions can insist on proportional overrun finance by the
owner, but since the promoter’s stake is low, the institutions take their own time
to decide to finance the overrun, meanwhile the project cost undergoes further
overrun. A project, thus faces a fund crisis leading to extension of project
completion time. With the extension of the project schedule further fund problems
occur. Financing cost and inflation overtake the revised cost estimate. Since
contingency provisions are too inadequate to meet the inflationary conditions of
the economy, institutions have to provide further funds. But this again is not
Most vendors and contractors, do not trust the owner regarding payment.
At the very first sign of delay in payment, they start slackening. They cannot also
be expected to be too enthusiastic about a project where fund problems are
foreseen. A vendor, in such circumstance, may not start the work at all. This not
only delays the project but sours the relationship between the owner and the
Over the years, a number of projects have been affected by enormous
increase in prices of cement, steel and transport and energy costs. These are noncontrollable costs as far as the owner is concerned and, therefore, the owner looks
towards the financial institutions for relief. But the overruns even in such cases do
not get automatically sanctioned as the financial institutions do not trust the
promoter and would first like to be satisfied about the reasons for overrun.
20. Financial institutions often hesitate to disburse their term loans unless the
promoters bring their entire contribution. Sometimes they withdraw their
commitments due to temporary resource constraint, or when the find a project
facing serious technical problems. Thus, due to financial insecurity some projects
cannot progress as desired and end up with huge time and cost overruns.
The problems discussed above can broadly be grouped into four classes of
environmental problems: social, economic, technical and managerial. As
discussed before, if these problems are not tackled, time and cost overruns cannot
be stopped. Yet management of environment is beyond the scope of project
management. There is no point, therefore, in discussing these problems in any
further detail as they are beyond the scope of this book.
While one cannot change the environment for the duration of a project,
one can definitely project oneself from its adverse influences adverse influences.
This can be done by creating a strong shield which will not only resist the adverse
effect of the environment but also influence the environment marginally, at least,
along the boundary. This is referred to as boundary management.
A project can shield itself effectively against the environment only if it engages
good agencies, used good system and has adequate funds to meet the
requirements of the project. Good system and good agencies will require good
funds. However, the funds must be used properly otherwise a project cannot be
completed at least cost which is the ultimate criteria for measuring the efficiency
of project management. Unfortunately, at the moment, we are unable to provide
such a shield to all our projects that must be the only reason for our poor
performance in the execution of the project.
Projects in India have to be executed in a highly unfavorable environment
but project management must cope with the situation. It has been suggested that
project must be insulated adverse environmental influences by mobilizing good
agencies, good system and all adequate funds.
Benefits of project management
Project management helps to avail the following benefits:
Identification of functional responsibilities to ensure that all activities are
accounted for regardless of personnel turnover.
Minimizing the need for continuous reporting.
Identification of time limits for scheduling.
Identification of a methodology for trade-off analysis.
Measurement of accomplishment against plans.
Early identification of problems so that corrective action may follow.
Improved estimating capability for future planning.
Knowing when objectives cannot be met or will be exceeded.
Obstacles in project management
To enjoy the various benefits of project management given above, the
following obstacles be overcome carefully.
♦ Project complexities
♦ Execution of customer’s special requirements
♦ Organisation restructuring is a typical task
♦ Project risks
♦ Changes in technology
♦ Forward planning and pricing.
Project Management – A Profession
Project management has been evolved as a distinct ever since the Second
World War. It has got elevation the recent times.
Novelty is the hallmark of every project, hence it should exhibit
fascination and dynamism. This requires professional approach in conceiving,
implementing and controlling projects. Though the functional management and
project management are related, the degree of professional approach is highly
essential for the efficient management of project. The project management is
mainly driven by intellectual operation and skilled and mechanical operations.
Project management is covered by the matrix form of organization structure
where a roles are defined according to a combination rather than functional
Only managers with sufficient spirit and dynamism can withstand the over
whelmin dizziness in these incessant operations.
Hence, the project management requires sound expertise and exposure,
which may not be possessed by the project promoter. So they have to resort the
assistance from projects consultants and project managers. A brief description
about the role of project manager and need functions of project consultants are
Project Manager and his role
This is to signify a person who has the overall control of the project and
shoulders responsibilities for its execution and performance. Therefore, he is
thoroughly involved in planning the work and monitoring, directing and leading
the participants and seeks to reach the project goal in time-cost-quality
22. conundrum. The project manager is either a specialist or having predominantly
technical background with sufficient experience, exposure, expertise on
multifaceted, multidimensional and multi disciplinary project. It is well evident
from the monumental constructions and project that have been around us since
heydays, that the role of a project manager is quite distinct and demands an all
A project manager is always found shard in the enternal circle of doing,
learnig and changing. Only managers with sufficient spirit and dynamism can
with stand the overwhelming dizziness in these incessant operations. An ideal
candidate for project managership should have some prominent personal
characteristics as out lined by R Archibald.
Flexible and adaptable
Preference for significant initiative and leadership
Aggressiveness, confidence, persuasiveness, verbal fluency;
Ambition, activity, forcefulness;
Effectiveness as communicator and integrator;
Broad scope of personal interests;
Poised with enthusiasm, in agitation, spontaneity;
Able or willing to devote most of his time to planning and controlling,
Able to identify problems;
Willing to make decisions that are acceptable;
Able to maintain a proper balance in the use of time,
This ideal project manager would probably have doctorates in engineering
business and psychology, sustained with a handful years of experience on similar
natured project officer occupying different positions, and should have physical
fitness to undertake such Machiavellian tasks with feeling of positive stress. Good
project managers in industry today would probably be lucky to have 60% to 80%
these traits. good project managers are willing to identify their shortcoming and
know heavy traffic, they have to balance between the wheels that are mutually
exclusive and yet engineering to run coherently, they ensure that goal is reached
by properly accelerating the vehicle the vehicle to manager the traffic avoiding.
For any developing country, project management hols the key for
development. Without efficient project management neither cost control nor time
23. control is possible. The basis ingredient of successful project management is a
happy integration of three factor, appropriate estimate, competent contractor and
effective project management. The other important ingredient of successful
project management is an effective management team.
Consultant provide guidance as well as direction to the projects. From the
formulation stage to the completion and post project evaluation stage, consultants
services are essential ant are also available. Infect, the consultant is the part of the
project management team, though as a paid member on contractual terms and
When a project is taken up for execution, the first task would be to assess
the requirements of the service of an outside consultant or the in-house expertise
available would be sufficient for the project.
Need of consultants
Need of consultant arises:
i) When a project of new technology is undertaken.
ii) When the in-house consultant is incapable of meeting the requirements
of the project.
iii) When there is no in-house facility available in the organization.
iv) When the project is executed on the basis of imported technology and
v) To avail the advantages of expertise available with the outside
Consultants may be of:
As regards ‘in-house consultant’, it may be stated that in many
organizations a separate department is maintained in the total orgainisation
structure. This department looks after the work of detailed engineering , drawings
and preparation of technical specifications, etc. An office order shall be issued
assigning the jobs along with scope of work, time schedule and job
responsibilities to carried out.
24. When the jobs cannot be done my the in-house consultants, the
appointment of outside consultants would become unavoidable. While assigning
jobs to the outside consultants the following steps should carried out effectivel:
Approval from the competent authority.
Decide about Indigenous or foreign consultants.
Preparation of list of consultants.
Scope of services of consultants
Preparation of tender documents
Inviting offers from leading consultants
Evaluation of offers
Award if contract to the consultant
While selecting outside consultants the various factors to be considered
are : job requirements, facilities available in their organizations, experience,
performance, their organization structure, fees, the terms and conditions, pre and
post commissioning services etc.
Job of consultants
The functions of a project management consultant have been identified as
1) Assisting the agency in appropriate site investigation and sourcing of materials.
2) Assisting the agency in selecting the appropriate contractor; 3) Checking the
quality of work, supervision control, testing monitoring and progress reporting,
checking measurements and of bills.
The project management consultant has to give periodic reports to the
client on the progress, trend and completion date, likely slippage in time,
adequacy of resources with the contractor and quality awareness of the contractor,
and recommend measures for better control and management, including additional
input to correct slippages in future. If it is necessary, they can also recommend
termination of a contractor, after examining the legal implications. In India,
engaging project management consultants for selection of contractors and
supervision of work is somewhat new. The project management consultant
concept makes available for project management the latest developments in
technical, engineering, management and information fields.
Main jobs of the consultants are:
Preparation of feasibility report
Preparation of detailed project report
Detailed engineering and consultancy services
Project monitoring and control
Supervision of erection and commissioning of
Provide pre and post commissioning services.
With the passage of time, there has been progress in Indianisation in the spheres f
technology, know how etc. Many firms in public sector as well s in private sector
have come up in have consultancy services. A few well known consultancy firms
TATA Consultancy Services Ltd.
Birla Technical Services
Dastur & Co. Ltd.
Engineer India Ltd.
Metallurgical & Engineering Consultants (India) Ltd.
Kirloskar Consultancy Ltd.
Power Consultancy Services India Pvt. Ltd.
Small Industries Services Institute.
Technical Consultancy Organisation
Science and Technology Entrepreneurship Park etc.
Thus, this chapter has explained the various aspects of projects and project
management. This conceptual knowledge will certainly helps you to know about
the features of project and project managements, which is an emerging unique
discipline. And this chapter has also explained the various stages of project life
cycle, which helps the project manager to ascertain the strength and weakness of
any project at any point of time.
SELF ASSESSMENT QUESTIONS
Explain the significance of project approach for the economic
development of the country.
Give an outline about the project opportunities available in different
sectors of the economy.
Describe the various resource potentials of out country.
Explain the latest trend in the infra-structural project in India.
Give a brief note about the various on-going social-welfare sector
Explain the role of project manager in successfully administering a
Describe the need and functions of project consultants.
27. LESSON – 2
To know the importance of conceiving a good of project idea
To ascertain the different sources from which a project idea can be generated
To identify the steps involved in project identification and selection
SCOUTING AND SCREENING OF PROJECT IDEAS
An entrepreneur has an infinitely wide choice with respect to his project in
different dimensions such as product/service, market, technology, equipment,
scale of production, time phasing and location. Hence, the identification of
investment opportunities (projects) calls for understanding he environment in
which one operates, sensitivity to emerging investments possibilities, imaginative
analysis of a variety of factors and also chance luck. This chapter is concerned
with scouting and screening of project ideas, steps in the project identification
process and also consideration involved in identifying the new projects by an
It is the first and foremost task of an entrepreneur to find out suitable
business which is feasible and promising and which merit further examination and
appraisal. Therefore, he has to first search for a sound of workable business idea
and give a practical shape to his idea. While doing so, the entrepreneur has to
tackle the various problems from time to time to achiever the ultimate success.
Since the good project ideas are elusive, a variety of sources should be trapped to
stimulate the generation of project ideas.
SOURCES OF PROJECT IDEAS
Project ideas could originate fro the various sources viz.,
Success story of a friend/relatives
Experience of others in manufacture/scale of product
Examining the inputs and outputs of industries
Plan outlays and government guidelines
Suggestions of financial institutions and developmental agencies
Investigation of local materials and resources
Economic and social trend of the economy
New technological developments
Project profiles and industrial potential surveys
Visits to trade fairs
Unfulfilled psychological needs
Possibility of reviving sick units
The various sources from which the project idea can be generated are explained
Analysis the performance of existing industries
A study of existing industries in terms of their profitability and capacity
utilization is helpful. The analysis of profitability and break even level of various
industries indicates promising investment opportunities. Opportunities which are
profitable and relatively risk free. An examination of capacity utilization of
various industries provides information about the potential for further investment.
Such a study becomes more useful if it is regionwise, particularly for products
which have high transportation costs.
Examine the inputs and outputs of industries
An analysis of the inputs required for various industries may throw up
project ideas. Opportunities exist when (I) materials purchased parts, or supplies
are presently being procured from different sources with attendant time lag and
transportation costs and (ii) several firms produce internally some
components/parts which can be supplied at a lower cost by a single manufactures
who can enjoy economies of scale.
A study of the output structure of existing industries may reveal
opportunities for further processing of output or even processing of waste
Examine imports and exports
An analysis of import statistics for a period of fie to seven years is helpful
in understanding the trend of imports of various goods and the potential for
import substitution. Indigenous manufacture of goods currently imported is
advantages for several reasons:
29. It improves the balances of payments situations
It provides market for supporting industries and services
It generates employment
Likewise, an examination of export statistics is useful in learning about the
exports possibilities of various products.
Plan outlays and government guidelines
The governments plays a very important role in out economy. Its proposed
outlay in different sector provides useful pointers toward investment
opportunities. They indicate the potential demand for goods and service required
by different sectors.
Suggestions of financial institutions and developmental agencies:
In a bid to promote development of industries in their respective states,
state financial corporations state industrial development corporations and other
developmental bodies conduct studies, prepare feasibility reports and offer
suggestions to potential entrepreneur. The suggestions of these bodies are helpful
in identifying promising projects.
Investigate local materials and resources
A search for project ideas may begin with an investigation into local
resources and skills, various ways of adding value to locally available materials
may be examined. Similarly, the skills of local artisans may suggest products thay
may be profitably produced and marketed.
Analysing economic and social trends
A study of economic and social trends is helpful in projecting demand for
various goods and services. Changing economic conditions provide new business
opportunities. A great awareness of the value of time is dawning on the public.
Hence the demand for time saving products like prepared food items, ovens and
powered vehicles has been increasing. Another change that we are witnessing is
that the desire for leisure and recreational activities has been increasing. This has
caused and growth in the market for recreational products and services
Explore the possibility of reviving sick units
Industrial sickness is rampant in the country. There are over 20,000 units
which have been characterized as sick. These units are either closed or face the
prospect of closure. A significant proportion of sick units, however, can be nursed
back to health by sound management, infusion of further capital and provision of
complementary inputs. Hence there is a fairly food scope for investment in this
30. area. Such investments typically have a shorter gestation period because one does
not have to begin from scratch. Indeed, in many cases marginal efforts would
suffice to revive such units.
Identify unfulfilled psychological needs
For well established, multi brand product groups like bathing soaps,
detergents, cosmetics and tooth pastes, the question to be asked is not whether
there is an opportunity to manufacture something to satisfy an actual physical
need but whether there are certain psychological needs of consumers which are
presently unfulfilled. To find whether such an opportunity exists, the technique of
spectrum analysis may be followed. This analysis is done somewhat as follows.
(i) Important factors influencing brand choice are identified (ii) respect of the
factors identified in step (iii) gaps which exist in relation to consumer
psychological needs are identified.
Visit to trade fairs
Attending the National and International trade fairs provides an excellent
opportunity to know about new products and new development.
The above said sources of project ideas may be generated by the
Government agencies, credit institutions, non-governmental organizations and
also by public.
The Governments has largest resources and have the necessary
information to generate project ideas and it plays a predominant role in this
sphere. The government has the required facilities and manpower to conduct
detailed studies which may lead to making investment decisions. Banks and other
financial institutions are actively involved in sharing the social responsibility of
achieving the national objectives of economic development. The co-operatives
and non-governmental organizations as well s individual entrepreneurs are now
actively participated in identification of projects. The awareness of involving the
people or the beneficiaries in project identification is now increasing fast. Since
the local people have the first hand knowledge of the potentials and problems of
the area to which they belong, more realistic project identification has become
possible with their involvement. It needs no emphasis the project ideas would be
generated in better manner both in the qualitative as well as quantitative terms
when the knowledge and ideas of the Gove. Functionaries, people, the financial
institutions and other experts are pooled together.
PURPOSE AND NEED FOR PROJECT IDENTIFICATION
The entire economic management planning is based on two fundamental
assumptions. i.e. a) limited means and b) unlimited ends. A planner has to select
few important needs to cut it into size of his/her means. This may be treated as
31. fixing the priority is called identification of project. It helps in elimination
process. Identification and selection of a project is a scientific process. This
process is based on certain essential conditions. It may differ from project to
project. The essential conditions which should be taken into consideration for
identification and selection of production projects are as follows:
Project should be in conformity with the economic needs of the area.
It should take into account the depriving factors which might have adverse
The input-output ratio should be optimum.
The purpose of the project is to increase the production and employment
of the area.
Thus, the above said conditions will differ due to resources availability,
use pattern and other relevant conditions of the area. Besides that, project should
also consider certain national priorities.
STEPS IN PROJECT IDENTIFICATION
Project ideas are like other ideas which don’t take concrete shape
immediately. There are several stages of making propositions their considerations
and scrutiny for their soundness.
An idea is first born, it is under incubation for sometime and subsequently
is begins to take some definite shape. The project ideas to develop take almost the
same course. This project identification may be broadly divided into four stages,
Conceptual stage – where project ideas are generated
Screening stages – at which unviable ideas are eliminated.
Identification stage – at which viable projects are selected
Pre-feasibility state – at which pre-feasibility studies are taking up.
A number of project ideas may be generated either by those officials or nonofficials and entrepreneurs individually or collectively who are conversant with
the area. In this context, one has to examine the potentialities of development and
the problems, needs and aspirations of the people of the concerned area.
32. Screening stage
In the second stage project ideas generated above are screened n a
preliminary exercise to weed out the bad or unviable ides. All project ideas would
not pass the screening test. Some project ideas may be imaginary to warrant any
The third & fourth stages may be called as investment opportunity study.
This study is necessarily preliminary and the broad one and has a limited
objective of providing planners with a choice of projects from which they can
make a selection. Pre feasibility study and these can be differentiated opportunity
study and a detailed feasibility study and these can be differentiated mainly on the
basis of information required for respective stages.
SCREENING PROJECT IDEAS
After gathering the project ides from the various sources as aforesaid, it is
essential to eliminate ideas which prima facie are not promising. This process f
eliminating the irrelevant and unviable ideas is called screening of project ideas. It
can be done with the help of testing the following conditions of the propositions.
Compatibility with the promoter
Consistency with governmental priorities
Availability of inputs
Adequacy of market
Reasonableness of cost
Acceptability of risk level etc.
The project idea must be compatible wit interest personality and resources
of the entrepreneur. It should be accessible to him and also it offers him the
prospects of rapid growth and high return on invested capital.
The project idea must satisfy or go along with the governmental priorities,
National goals and governmental regulatory framework.
No Contrary environmental effects to governmental regulations
Easily accommodation foreign exchange requirements
No difficulty in obtaining license.
33. The resources and inputs required for the project must be reasonably
assured. This feature of the project can be assessed with the help of determining
the following points relating to a project.
Capital requirement within manageable limit
Obtaining technical know-how
Availability of raw materials at a reasonable cost
Obtaining power supply
Identifying the adequacy of market is the key factor to select, the viable
project idea. To judge the adequacy of market the following factors have to be
Total present domestic market
Competitors and their market shares
Quality price profile of the product.
Sale and distribution system
Projected increase in consumption
Barriers to the entry of new units
Economic social and demographic trends favourable to increased
Reasonableness of cost is another factor to screen the project ideas. The
cost structure of the proposed project must enable it to realize and acceptable
profit with a competitive price. The following cost factors must be carefully
considered to design a viable cost structure.
Cost of material inputs, labour costs, factory overheads.
General administration expenses, selling and distribution costs.
Service costs, economics of scale etc.
Acceptability of risk level is another factor which helps to screen the
project ideas and hence determine the desirability of a project.
34. METHODOLOGY FOR PROJECT IDENTIFICATION
To make a viable project it should be linked with the actual circumstances
prevailing in the area. Without knowing the basic information relating to socioeconomic conditions of the area, it is difficult to draw a suitable project for the
area. Development needs and potentials vary from area to area. For specific area,
before drawing a project, local condition and other relevant factors must be taken
into consideration. Most of the project fails because they were not based on local
problems. Assumptions based on macro level information may fail to watch at
micro level. Survey is a technique to unearth the hidden information which are
vital to identify the basic requisites of project i.e , need, resource and priorities. It
also helps in making right choice between different alternatives. Secondly it
presents lot of information to be used as bench mark information which will help
at the later stage for evaluation of the project.
PROJECT IDENTIFICATION FOR AN EXISTING COMPANY
Existing companies essentially large scale company form of organizations
are continuously developing various projects for their developmental purposes.
While doing so, the existing company has to make a more intensive analysis of its
resources and environment and conceive of projects on the basis of its existing
activities. An existing company which seeks to identify new project opportunities
should undertake a “SWOT” analysis, It is an acronym law of strengths and
weakness and opportunities and threats. This analysis evaluate all these four
characteristics of existing company.
A brief summary of the points required for SWOT analysis is given below:
Availability of internal financial reasons for new projects after taking into
account the need for replacement expenditure, increase in working capital,
repayments of borrowings and dividend payments.
Capability of raising external financial resources
Availability of production facilities
Technological capabilities of the company
Availability of different sources of raw materials and its utilization
Availibility of infrastructural facilities
Cost structure and profit margins of the company
Distribution network of the company
35. Market share of the company
Capability of top management of the company
State of industrial relations in the company
Impact of corporate laws on the growth of the company especially (MRTP ACT)
Likely changes in the governmental policies
Possibility of evolving new technology and its impact on the cost structure of the
Existence and severity of competition
Changes in the customers preferences, tests etc.,
By considering the above said information keenly the SWOT analysis
helps to provide the basis for the corporate strategy to be followed and indicate
the major areas of thrust. These may include expansion of the capacity of existing
product range, vertical integration, diversification in related areas and mergers.
Thus this lesson has explained to you the significance and mode of conceiving
good project idea. It also explains to you the various sources from which the
project ideas can be generated and how one should select the project ides.
SELF ASSESSMENT QUESTIONS
What factors would you take into account for identifying promising
What is SWOT analysis and how it can be done?
Explain the process of project identification
36. LESSON – 3
To impart the need for project formulation
To describe the project formulation process
To know the criteria to be followed in project formulation
Project formulation is an investigating process which precedes investment
decision. The purpose is to present relevant facts before the decision-makers to
enable them to decide as to whether to go ahead signal should be given for the
project or not.
Formulation of projects involves scientific procedure. The task of any
formidable project is too many. It has to present several information subjective
and objective in nature. It explains the objectives, goals and justification for the
acceptance of the project. The major task of the project is to assess the financial,
technical and managerial involvement and its justification considering the
resource constraint. The project formulation stage involves the identification of
investment options by the enterprise.
Project formulation is designed to bring the project sponsoring authority
and the agencies from whom it has to gent concurrence, support etc., on one
wavelength. Project formulation by providing a scientifically developed
procedure for developing the contend as well as the format of the investment
proportions, seek to streamline the process of appraisal of project at government
and the aiding agencies level. So, the project formulation is a process involving
the joint effort of a team of experts including the economists, the financial
analysis and specialists in various fields. A well formulated project provides a
medium which out across scientific, social and positional prejudices and provides
a common meeting ground for all those who have a contribution to make
successful implementation of a project.
STAGES IN PROJECT FORMULATION
The different stages in the project formulation process are briefly describes as
37. A. Feasibility analysis
B. Techno-economic analysis
C. Project design and network analysis
D. Input analysis
E. Financial analysis
F. Social cost-benefit analysis
G. Project appraisal
Feasibility analysis is the first stages in the process of project
development. The purpose of the analysis is to examine the desirability of
investing in pre-investment studies. For this purpose it is essential to examine
project idea in the light of the available internal (inputs, resources & outputs) and
external constraints (environment). When a project idea is taken up for
developmental three situations can arise. The project may appear to be feasible,
project may turn out to be not feasible or the available data may not e adequate for
arriving at reasonable decision regarding further investment. In the last mentioned
case, investment in pre-investment studies will obviously have to be adequate for
arriving at reasonable decision regarding further investment. In the last mentioned
case, investment in pre-investment studies will obviously have to e deferred till
such time s adequate date regarding the project feasibility is available. The project
sponsoring body will therefore have to invest in collection additional data and
refer the investment decision for the time being. In the second situation when the
project is found to e not feasible, further investment in the project idea is
completely ruled out. In the third situation, when the project idea is found to be
feasible, the decision-makers can proceed to invest further resources in preinvestment studies and design development.
Techno-economic analysis is primarily concerned with the identification
of project demand potential and the selection of the optimal technology which can
be used to achieve the project objectives. The analysis provides necessary
material on which the project design can be based. It also indicates whether the
economy is in position to absorb the output of the project or not.
PROJECT DESIGN AND NETWORK ANALYSIS
Project design is the heart of the project entity. It defines the individual
activities which go into the corpus of the project and their inter-relationship with
each other. It identifies the flow of events, which must take place before a project
can start yielding the results for which it has been set up. The inter-relationship
38. between various constituent activities of a project in most conveniently expressed
in the form of a network diagram. Project design and network analysis are
concerned primarily with the development of the detailed work plans of the
project and its time profile, and the presentation of this plan is form of a detailed
network drawing. Project design and network analysis make available to the
project formulation team a clear picture of the work elements of the project and
also their sequential relationship. This presentation the way for detailed
identification and quantification of the project inputs, an essential step in the
development of the financial and cost-benefit profile of the project.
The objective is to identify and quantify the project inputs and to assess
the feasibility of a sustained supply of these inputs all through the effective life
span of the project. Resources are consumed in project constituent activities. The
best method of identifying the project constituent activities. The best method of
identifying the project inputs is therefore to identify these activities determine the
resources which each activity will consume individual requirements. Input
analysis uses the network plans for developing the input characteristics of the
project. If thereafter proceeds to evaluated the availability of the inputs both in
quantitative as well as qualitative terms. Resources require for a successful
implementation of a project include not only the material inputs but also human
resources which are necessary both for the setting up of the project as also its
successful normalization run. Resources requirements estimates form the basis of
costs estimates of the project and are, therefore, essential for developing the
financial profile and cost-benefit profile of the project.
The objectives of financial analysis is to develop the project from the
financial angle and to identify these characteristics. Financial analysis concerns
itself with the estimation of the project costs, estimation of project funds
requirements, It also involves appraisal of the financial characteristics of the
project so as to establish the relative merits and demerits of the project as
compared to other investment opportunities. Financial analysis reduces
investment proposition in diverse fields of human activity to one common scale,
thereby simplifying the project is developing project financial forecasts.
COST BENEFIT ANALYSIS
In judging the overall worthiness of the project, the effect of the project on
society as a whole is very essential. While financial analysis evaluates a project
from the profitability point of view, social cost benefit analysis views it from the
point of view of national viability. The cost-benefit analysis however takes into
account not only the direct costs and benefits which will accrue to the project
implementing body but also total costs which all entities connected with the
39. project will have to bear and the benefits which well be enjoyed by all such
entities. The idea here is to evaluate the project in terms of absolute costs and
benefits rather than in terms apparent costs and benefits.
Pre investment appraisal is the process of consolidating the results of
feasibility analysis, the techno-economic analysis, the design and network
analysis, the input analysis, the financial analysis and the cost benefit analysis, so
as to give the investment proposition a final and formal shape, It naturally
involves selection of appraisal format, the material which should go into preinvestment report and the form of presentation of various conclusions. The sun
total of the pre-investment appraisal is to present the project idea in a form in
which the project sponsoring body, the project implementing body and the outside
agencies can take investment decision regarding the proposals.
CRITERIA TO BE FOLLOWED
The main criteria in the project formulation process are:
Forecasting – understanding and precisely identifying the objectives/needs/goals
(regional/state/national/international) of the unit/society/economy/on a sustained
Setting up priorities and choosing the goals that are more urgent
Searching for alternations and carrying out feasibility studies to pick up projects
that appear most beneficial and desirable.
Carrying out detailed studies of the project so selected
Estimation the needed resources (human and physical) and finding the yearly cost
and benefit of project
Arranging funds – both approval and allocation. The successful implementation
of any project depends upon the timely availability of the required resource as per
Preparing of time schedule for all hobs so that the physical and financial targets of
the projects are passed appropriately
Distributing the works to various departments or agencies having the appropriate
40. Execution and controlling the project. This requires frequent reviewing, updating
and constant action to restore the operation to its planned characteristics.
Evaluating the performance of each project to ensure the worth of good or service
for each rupee to be spent.
Thus the process of project formulation involves a stage by stage
development of the project idea into an investment proposition. The conclusion
down at the end of each stage forms the basis of development of the ensuing
stage. These conclusions also provide necessary materials for re-checking of the
initial premises from which a beginning was made. There must be forward and
backward look at the completion of every stage. So the project formulation team
has to be ready to revise its opinions and conclusions in the light of further
SELF ASSESSMENT QUESTIONS
1. What do you mean by project formulation? Explain the several aspects of
2. What are the different phases of project formulation?
3. Explain the criterion to be adopted while formulating a project.
4. “Formulation of projects involves scientific procedure” elucidate.
41. LESSON – 4
FEASIBILITY STUDY AND PREPARATION OF FEASIBILITY REPORT
1. To explain the nature and significance of feasibility study.
2. To know the components of feasibility study in a detailed manner.
3. To import knowledge of preparing feasibility report and how it can be
A feasibility report is an investment proposal base on certain information
and factual data appraising the project. This type of feasibility study may be
required by the financing institutions, project sponsor, project owner. The
feasibility report enables the project holder to know the inputs required and if
rightly prepared confirms to the convictions that he is proceeding in the right
direction. In other words, a project needs to be fully defined in order to provide
terms of reference for the management of the project.
A project can be considered to have been fully established when the
following conditions are fulfilled.
The technical configuration of the project has been fully defined.
The performance requirement for the various technical system and the key
equipment have been specified.
Cost estimate for the project is frozen.
Techno-economic viability of the project has been examined, appraised
An overall schedule for implementation of the project has been drawn-up.
The feasibility report is prepared during the definition phase of a project.
It lies in between project formulation stage and appraisal and sanction stage. It is
prepared to present an in-depths techno-commercial analysis carried out on the
project idea for consideration of the financial institutions and other authorities
empowered to take the investment decision.
42. NATURE OR PROJECT FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS
In the broadest sense, every rational decision t make new investment is
proceeded by an investigation of the feasibility of the project, whether or not this
carried out in a formal manner. The larger the project and greater the investment,
the more formalized the investigation. Assurance is needed that the market exists
or can be developed, that raw materials can be obtained, that sufficient labour
supply is available, that local services vital to the project are at hand, and that the
overall costs for plant equipment, labour and raw material input will be of a
certain order. Most importantly it must be determined that income will exceed
costs by a margin sufficient to make the project financially attractive. When the
project is small, the study format may be quite informal, perhaps there will be no
formal study at all and little accumulation of actual data. Nevertheless, the
feasibility calculations will have to be computed and evaluated, even if an
informal manner before the ultimate step of actual investment is taken.
NEED FOR FEASIBILITY STUDIES
A company is incorporated for the purpose of setting up a project. The
promoters obviously have, to start with, some broad idea about the proposed
industrial activity. They make mental picture as to how the idea, when translated
into reality would result in a profitable project, given the demand supply pattern,
probable cost of production etc. It is quite likely that the originators get attracted
by the favorable aspects of the project known to them, while they may have
overlooked the dark side of the picture, which can only be revealed by a detailed
objective study. Too many projects have floundered, at considerable loss to the
investors and indeed to the national economy through waste of scarce resources,
because the investment decisions were taken without objective and in depth
techno-economic feasibility studies. The need for such careful studies is further
underscored on two counts:
In modern times, business operations are complex, requiring carefully
The shareholders, creditors, term leaders etc., insist on as complete an
analysis of the scheme as possible without their co-operation, it would not be
possible to translate the ide into action.
This feasibility study helps the promoter to make the investment decisions
correctly and to obtain funds without much difficulties.
It allows the promoters to anticipate the problems likely to be encountered
in the execution of the project and phases them in a better position to answer the
queries that may be raised by the financial institutions and others who would have
to be involved in the project.
43. COMPLEMENTS OF FEASIBILITY STUDY
Project feasibility study comprises of market analysis, technical analysis,
financial analysis, and social profitability analysis. The analysis is mainly
interested only in the commercial profitability and thus examining only the
market, technical and financial aspects of the project. But, generally the gamut of
feasibility of a project covers the following areas:
Commercial and economic feasibility
Social feasibility or acceptability
These areas are briefly described below:
COMMERCIAL AND ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY
The economic feasibility aspect of a project relates to the earning capacity
of the project. Earnings of the project depends on the volume of sales. If taken
into consideration the following important indicators.
Present demand of the goods produced through the project. i.e. market
facility (or) getting a feel of the market.
Future demand: a projection may be made about the future demand. The
period normally depend upon the scale of investment.
Determining the extent of supply to meet the expected demand and
arriving at the gap.
Deciding in what way the project under consideration will have a
reasonable chance to share the market.
Anticipated rate of return on investment. If it is positive the project
justifies the economic norm in the relationship between cost and demand.
Future demand can be estimated after failing into consideration the
potentialities of the export market the charges in the income and prices, the
multiples use of the product, the probable expansion of industries and the growth
of new industries. The share of the proposed project n the market could be
identified by considering the factors affecting the supply position such as
competitive position of the unit, existing and potential competitors, the extent of
44. capacity utilization, unit cost advantages and disadvantages, structural changes
and technological innovations bringing substitute into the market.
The commercial feasibility of a project involves a study of the proposed
arrangements for the purchase of raw materials and sale of finished products etc.
This study comprises the following two aspects.
Arriving at the physical requirement of production input such as raw
materials, power, labour etc., at various level of output and converting them into
cost. In other words, deciding costing pattern.
Matching costs with revenues with a view to estimating the profitability of
the project and the break-even point. The possibility ultimately decides whether
the project will be a feasible proposition.
The technical analysis of a project feasibility study serves to establish
whether or to the project is technically feasible ant it also provides a basis for cost
The examination of this aspect requires a thorough assessment of the
various requirements of the actual production process and includes a detailed
estimate of the goods and services needed for the project. So, the feasibility report
should give a description of the project in terms of technology to be used,
requirement of equipment, labour and other inputs. Location of the project should
be given special attention n relevance to technical feasibility. Another important
feature of technical feasibility relates the types of technology to be adopted for the
project. The exercise of technical feasibility is not done in isolation. The scheme
has also to be viewed from economic considerations; otherwise, it may not be a
practical proportion however sound technically it may be.
The promoter of the project can approach the problem of preparation of
technical feasibility studies in the following order:
Undertaking a preliminary study of technical requirements to have a quick
If preliminary investigation indicate favourable prospects working out
further details of the project. The exercise begins with engineering and technical
specifications and covers the requirements of the proposed project as to quality,
quantity and specification type of components of plant & machinery, accessories,
raw materials, labour fuel, power, water, effluent disposal transportation etc.
Thus, the technical feasibility analysis is an attempt to study the project
basically from a technician’s angle. The main aspects to be considered under this
45. study are: technology of the project, size of the plant, location of the project,
pollution caused by the project production capacity of the project, strength of the
project. Emergency or stand-by facilities required by the project sophistication
such as automation, mechanical handling etc. required collaboration agreements,
production inputs and implementation of the project.
The main objectives of this feasibility study is to assess the financial
viability of the project. Here, the main emphasis is in the preparation of financial
statement, so that the project can be evaluated in terms of various measures of
commercial profitability and the magnitude of financing required can be
determined. The decision about the financial feasibility of project should be
arrived at based on the following consideration:
For existing companies, audited financial statements such as balance
sheets, income statements and cash flow statements.
For projects that involve new companies, statement of total projects cost,
initial capital requirements, and flow relative to the projective time table.
Financial projections for future time periods, including income
statements, cash flows and balance sheets.
Supporting schedule for financial projections stating assumptions used as
to collection period of sales, inventory levels, payment period of purchases and
expenses and elements of production cost, selling administrative and financial
Financial analysis showing return on investment return on equity, breakeven volume and price analysis.
If necessary sensibility analysis to identify items that have a large impact
on profitability or possibly a risk analysis.
The success or failure of a project largely depends upon the ability of the
project holder to manager the project. Project is a bundle of activities and each
activity has its own role. For the success of a project, a project holder has to coordinate all the activities in such a way that the additive impact of different inputs
can produce the desired result. The ability to manage and organize all such inter
related activities come within the concept of management. If the person in-charge
of the project, has the ability, has the ability to manage all such activities, the
desired result can be anticipated.
46. There are three ways to measure the managerial efficiency:
Skill acquired through training
Skill acquired course of work
A project may cross all the above barriers mentioned above an found very
suitable but is will lose its entire creditability, if it has no social acceptance.
Though the social customs, conventions such as caste community, regional
influence etc. are creating hindrance for development of a project should avoid all
such social conflicts which will stand on the successful implementation of the
(e.g.) Considering the interests of the general public; projects which offer
large employment potential, which channelise the income from less developed
areas will stimulate small industries.
In a nut shell, the feasibility report should highlight on these five testing
stones before it can be declared as complete and only after judging through these
indicators a project can be declared as viable and can be submitted for finance or
any other assistance from any institutions.
FORMAT OF FEASIBILITY REPORT
The sketch of feasibility report of the project covers the following
2. Summary and Recommendations
3. Project Capacity, Chemistry of the product, specifications, properties,
application and uses.
4. Market potential
5. Process and know-how
6. Plant and machinery
7. Location of the unit
8. Plot plan and building
9. Raw materials availability
10. Utilities, requirements
47. 11. Effluents treatment
12. Personel requirement
13. Capital cost
14. Working capital
15. Mode of finance
16. Manufacturing cost
17. Financial analysis
18. Implementation schedule
CHECK FOR FEASIBILITY REPORT
The following key elements must be presented in the feasibility report,
Examination of public policy with respect to the industry project
Broad specification of outputs and alternative techniques of production
Listing and description of alternative locations
Preliminary estimates of sales revenue, capital costs and operating costs of
Preliminary analysis of profitability for different alternatives
Specification of product pattern and product prices
Listing of major equipment by type, size and cost
Listing of auxiliary equipment and process know-how
Specification of site and completion of necessary investigation
Listing of buildings, structures and yard facilities by type size and cost
Specification of supply sources connection costs and other costs and other costs
for transportation services, water supply and power
Preparation of layout
Specification of skill-wise labour requirements and labour costs.
Estimation of working capital requirement
Phasing of activities, and expenditure during construction
Analysis of profitability
Determination of measures of combating environmental problems
State the preparedness to implement the project rapidly
Thus, this chapter narrates the very purpose of a feasibility report in a lucid
manner, covering components of feasibility reports, principal feature of project
feasibility study and also checklist for feasibility study. It helps in defining and
analyzing the alternative approaches to production processes and outcomes. It
focuses attention on the material inputs and various other techno-economic
variables. It describes the optimization process, justifies the assumptions and
hypothesis set thereby selection the better alternative solutions and defines tre
clear boundaries of a project viability.
SELF ASSESSMENT QUESTIONS
1. What do you mean by feasibility study? Explain its significance in project
2. Explain the different components of feasibility study
3. Suggest a suitable outline of feasibility report for setting up a small scale
4. How a technical feasibility of a project can be ascertained?
5. Analyse the significance of managerial competence and commercial
viability of project in the feasibility study.
6. What the elements to be covered in the feasibility report?
49. LESSON – 6
To know the need for preparing a project report
To explain the content of an ideal project report
A project at the outset must bear a logical appearance, which it can get
only after the feasibility test. Project report is a document, which clearly narrates
the various aspects f project in a prescribed form. Project report preparation is a
post investment decision exercise. It involves the preparation of detailed
specifications and designs for the project premises, detailed design of the process
or other equipment and time schedules for the implementation of the project.
Hence, the detailed project report is the work plan for the implementation of the a
project once an investment decision is arrived at.
A project report is meant to provide the necessary information, which may
be required for the purpose of processing and assessing the proposal for getting
the financial assistance from the financial institutions. This is essentially prepared
in order to provide a complete information with proximate values of the project
and presented to the financial institution for appraisal. A project report prepared
with utmost care care would not only give a clear idea to the banker but also it
relives the entrepreneur from the normal objections and formal queries of the
In a developing economy like India, where the development banking is
vigorous, an entrepreneur gets a lot of published materials with data relating to
various feasibilities and promotional institutions engaged in entrepreneurship
development produce good literature covering various aspects of producing a
project or products in the country. The Director General of Technical
Development (DGTD), National Small Industries Corporations (NSIC) are some
of the pioneer institutions providing variety of information for small scale
enterprises to manufacture. They are guidelines for industries indication those
items, in which good scope exists for manufacturing.
With these available information, an entrepreneur has to do the following
for starting an industrial unit:
To decide the types and level of industrial production.
To compare the requirements of funds with his personal availability of finance.
50. To prepare a nice project report containing all relevant information.
Many of the institutions like SISI, State Financial Institutions also help in
preparation of project report and later on recommend they to the banks. Besides
these institutions, several commercial banks help the entrepreneurs to get a good
Components of Project Report
The following are the important headings under which the complete
information on relevant aspects should be included for a small scale industry’s
Capital expenditure and sources of finance
Assessment of working capital requirements
Other financial factors
Government and other statutory approvals
Economic and social variables
The following aspects should be given in the stage, which are of general
Name and address of the entrepreneur
The qualifications, experience and other capabilities of the entrepreneur. If
it is a partnership firs, these information of other members should also be given.
A small reference of analysis of industry to which the project belongs e.g.
past performance, present status, the way of organization, the problems etc.
The organizational structure of the enterprise
The utility of the product and the range of products to be manufactured
As mentioned earlier a project may have several objectives subsidiary to
the prime objective of making profit. As a first step in project evaluation, it is
essential that one looks at the broad rationale of the project proposal to ensure that
the project is appropriate and justified. As an example, one could say that
modernization or pollution control may be fully justified on grounds of survival
and environmental protection even if, in the short-term the project expenditure
may adversely affect the financial criteria of project evaluation. On the other
hand, a project which would improve the earnings per share or the debt service
cover or the production efficiency may not necessarily be justified if all this is to
be achieved at the expense of national interest or public interest.
A brief description of the project covering the following aspects should be
given in the project report.
SITE: Location (Town, Complete address) whether owned or leasehold
land whether the site is approved industrial area? Is it suitable for the product
Raw materials: What are the sources of raw materials? Are they locally
available? Whether imported raw material is also required? If so, whether license
has been obtained? Is it suitable to get quality raw materials continuously at
The availability, quality critically and quality compatibility of the raw
material with the technology as well as the plant and machinery are important
factors to be clearly understood while evaluating a project especially those in hitech area. This element is also intimately linked to many other elements in a
project and can force necessary changes in them to ensure the viability of the
As a simple example, one can easily surmise that a raw material with a
high volume to weight ratio will indicate the plant is located near the source of
raw material. e.g. Cement, power (coal based). On the other hand, if the values
added in such a case is very high, then it may be possible or even necessary to
locate the plant away from the source or raw materials. Textiles, power (gas based
of oil based), processed foods like snack foods, ice creams are some the pertinent
The characteristics of the raw materials are multivariate and not just on the
volume weight ratio. It is imperative therefore that this elements gets a careful
52. consideration while assessing a project. The market, the management, and the
utility needs of the projects also influence the locational decisions.
Labour: What is the type of labour required? Whether skilled or unskilled? Are
they available in that area? If not, what arrangement have been made to recruit
and train the labour in various skills?
Power: Inadequate supply and high cost of electricity is a major problem now-adays. So, the project report should contain the information regarding the power
requirements, the load sanctioned, stability of supply of power and the price at
different consumption level.
Fuel & water: Whether the fuel systems like coal, coke, oil or gas are
required and if yes, then state their availability position. Similarly water is an
important factor. The source and the quality of water should be clearly stated.
Waste discharge: Most of the plants product waste material or emissions that
may result in many health problems to the public. The emissions and discharges
may be various types like (a) gaseous )smoke, fumes, dust etc.) by physical
(noise, hear, vibration etc.) or (c) liquid or solid discharged through pumps and
sewers. Hence, it should be clearly stated that the arrangements made from these
COMMUNICATION AND TRANSPORT FACILITIES
A vialability of communication facilities like telephone, telex and post and
telegraph department, should be stated in the report. Similarly, transport is a basic
necessity for industries. Raw materials as well as finished products has to reach
destination only through a good transport systems available. So, the various
transport facilities available in that should be clearly stated. Similarly availability
of facilities like machine shops, welding shops and electrical repair shops etc.,
should also be stated.
List of machinery & Equipments: A complete list of items of machinery and
other equipments indication their type, size and cost should be stated. Source of
supply of capital equipment and the construction services should also be given.
The source of plant and machinery as also the specification for the same
can often make or break a project. It is, therefore, equally important to evaluate
the plant and machinery which is to be installed at the project. The reputation of
the supplier and references to place where such/similar plant and machinery are
installed is a good starting point while assessing this element.
Capacity & Technology: The installed and licensed should be stated and
the number of shifts likely to follow should be stated. Similarly, is the technology
53. upto date and appropriate? Which other units are using the same technology and
with what results? How the required know-how is proposed to be arranged.?
The level of technology in terms of its “state of art” or obsolescence,
adaptability to the local conditions, maintenance and repairability, sophistication
in management and control are elements which have a significant impact on the
quality and quantity of production that is envisaged in the project. It is thus
necessary to have a clear understanding about the technology which is to be
utilized in the project.
It is pertinent to note that there are no hard and fast rules but
“appropriateness” and “relevance” are the two key operative words while
assessing a technology proposed for the project. It is ridiculous to propose a
highly sophisticated, push button control technology in a place where electricity
supply follows its own rules or where a simpler technology is better understood
and more manageable. Equally, it would be disastrous to recommend an obsolete
technology on account of its durability or time tested proof of performance when
everyone else is fast discarding it.
This technology elements is linked to ever other element in the project
proposal and these linkages also need to be looked into as an essential step in
assessing the technology. One of the technologies available may necessitate
creation of large capacity not necessarily advisable given the current raw material
supply or the market size for the product.
For example, a capacity of 100 tps. But if raw material proposed is “agricltral
waste” a whole lot of new considerations starting from collection and storage or
raw materials come into play necessitation appropriate changes in the plant size
and even perhaps the technology. Similar situations can arise in linkages of
technology to management, availability of utilities, and cost of the project.
What is the system arranged for to check the quality of products on
continuous basis? The quality marks like ISI, Agmark will enhance the values of
the product as well as confidence among the consumers. If it is desired to get
quality markings, the fact should be included in the project report.
Estimation of demand & supply
Facts regarding the anticipated demand for product and the level of supply, should
be clearly stated. An estimate of manufacturing and administrative expenses
together with the price expected along with the margin of profit should be stated.
54. Marketing strategy:
What is the strategy adopted for marketing the product should be stated.
Whether the products are to be supplied to the reputed sellers directly or
distributors? Is there any possibility of getting a contract from the reputed
concerns should also be stated in this project report. Similarly whether after sales
service has been arranged and how to fill the gap of demand if there is
fluctuations in the sales seasonal demand arrangements made for warehousing the
Capital expenditure and sources of finance
Cost of the project : Since each project is profit motivate it is important that cost
of the project is carefully assessed and evaluated. One of the most important
factors in this assessment is the level of accuracy in the cost estimates, which in
addition to proper data collections also depends upon the approach and the
attitude of the evaluator himself. Some evaluators tend to see all cost estimates as
“too high” leading to unnecessary under estimation of the project cost and
consequent problems in project implementation and even project viability. On the
other hand some evaluators tend to provide “cushions” at all levels of cost
estimates which may erode the viability of the project on paper leading to wrong
decision on the issue of project selection and implementation.
As estimate regarding this various capital inputs required by the industry should
be given. Those capital items include the following:
Land & Building
Plant and machinery
Working capital limit
Means of financing: Having established the cost of a project as justified and
reasonable, it is necessary to evolve the means of financing the project. It should
be acceptable within the framework of the financial system and sufficiently
attractive/or safe enough for the investor lender to come forward and extend the
necessary assistance. During the last decade, financial scenario in India has
undergone substantive, qualitative as well as quantitative change almost
amounting to a metamorphosis. As a result the project prosperity has a fairly wide
range of means of finance available to him to choose from. Instead of a standard
debt-equity ratio of 2:1, the promoter taking up 50% to 75% of the equity, the
balance being offered to the public and the financial institutions and banks
55. picking up the tap for the debt component. The promoter can now think of a
variety of instruments like equity cumulative convertible preference shares fully
or partly or non-convertible debenture, as means of financing and also many other
sources of funds like mutual funds, venture financing and also many other
sources of funds like mutual finds, venture finance and lease finance. A clear
understanding of the various elements and the various institutions operating in the
financial system would help to assess the appropriateness of the means of finance.
The cost of raising and servicing funds, and other terms and conditions
accompanying funds, as all these have a direct impact on the viability of the
project. At this juncture, it is worthwhile nothing that the project evaluation
should also pay due attention to the ethics of fund raising especially if the means
of finance involves premium carrying instruments.
ASSESSMENT OF WORKING CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS
Many industries fail due to improper estimate of working capital
requirements. It is very crucial to an entrepreneur. The unit could function only if
the working capital limit is maintained properly. So, the working capital
requirements should be very carefully calculated and stated in the project report.
OTHER FINANCIAL ASPECTS
It should be found out that the product taken up for production is
profitable. For this, profit & Loss an estimated on should be prepared, which
shows sales revenue, cost of production and other costs and profit. Similarly a
projected balance sheet and cash flow statement should be prepared to indicate
financial position and financial requirements. There should be always availability
of funds for the smooth functioning of the unit. Next the break-even analysis must
be given break-even point is that level of production sales where the industrial
enterprise shall make no profit no loss. This break even analysis facilitates
knowing the gestation period and the likely moratorium required for repayment of
The return from a project is a very essence of evaluation an project
especially as the prime motive for setting up a project is its profitability. The
project return is to be assessed in terms of cost of production realizable selling
price, financial charges, depreciation taxes and host of other financial and nonfinancial variables.
GOVERNMENT AND OTHER STATUTORY APPROVALS
The project is not put up in a vacuum but in the real world which is subject
not only to procedural requirements but also to policy guidelines and stipulations.
These requirements, guidelines and stipulation could begin with the very
permission to establish a project and go across various economic statutes of a
country governing several aspects, not merely as an element of feasibility or
56. otherwise of setting up the project but as part of the plan extending over the
economic life of the project.
ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL VARIABLES
Among other things, what will be the abatement costs to control pollution
and treating for the effluents and emissions, should be stated. Added to this,
whether the project derives home some social benefits like the following:
It promotes an increases the potential in that area
It promotes and encourages smaller units (tiny sector) to grow
It effects overall development of that area
ECONOMIC AND NATIONAL SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PROJECT
Many projects have an economic and/or national significance especially if
they are in the area of hi-tech, import substitution, export orientation, defence
and/or involve substantive outflow of foreign currency either for technology
know-how or for raw materials. It is necessary to evaluate the economic and the
national significance of a project is to be made acceptable in the prevalent
SOCIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATION
While setting up a project, issues not necessarily connected with the
financial profitability of the project but to the environment and society as a whole
have become important in mire than one case. These issue relate to environmental
pollution and safety as also different segments of the society coming in contact
with the activities of the project.
Two models of project report are given at the end of this lesson.
Project Report Vs. Feasibility Report
The detailed project report differs from feasibility report in the following
Objective: Feasibility report’s aim is to serve the top management in arriving at
feasible and viable project alternatives. Detailed Project Report’s focus is to
communicate formally about the project sponsor’s decision on a specific project
to the government departments and financial institution for seeking their
approvals and funding.
Scope of information Management: The interests of the management can be
met by collecting relevant information in vital areas of technical, economic
57. commercial and environmental areas at the onset. However, about 70-80%
information may be collected and analysed in feasibility studies based on which
certain reliable forecasts are made and decisions are taken by the management.
Time span: These studies are subjected to an exploratory type of research and
hence consume a span of 6 to 15 months. A lot of care and diligence is inevitable
on the part of the estimator while preparing the official document and hence may
consume time within the range of 1 year to 2 years after the decision is take by the
Costs involved: The cost of feasibility studies varies on the type of project. As an
average for any project the costs may range approximaterly between 1.5-3% of
the project costs. The cost of preparing a detailed projet report is little higher than
that of feasibility studies. The total costs may range between 5-7.5% of the
Reliability: These studies are reliable for a short period of time (till the decisions
are made about a project). In the long run they serve only as a data bank as the
information stinks. The detailed reports help in guiding the entire project and even
if any variation is there in the project data it can be compared and observe.
However, this acts as a major signpost for all practical purposes in the project
development and for future reference.
Depth of analysis: The depths and magnitude of the feasibility studies are
obviously reflected through costs and time consumed in conducting studies. The
level of information furnished in these reports is clear, yet some secondary issues
are perfunctorily managed. The depth and magnitude is perfectly maintained by
furnishing intricate details of the project. The report is prepared with diligence
taking all precautions to avoid ambiguity and mystery concerning issues of the
Thus, Project report is a precise formal document of commitment prepared
and presented by sponsors of a project. On the basis of this report, the Project
Investment Board and Cabined Committee on economic affairs of the concerned
Ministry Proffer their exoneration of the project proposals. The preparation of
detailed project report is preliminary phase of the project life cycle. The
preparation of project report starts only after the investment decision is made on
the basis of the technical, economic and financial feasibility studies, so that
expensive efforts involved in the preparation of report are not wasted. To prepare
the project report from a techno-economic feasibility study, we have to
Break-down all project components, time phase and schedule them
minutely and prepare accurate cost estimates, furnishing with necessary
and relevant assumptions and calculations.
Develop baselines for controlling time and costs that help the
implementation of the project.
Resources to implement the project.
SELF ASSESSMENT QUESTION
State the significance of Project report.
Describe the contents of an ideal project report.
Prepare a project report for setting up a small scale unit of your own
How does detailed project report differ from feasibility report? Give an
outline of a detailed project report.
59. PROJECT REPORT MODELS
PROJECT PROFILE FOR MANUFACTURE OF STEEL TABLE
Product and its uses:
The steel tables are commonly used in offices, commercial establishments,
hospitals, commercial establishments, offices etc. The steel tables are widely
used. This is creating good market for steel tables in urban and semi-urban areas.
Due to certain specific advantages, as mentioned above steel tables re fast
replacing wooden tables in rural areas also, as people are preferring steel table.
Beside this there is good scope for export of steel tables. Therefore there is good
market potential for steel tables.
The different type of size of tables costing to Rs. 7.80.000/- is out annual target.
Basis and assumptions
The calculation is based on single shift of 8 hours per day and 300 working days
in a year. The rates of machines and raw materials have been taken as prevailing
in the market at the time of preparation of project.
Production details and process of manufacture
The sheets, tubular steel etc., are cut to required size and pressed to shape, bent in
a press brake for table top, sides and drawers. Holes are made by drilling
wherever necessary for cutting screws.
Fixing of doors, hinges assembly, cleaning, pickling and drying are to be done
before painting. The spray painted articles are to be store-enamelled for better
quality and bright and lasting finish.
Quality control and standards
The following Indian Standard Specification will provide guidance in purchase of
materials and toasting of products:IS-3998-1996, IS-3663-1966, IS-4994-1968, IS-4933-1967
Land and building
60. Covered area 40 x 25 ( 1000 sq. ft.) with 3000 sq. ft. open area 2,000/- PM
7. Machinery and Equipment
Treadle Guillotine Shearing machine 48” width
Hand operated press break machine capacity 14
SWG x 1800m (Sheet bending)
Spot Welding machine 10 SWG with accessories
Hand operated hydraulic tube bending machine
25mm x 36mm capacity with all days.
Pillar drilling machine 1½” Cap
Oxy-acetylene gas welding set
Air compressor with electric motor (1 HP) and spray
Power press 5 ton capacity inclinable ungeared,
adjustable stroke for cutting, embossing with 1 HP
electric motor, hacksaw 6” jaw capacity.
Add: 10% C.S.T. etc.
10% Erection chareges and contingency charges
Hand tools, dyes
8. STAFF AND LABOUR
ii) Skilled labour
iii) Semi-skilled labour
9. TOTAL SALES (PER ANNUM)
As per production target:
i) 1220 x 61 x 750mm 200 Nos. 1,100/- each
ii) 1525 x 760 x 750mm 200 Nos. 1,400/- each
iii) 500 x 610 x 750mm 400 Nos. 700/-
61. 10. PROFITABILITY
Profit = Total sales – Cost of production = 7,80,000 – 6,42,000
% Profit on Sale =
% Profit on Total capital investment =
11. B.E.P (Break Even Point)
i) Rent 12 x 2000
40 ×12 × 5400
40 ×12 × 6500
v) 40% other expenses =
iv) 40% salaries =
Fixed Cost ×100
Fixed ×Pr ofit
NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT
M/s. Ashok Brothers, 37, Panchkuion Road, New Delhi – 110 001
M/s. Machine Tools Traders, P.B.No. 1260, 57A, Ligichetti St.,
Chennai – 600 001
M/s. Perfect Machine Tools Co., (P) Ltd., Bell Building, Sir Phirozshah
Mehta Road, Mumbai – 400 001
62. LESSON – 6
To study the nature and significance of project appraisal.
To know the general information required for project appraisal
To discuss the process of project appraisal followed by the financial institutions
The exercise of project appraisal simply means the assessment of a project in
terms of its economic, social and financial viability. This exercise basically aimed
at determining the viability of a project and sometimes also in reshaping the
project so as to upgrade its viability i.e. it aims at sizing up the quality of projects
and their long-term profitability.
Appraisal of term loan proposals (projects) is an important exercise for the
financial institutions and investing companies in credit decisions. The art of
project appraisal puts more emphasis on the economic and technical soundness of
the project and its earning potential than on the adequacy and liquidity of the
security offered. Hence, the process of appraisal should require more dynamic
approach as it is linked with a sense of uncertainty.
Project appraisal is a scientific tool. It follows specific pattern. This process
usually involves six areas of appraisal such as market appraisal, technical
appraisal, financial appraisal, profitability appraisal, managerial, and social
A) MARKET AND DEMAND APPRAISAL
Appraisal of commercial viability means assessment of marketability of the endproduct. Therefore, at the time of assessment of commercial viability, the
following points require consideration.
Size and prospective growth of the market which the unit is required to cater like
nature of population, their purchasing power, their educational background,
Demand and supply position of the product in the national and international
63. Nature of competition
Pricing policy including prospective prices vis-à-vis the quality of the product.
Marketing strategy and selling arrangements made by the unit adequacy of sales
It the product is n important-substitute, the regarding existing imports in the
country along with the C.I.F. value of the imported goods, vis-à-vis cost of
product of the unit.
B) TECHNICAL APPRAISAL
A project is considered to be technically feasible, if it is found to be ‘sound’ from
technical and engineering point can be met which location would be most suitable
and what the size of plant and machinery should be.
Objectives of technological appraisal
The fundamental objective of appraising a project from the technology point of
view is to justify the present choice and provide an insight into future
technological developments. Other objective are:
To justify the goal compatibility of a project with the preferred technology;
To seek a better available alternative technology which is both cost effective and
To seek such a technology that can go with existing skill levels of team members
or requires little orientation and training programmers;
To seek a better technology that is not detrimental to the overall environment.
The technology that is used in projects can be classifies on the basis of:
Purpose for which it is applied;
Level at which it is used;
Nature of skills applied while using the technology. On the basis of purpose, the
technology can be:
Manufacturing technology which is generally used in manufacturing industries
like textiles industries like textile industries, steel industries, etc.,
64. Extraction technology which is used in extraction of basic raw materials such as
oils, petroleum products, coal and pig iron, etc.,
Conversion technology which is used in process industries like cement sugar, etc.
Pre-fabricated technology which is used in construction industries like roads,
bridges, and buildings, sheds etc., On the basis of the level at which technology is
used the classification is as follows:
Core technology, which is a base for any industrial activity like basic plant and
machinery that is erected. For example, Lakshmi Machine works textile machine
installed in the textile firm.
Engineerign and design technology which supports the core technology by
providing basic layouts and helps in erecting the plant at the required site.
Considering the above example, the machine has to be linked with essential
spindles and spools through which the yarn is supplied to the machine on which
the yarn will be warped and weft.
Intermediate technology, which supports both core technology and engineering
and design program with sufficient intermediaries such as heavy machine tools
and devices to mobilize input and output and output of firm and continue to
operate the machinery.
Component technology, which is labeled as supplied or consumable for the core,
engineering and even intermediate technology. For example, spare parts of a
machine, screws lubricating oil, belts, electrical connections and other
engineering fittings etc.
Essential of technological appraisal
While performing a technological appraisal some of the vital ingredients that need
The state of existing the available technology
Training needs of personnel for the present technology and for the new
Availability of technical know-how;
Input base for the technology or its compatibility with the input
Future progressive integration of the technology for modifications or
Wider product-mix and its by-products;
Minimization of waste, loss or scrap in the process or its development;
Stability to changes and its relative obsolescence rate;
Other techno-economic considerations (side effects of technology
transfers on the labour lay-off etc.)
Generally, while appraising technical feasibility of any project, the
following points are carefully considered
Availability of critical inputs
The critical inputs mean all the basic location and operational requirements which
make the project viable. These include:
Raw materials. For instance, sugar factories are situated near sugarcane producing
Availability of land.
Nearness to market for finished product. The units producing heavy bulk finished
goods are always situated near the regional market.
Availability of essential utilities like water, power and fuel.
Availability of skilled/unskilled labour in the proximity.
Facility for disposal of effluents
Availability of suitable technical and administrative personnel.
Adequacy of arrangements for pollution control and for environment protection.
The capacity of the plant and manufacturing process and suitability
of the technology employed
These call for carefull consideration regarding choosing right size of the plant,
proper layout and correct technical design. The capacity of the plant should be
neither too low rendering it uneconomic nor too high to keep it idle. This has
assumed tremendous importance especially in view of the fact that Indian industry
has a tendency to have cost and high capital output ratio.
Plant the Machinery
In this regard careful consideration should be given to the following aspects.
Suitability of plant and machinery for the manufacturing process to be adopted:
66. Name and reputation of the supplier of plant and machinery:
Their availability in time so as to avoid any time and cost overrun:
Reasonableness of their cost:
Provision for performance guarantee the after sale service y the suppliers.
Project planning and scheduling
Planning should be pragmatic and proper so that the construction and gestation
period are estimated properly and there are not time and cost over-run. Of late,
many f the projects have failed because of faulty planning at the initial stage and
subsequent delay in sanction/release of more funds by banks/financial institutions.
Generally, the CPM techniques are used for net-work scheduling.
The various points one has to take into consideration while estimating time are:
Permission for collaboration arrangement and the present position
regarding signing of the same
Consent of the appropriate authority for disposal of effluents
SEBI’s consent for issue of capital, if applicable
Import licensed for plant and machinery and raw materials
Typing up of credit facilities from financial institutions/banks
Possible timing of issue of capital including underwriting arrangement for
Acquisition of land
Construction ( Civil and architectural)
Supply of plant and machinery including installation thereof
Recruitment of manpower
Supply of raw materials
Start up and trial run
C) APPRAISAL OF MANAGERIAL COMPETENCE
This is most difficult job to evaluate the “MAN or MEN” behind the project. It
has been the practical experience of the bank/financial institutions the even the
most technically feasible and financially/commercially viable project has been a
total failure because of lack of management experience. The problem may
become all the more serios if the managemnte is dishonest/delinquent rather than
inefficient and ineffective. Unfortunately, there is no scientific yardstick by which
67. managerial competence can be judged objectively. For an established group of
industrialists floating a new company unit, the banker can have at least, an idea of
the background of the promoters. Much also depends whether the existing
promoters belong to the ‘Blue Chip’ group or not. But, in case of a new promoters
floating a new project, the problem of judging managerial competence induces
some kind of subjectivity in the decision of the banks/financial institutions. In
appraisal parlance, such evaluation is known as ‘Principle of three Cs’ i.e.
Character, Capacity and Credit worthiness. The following table will show some
principles of credit evaluation in terms of Cs of credit.
Will the borrower repay
the loan according to the
Does the borrower have
the ability the loan
creditworthy for the
amount of loan applied?
How much liquid assets
the borrower has for
Is the loan backed by
Do the current economic
conditions indicate any
borrower’s ability to
repay the loan?
Credit reference, Market
Viability of the project,
Generation of surplus
Educational and family
borrower: capacity to
raise loans from friends
value of the collateral
condition of the country:
Some of the other points that observe careful consideration in this regard can be
enumerated as under:
Composition of board and the management set-up
In case the unit is proposed to be set up with foreign collaboration, the
standard and status of the collaborators in the international market.
In case of existing undertaking, the existing state of industrial relations,
i.e. rate of employee-turnover, parks and benefits available to the
employees, workers’ participation n management etc.,
D) FINANCIAL APPRAISAL
68. The basic purpose of financial appraisal is to assess whether the unit will generate
sufficient surplus so as to meet the outside obligations. Financial appraisal usually
examines two aspects of finance:
The cost of the project: i.e., the amount required to complete the project and bring
it to normal operation
The means of financing the cost i.e. the sources from which the required funds are
to be raised.
After computing the cost of the project and means of finance, the various factors
required for assessment of financial viability which a banker should carefully
examine, are as under:
Reasonableness of cost of project
The project cost should be reasonable: However, assessing reasonableness of the
project cost is a very difficult and delicate task. Here, generally, the technique of
inter-firm comparison is used which compares the project cost estimates with the
cost of comparable units in the same industry.
Debt-Equity ratio: This is a very important consideration as there should not be
mismatch between the external debt (Long-term) and the equity of the enterprise.
Debt-equity ratio =
Long term debt
Equity consists of Equity share capital
Preference share capital redeemable after 12 years
Note: In case of assisted projects (26% SIDC & 25% promoter)
The shares subscribed by both of them are taken as equity. Long term debt
1) Long term loans raised or proposed to be raised.
3) Preference shares redeemable before 12 years.
69. Maximum Permissible ratio
3:1 for small scale industries
2:1 for medium scale industries (upto cost of project of 20 cr.)
However, for heavy capital intensive industries like cement plant fertilizer plant
of ship breaking unit, this can be further relaxed.
Promoter’s contribution: It is very important to know about the promoter’s stake
in his own enterprise. As such a minimum amount of promoter’s contributin is
insisted for consideration of any proposal. From the point of view of all India
financial institutions, generally, the minimum contribution of the promoter should
be as under.
For units situated in ‘A’ category districts
For units situated in ‘B’ category districts
For units situated in ‘C’ category districts
For any other industrial unit
Sensitivity Study: This carried out to see that the unit would be able to serve its
debts & give reasonable return under less optimistic conditions. For determining,
profitability of the project generally projections are obtained over the entire
repayment period (say 7 to 10 years) in the following areas:
Cost of Production
Debt service coverage ratio
Break even point
The appraiser should satisfy himself about the reasonableness of the bsic
assumption on which the above projections are made. The important assumptions
generally looked into are:
Capacity build up
Cost of raw materials
Estimates of salaries & wages
Estimates of administrative expenses
Expected selling price
Provisions made for depreciation
Provisions for various taxation liabilities
70. The assumptions should be reasonable and realistic. In case, the assumption are
not pragmatic, the same can be got changed by the bank and fresh figures can be
compiled. But the basic consideration the banker should have it that the cash
generation position of the unit should be quite comfortable throughout the
repayment period. An ideal debt service coverage aimed at is 2:1.
A model problem for ascertaining cash flow projection and the financial viability
of the project are given below:
The project appraisal division of a leading car manufacturing company is
considering to take up a new project unrelated to its existing range of products. It
has prepared the market and technical feasibility report. The project has a life of 5
years. The financial estimates relating to project cost, financing plan, revenue and
operating costs and other information are given as under:
The estimated project cost Rs. 160 crores. It consists of Rs. 96 crores of fixed
assets and Rs.64 crores of working capital margin.
The financing plan is as under:
Rs. 32 crores
Rs. 64 crores
Bank finance for working capital
Rs. 32 crores
Rs. 32 crores
The estimated sales and operating costs (excluding depreciation) are Rs. 192
crores and RS. 144 crores per annum respectively. The description on fixed asset
would be @ 20% p.a. based on the written down method.
The salvage of fixed assets and current assets will be equal to their book values.
The principal of the term loan will be repaid in four equal annual instalments of
Rs. 16 crores each. The first installment wil fall due t the end of the second year
and the last instalment at the end of the 5th year. The outstanding term loan would
carry interest @ 12% p.a. The levels of short term bank finance and trade credit
will remain at Rs. 32 crore level each, on account of the roll-over phenomenon,
till they are paid back at the end of the 5 th year. The short term bank finance will
carry interest rate of 20% p.a.
The company falls in the 50% tax bracket)
71. You are required to:
(a) asses the financial viability of the project from equity,
long-term funds and total funds points of view.
(b) Prepare a financial feasibility report to be submitted to
the management for final consideration.
(a) The financial viability of the above project can be checked by preparing
the cash flow projections for a period of five years from equity, long-term
and total funds perspectives.
Statement of Cash flow Projections for the New Project
(a comprehensive view)
Working capital margin
Interest on long term funds
Interest on short term
Profit before tax
Profit after tax and interest
Net salvage value of fixed
Net recovery of working
Repayment of term-loans
Repayment of short- term
(i) Initial investment
- equity point of view
- long term funds
- total funds
(ii) Operating cash inflows
- equity vies
72. - long terms funds
- total funds
(iii) Terminal cash flows
- equity view
- long term funds
- total funds
Net cash flows from
- the long term funds
- the total funds view
(b) Profitability Projections for the Final Considerations of the Management
Estimates of working results
Cost of project
Interest on long term funds
Interest on short term
Profit before tax
Profit after tax and interest
Net cash accrual
Sai enterprises is interested in assessing the cash flows associated with
replacement of an old machine by a new machine. The old machine has a book
values of RS. 90,000 and it can be sold for Rs. 90,000. It has a remaining life of 5
years after which the salvage value is expected to be nil. It is beign depreciated
annaualy at the rate of 10% using written down value method. The new machine
costs RS. 4 lakhs. It is expected to fetch Rs. 2.5 lakhs after 5 years when it will no
longer be required. It will also be depreciated annually @ 10% using W.d.v.
method. The new machine is expected to save Rs. 1 lakh in manufacturing costs.
Investment in working capital would remain unaffected. The tax rate applicable to
the firm is 50%.
You as a project analyst are required to work out the incremental cash flows
associated with the replacement of old machine and prepare a statement ot be
presented to the management for consideration.
The above case refer to replacement project. In such cases, one must take the
following pints into consideration:
Comparison of new machine with the old machine from the overall cash
flows points of view;
Comparison of new impact of the ‘replacement’ or ‘relating the old
machine’ over the cash flows;
Financing mix used for the replacement and its impact on the interest rates
to observe the effect on the profit after interest and tax.
At least two of the above factors should be applied here to analyse the position
and present the analysis for managerial consideration. The following cash flow
statement will help present the situation better.
Cash flows for the Replacement of machinery of Sai Enterprises
(Rs in crores)
1. Net Investment in the
2. Savings in manufacturing
3. Depreciation on the old
4. Depreciation on the new
5. Incremental Depreciation
6. Incremental taxable
7. Incremental tax
8. Incremental profit after
9. Net incremental salvage
(a) Initial investment (1)
(b) Operating cash flows
(c) Terminal cash flows
Net investment (Rs. 4 lakhs less Rs. 90,000) = Rs. 3.1 lakhs
Savings of the new machine are given in the problem, i.e. 1 lakh.
74. Incremental depreciation is derived by considering depreciation of the new
machine less depreciation of the old machine.
Operating cash flows = Incremental depreciation + Incremental profit after tax.
E) PROFITABILITY ANALYSIS
The financial projection such as profitability estimates, cashflow estimates and
projected balance sheets are the basis for assessing the viability of the project.
Therefore, verification of profitability estimates is highly important for the proper
appraisal of the term loan proposal.
The profitability estimate should always accompany the assumptions based on
which the profitability estimates have been prepared.
Many important parameters such as sales, operating profit, net profit, equity, debt,
current assets. Current liabilities, etc. do not give much information if figure is
studied in isolation. If a ratio is calculated between related items, the ratio
indicates the relationship between two or more than two variable, thus giving
meaningful information for taking decision. Some of the ratio useful for banks are
A. LOAN SAFETY RATIO
This indicated the relationship between term liabilities and owned funds and helps
in assessing the capital gearing. The debt shall include long term loans,
debentures, deferred payment preference shares due for redemption between 1 to
3 years. The equity includes ordinary share capital, preference share capital due
for redemption after 3 years, investment subsidy, unsecured loans subordinated to
the term loan, internal accruals, non refundable deposits in the case of
B. CURRENT RATIO
(Current assets to current liabilities)
The ratio indicates the liquidity posing of the company. Current assets should be
more than current liabilities. The acceptable ratio should be between 1.5 to 2.1.
The ratio beyond 2.1 will indicate that either the inventories are stocked
unnecessarily or the products produced are not sold. The current ratio will
indicate the necessity for proper inventory control.
75. C. DEBT SERVICE COVERAGE RATIO (DSCR)
The ratio indicates the capacity of the unit to repay the term loan liabilities and
interest thereon. It is important ratio for lending institution as the repayment
period has to be suitably fixed based on this ratio. This ratio indicates the cash
generation the term liabilities to be paid out of this and balance left for the
company’s use. Repayment of term loan without generating sufficient cash will
lead to reduction in working in the working capital, tight liquidity positon and
further deterioration in the working of the unit. The acceptable ratio should not be
less than 1.5: 1 which indicates that 1.5 times cash is generated to pay the terms,
loan liabilities of one time. The formula calculation of the DSCR is given below:
Net profit + Depreciation + Interest on term Loan liabilities
------------------------------------------------------------------------Payment of term loans + interest on loans
The DSCR should be calculated for each year of operation and also for the entire
repayment period as an advance.
D. MARGIN OF SECURITY
The term loans are generally sanctioned against the security of fused assets. The
excess of fixed assets over the term loans provides margin for the term loans.
Value of fixed assets – term loans
Margin of security = --------------------------------------------- x 100
Value of fixed assets
5. Productivity Ratio are:
Capital employed to value of output sales
Capital employed to Net Value added
Investment per worker
Productivity per worker
6. Profitability ratio are:
Percentage of raw material to value of output
Percentage of wages and salaries to value of output
Percentage in interest to value of output
Percentage of operating profit of output
Percentage of operating profit to sales
76. Percentage of profit after tax equity
A list showing the method of calculation of above ratios and their usefulness is
BREAK EVEN POINT (BEP)
The manufacturing cost consists of two costs viz. fixed costs and variable costs.
Certain type costs viz. depreciation, interest on term loan, repair and maintenance,
rent and insurance, wages and salaries, administrative expenses etc. has to be
incurred by the unit irrespective of the level of operative of the level of operation.
This cost will not change with the level of operation and they are called fixed
costs. All the other costs viz. cost of raw material consumables, power, water,
stores, packing charges, selling expenses etc. which vary with eth level of
operation is called variable cost. The BEP is the level at which the unit should
operate to meet the fixed costs. It is level of operation, where there is no profit or
loss for the unit. The BEP is calculated using the following formula.
----------------------- x ---------------Sales-variable cost
% BEP in terms
Max. capacity utilisation
of installed capacity = ---------------- x -------------------------------- x 100
The appraising officer should follow uniform policy to divide the total cost into
fixed cost and variable cost as certain cost neither remain fixed nor changed in the
same proportion in which the level of production changes.
DISCOUNTED CASH FLOW TECHNIQUES
A project should earn sufficient return which should be at les equal to the cost of
capital invested in it. The following evaluation techniques helps to identify the
best investment proposal amongst the available.
Pay back method
Average rate of return method
Net present value method
Internal rate of return
77. a) Pay back method
The period required for recovering the entire investment made the project is
calculated. The shorter is the period better return. The cash flow (operating profit
+ depreciation + other non cash write off-tax) is accumulated year by year until it
equals the original investment. However, this method ignores the cash inflow
received after crossing the pay back period. This method is best suited where the
emphasis is on avoidance of long term risk.
b) Average rate of return
Unlike the pay back period method, the entire life of the project is taken into
account. The average annual net operating profit (after depreciation) for the entire
life of the project is calculated and the rate of return of original investment in an
year is calculated by taking the average of opening and closing boo values of the
investment in the year. The grand average of such average investment of all years
is obtained to know the average investment of the project gives the average rate
of return. This method does not give any importance to the time value of the
money and also the life differential of the projects.
c) Net present value method (NPV)
Pay back method and average rate of return method does not give importance to
the time value of money. The money invested today will not be equal to the
money received in the future. Therefore, the time value of the money also should
be taken into account while determining the return for the present investment.
Under this method, the future cashflow of all the years during the expected life of
the project are discounted at a predetermined cut-off rate and the net present value
id obtained. The cut-off rate should be either equal to or more than the cost of the
funds. The present investment is an outflow of funds and hence treated as having
minus value. If the difference between the present investment and the new present
value of cash inflow is positive than it indicates that the profit is greater than the
cost of the capital.
d) Internal rate of return (IRR)
NPV method indicates, the net present value of the future cash flows at a
predetermined discount rate and the project is accepted for investment if the
return of a project, the net cashflow in each year are discounted at various
discounting rates till the sum of net presten values of cashflow equal the cash
outflow. Such a rate of discount which would equate the present value of
investments to the present value of future benefits over the life of the projects.
78. Problem 1
NMH Industries is considering proposal involving procurement of a special
machine to produce a new product. The technical term furnished two alternative
machines whose investment costs are Rs. 50,000 each and life span is 4 years.
After the expire of its useful life, the vendors guaranteed to buy back at Rs. 5,000
each. The management of the company uses certainly equivalent approach to
evaluate risky investments. The company’s risk adjusted discount rate is 16% and
the risk-free rate is 10%. The expected values of net cash flows (CFAT) with their
respective certainly equivalents are as follows:
Which machine should be purchased, out of the above, by the company?
NPV Under Certainly Equivalent Approach:
The above analysis clears the fog surrounding investment ossibilities.
Machine A is resulting in higher NPV compared to Machine B. Therefore,
machine A should be purchased having the highest NPV at risk free rate.
Sastha Ltd. is considering a project with the following cash flows.
79. Purchase of Plant
The cost of capital is 8%. Measure the sensitivity of the project to changes in the
levels of plant value, running costs and savings (considering each factor at a time)
so that the NPV becomes zero. Which factor is most sensitive to affect the
acceptability of the project.
The PV factors at 8% discount rate are:
The Net present value of Cash flow
PV factor Plant cost
The project a may be accepted as it is having a positive NPV of Rs. 560.5.
The sensitivity of project towards various costs can be performed as under
(1) Plant costs may needs to be increased by a PV of 560.
7,000 x 5 = 8.007% or by 8%
(2) Running Costs may need to increased by
3,994.5 x 100 = 14.03% or by 14%
(3) Savings may be reduced y
11,555 x 100 = 4.85%
80. According to this analysis, it is clear that savings having a lowest sensitivity ratio
gets affected most while accepting the project.
Ganesh Industries Ltd. is considering to acquire a new plant for its existing
industry in order to expend the output the output whose investment will be Rs.
2,00,000. The expected life of this new plant is 8 years having no salvage value at
the end of 8th year. The future cash flows and their probabilities for couple of year
are as under.
1 year Cash Probability
2nd Year Cash Probability
that cashflow flow
Plot the project proposal in a decision tree indication clearly the variations at each
level of cash flows and suggest the company whether to proceed with the plant or
not if the cost of capital is 10% [P/V Factor at 10% 1st = 0.909; 2nd – 0.826]
NPV of cash flows at 10% discount rate
Year (Cash flows in Rs)
PV at 10%
81. With the help of the above table of contents, decision-tree can be constructed as
Prob. Cash Prob. Cash JP
The project is exhibiting a positive expected net present value indicating its
success. The project can therefore be accepted.
F) SOCIAL COST BENEFIT ANALYSIS (SCBA)
It is a methodology for evaluating investment projects from social point of view.
SCBA seeks to assess the utility of a project to society as a whole. It attempts ot
separate all the expected changes viz. economic, social and environmental likely
to arise as a result of implementing the project. These can be represented as inputs
and outputs of a project and a price can be put to each of these input an output.
Since both inputs and outputs are spread over a number of years, it is necessary to
combine the costs and benefits stream that arise over the economic life of the
ORIGIN: Methodological guidelines of SCBA have been developed by
international agencies like OECD and UNIDO, Planning commission issued in
1975 guidelines for the preparation of feasibility reports for industrial reports.
In the preceding section, we have examined different aspects of commercial
evaluation of the project. An individual may tend to evaluate only the commercial
profitability of a project.
However, in case of public projects like irrigation projects, power projects,
transport projects or other infrastructural projects or social overhead projects,
national profitability (i.e. the net socio economic benefits) considerations are as
important as, and sometimes more important than commercial profitability
consideration. Even in respect of projects sponsored by private entrepreneurs,
national profitability analysis is important, particularly in developing countries,
because of the need to optimize the utilization of scarce resource from the societal
point of view.
82. The national profitability of a project is measured by assessing the extent to which
it makes a net contribution to meeting the socioeconomic objectives of
National profitability analysis essentially involves a socio economic cost-benefit
analysis. Every project entails some cost to the nation and produces certain
benefits. There are both direct and indirect costs and benefits, although the
distinction between ‘direct’ and ‘indirect’ is not sometimes clear out.
Calculation of national profitability of a project is based on its net contribution to
the socio-economic objectives of the development policy of the nation. Therefore,
in the Indian context, the social and economic viability of a project will be judged
on the basis of its net contribution to:
Aggregate consumption and economic growth
Generation of employment
Foreign exchange earnings/savings
Development of backward regions
Development of small-scale and ancillary industries
Backward and forward linkages and development
Developments of infrastructure
Development/Improvement and transfer to technology
Improvement of quality and productivity
Improvement in the quality of life and national well-being.
Assessment of national profitability is very complicated. It is not possible to
identify all the indirect costs and benefits of some projects. Further, even in cases
of many identifiable variables, it is not possible to accurately estimate the indirect
costs and the value of the indirect benefits.
It is also difficult to estimate the real cost of direct inputs and the real value of the
output. Another important problems is the determination of the social rate of
In the social cost-benefit analysis the relevant cost is the opportunity cost. The
opportunity cost is the (i.e. the benefit) of the cost alternative foregone due to a
particular course of action.
83. It is implied from the above definition of opportunity cost that there is no
opportunity cost when there is no alternative. For example, the opportunity cost of
self-employment is the salary for the best job he could have obtained. But if he
does not have any job opportunity other than the self-employment, there is no
opportunity cost for the self-employment.
Resources have opportunity costs when they have alternative uses. When there
scarcity of resources, decisions about resources allocation should be base on a
careful assessment of the opportunity costs of the alternatives. To illustrate,
assume that financial resources are scarce and the total resources available with
the financial institution for lending is Rs. 10 lakhs and there are three applications
for finance viz., project A requiring assistance of Rs. 10 lakhs and project B
requiring Rs. Lakhs. And project C requiring Rs. 4 lakhs. The opportunity cost of
project A is project B and C. Even if all the projects are profitable and feasible, if
the net benefits from A s higher than the aggregate net benefits from B and C,
project A should be preferred according to the opportunity cost principle.
In the opportunity cost analysis pertaining to the national profitability analysis it
is not the commercial profitability but the net contribution to the national
objective that is considered. Consider, for example, the situation of a commercial
bank having to consider applications for loan by two projects – a textile retail
shop in an existing commercial areas in a city and an agricultural development
scheme – and that the loanable funds with the bank is sufficient only finance any
one of these two competing projects.
Assume, further, that the commercial profitability of the textile shop is relatively
high and that of the agricultural project is low but it will increase the output of
some important agriculturl commodity. In this situation the lending institution
should prefer the agricultural project because though it is commercially less
viable than the textile shop, it will make a higher contribution to the national
output. Even if the proposed textile shop is not opened, the total textile output or
sale will not be affected but if the agricultural project is not assisted, it will
adversely affect the total output. It clearly shows that in the national profitability
analysis, application of the opportunity cost principle is very essential.
The opportunity cost principle assumes more importance in economics
characterized by scarcity of resources. When cement and steel are in short supply,
the opportunity cost of posh cinema theater may be a hospital or school building
and the opportunity cost of a number of post buildings may be can irrigation
project, power project, or a transport infrastructure project.
We have stated earlier that in the social cost benefit analysis or in the national
profitability analysis, the prices of inputs and outputs of the project should be
suitability corrected to reflect the real cost if the market prices are characterized
84. by distortions of any type. Shadow price, also known as accounting price, refers
to such adjusted price of the input/output so as to reflect its real cost of value.
For example, if the price charged for electricity supplied to an industrial unit in 50
paise per unit when the cost of production of electricity is one rupee, the price of
electricity is to considered in the commercial profitability analysis is 50 paise per
unit but in the national profitability analysis the relevant cost of electricity is one
rupee per unit which is the real cost of production. Thus, the market price of
electricity is 50 paise but its shadow price (accounting price) used for the national
profitability analysis is one rupee.
To take another example, suppose that the cost of imported patrol is Rs. 3 per liter
but the selling price in the domestic market is Rs. 7 per litre because of a tax or
Rs. 4 per litre. The shadow price of imported petrol would, therefore, be Rs. 3 per
litre because the remaining Rs. 4 of the market price or Rs. 7 represents a mere
transfer of income from one sector to another sector within the economic and it
does not represent a resource cost or sacrifice to the nation.
In short, the accounting price of an input, such as capital, labour or foreign
exchange represents its opportunity cost or the loss to the economy that would
result from a reduction in its supply by one unit. A factor that is expected to be in
short supply should have an accounting price higher than its market price, while
one that is surplus should have a valuation that is lower than its market price.
Eg. SCBA Balance Sheet of Nuclear Power Project (Pearce & Nash 81)
Gain in Gross domestic
Social cost of extra GDP to
be generated by the project
Routine Radiation (loss of
human life) in value
Depending on the value judgement of decision making authority, the final
decision could be taken.
Social cost benefit analysis (SCBA) is a perfect necropsy where the identification
and determination of the best among project alternatives is made with reference to
a country’s economic and social prerogatives. It is a systematic procedure for
comprehensive review of all the costs, benefits, and effects of a project. Such
appraisal is preformed for development and infrastructure projects usually by
85. emphasizing the economic, technical, operational, institutional, and financial
factors to ensure that the selected project meets all necessary requirement and is
SCBA focuses on the following objectives:
To contribute effectively to GDP of an economy;
To aid in economic development;
To justify the utilization of economy’s scare of growth;
To maintain and protect environment from pollution;
To educate new lines of functioning that are simple and cost effective;
To benefit the rural poor and reduce regional imbalances;
To justify the risks undertaken to implement and the sacrifices made in the
Therefore, it is important to identify the major economic, environmental, social
ant other factors a project may influence directly or indirectly. For instance,
introducting a coal-fired power plant in a location previously supplied with power
over long transmission lines at great cost would introduce economic benefits in
terms of lower power costs, higher supply reliability and local employment at the
power plant and support activities. Similarly, economic costs might include the
use of local land for use of the power plant and coal handling or storage activities,
air pollution from both the plant and coal handling, ground water and soil
pollution from both the plant and coal handling, ground or storage activities, air
pollution from coal washing and run-off, temperature (heat) pollution from heat
rejection of cooling water, congestion of roads and or rail corridors, reduction of
investment capital for other projects, commitment of local consumption, and
various other indirect costs. Some of the local costs are usually hidden under
various concessions given to public development projects, such as capital
generation by use of tax-free bonds, use of public land subsidizing local
development constructions, etc.
The net benefits equation can be written as:
NB = α( βγδX − βM − γδd )
weighing factor for exchange rate stability;
weighing factor for impact of protective practices;
weighting factor for labour availability
weighting factor for adequacy of support services
86. Few notable contributions towards social-cost-benefit approach are:
UNIDO - Guidelines for Project Evaluations released during early 70s
M.D. Little, J.A. Mirrlees – Appraisal and Planning for Developing
Fundamental focus of these guidelines is net increase in the aggregate
consumption of an economy due to the project output. Other subsidiary objectives
are noted as:
Changes in the distribution of domestic income;
Changes in the savings and investment levels of a community;
Change in the labour market due to project implementation, etc.
Therefore, to survey the above objectives, the guidelines advocate the followi
steps for the appraiser.
Identification of direct and indirect costs and benefits that affect the
aggregate consumption of an economy;
The consumption of the shadow prices of labour, foreign exchange, and
The estimation of the social rate of discount, and also of relative weights
to be attached to the net benefits accruing to various groups in the
economy if redistribution of income is considered as a separate objectives.
In a nutshell, the UNIDO guidelines bases its arguments on:
The financial profitability of a project;
The net effect of costs and benefits on the economic situation of a country;
The opportunity cost of the investment;
The financial profitability which is similar to that used in normal commercial
ventures based on Discounted Cash Flow techniques and other standard financial
The concept of shadow prices that are associated with various types of goods and
services dealt in the project.
Diamond – Mirrleess Approach
Little and Mirrlees, through their pioneering efforts, interpret the problem of
LDCs as follows:
In an LDC, the foreign trade sector is considered as the public sector
program. The public sector projects are to be efficient by setting their
prices equal to marginal costs.
(P = MC – leaving to room for loss)
Under such a threshold pricing level only world prices should be used as
Distribution and efficiency be the twin important objectives of a
government policy that affects project performance.
Therefore, shadow prices give risk to effect on social welfare of a small change in
quantity of an input or output. Its value depends on the welfare function being
used and the constraints imposed.
Rationale for Using World Prices as ‘Shadow Prices’
While consideration shadow pricing philosophy, commodities are classified into
Traded goods for which the elasticities of demand and supply in the
market are infinite;
Traded goods which are having definite elasticities of demand and supply
in the global markets;
Non-traded goods that are not being traded and will never be traded
provided optimal trade policies are employed by the economy;
Potentially traded goods that are not presently traded but can be traded if
the trade policies are optimal.
In all the above cases, world prices are recommended to be used as shadow prices
since domestic pricing policies keep changing.
The crux of the Diamond and Mirrlees approach is that, application of world
prices as shadow prices helps offset the fluctuations in domestic prices and
justifies the project from the economy’s point of view. They emphasis productive
efficiency, trade efficiency, and optimal operations. This depends on the existence
of optimal commodity taxes without which the exceptions to the rule of using
world prices would disappear.
Project Appraisal-an Indian scenario
The project appraisal division (PAD) of the planning commission follows a
qualified version of Litle-Mirrlees approach of projects appraisal to sit through
the social-cost benefit analysis. Therefore, the assumptions that are considered in
the L – M approach stands valid even for the Indian conditions. In addition to the
above, the PAD grouped the projects of national importance into three m order to
88. safeguard from the ever-changing tariff policies and eliminate trade-offs between
growth and equity. These groups are:
Capital intensive industrial projects;
Agricultural and rural development projects.
The capital intensive industrial projects are appraised and evaluated on the basis
of ‘efficiency’ criteria. The efficiency criteria bases its arguments on Economic
Rate of Return (ERR) of a project. This approach is generally followed by all
leading development financial institutions of the country such as ICICI, IFCI,
IDBI and other SFIs.
The infrastructural investments are appraised based on the net benefits accured to
a country through the project. The appraisal division will visualize the economic
situation in the presence or absence of the project and judge the balance of
payments of the country. Therefore, here the shadow prices will be of great
Agricultural and rural development projects bases it arguments on the criteria of
shadow wage rate and social protection rate. The wage rate is determined by
considering the world prices of labour and the opportunity costs will be
considered to analysis the situation f the economic costs and benefits of such
Let us briefly bivouac on these three important measures which are widely
applicable to projects of national importance.
Economic Rate of Return (ERR)
In order to compute the ERR, the world prices are considered instead of domestic
market prices will be considered with C.I.F. prices for inputs and F.O.B. prices
for output and for tradable goods where the international prices are not available
and for non-tradable goods, social conversion factor (SCF) is essential to convert
actual rupee value into the social cost or benefit derived.
Relationship between SCF and SER
SCF = --------------------------------X ( 1-tx ) + ( 1 + tm )
exports, M = imports, tx = average export tax,
89. tm = average import tax
SCF is engineered to be shipshape in twin ways:
For any minor non-tradable goods whose contribution to the project is so
insignificant that a more precise estimation would not affect the overall
outcome to an appreciable extent, for example postage stamps;
Non-tradable that remains constant after one or two founds of using the
This can be defined as the ratio which translates the domestic price for any nontradable into its price value so that the good can be expressed in terms of its real
domestic price equivalent.
The shadow exchange rate can be defined as “that rate of exchange which
accurately reflects the consumption worth of an extra unit of foreign exchange in
terms of the domestic currency”. Say an extra US$ is earned by the public project,
what domestic consumption value would it buy? If it is useful to divide SER by
official exchange rate (OER), therefore, if one dollar is convertible into Rs. 35
Effective Rate of Protection (ERP)
ERP is a simple measurement that attempt to determine the true or effective
magnitude of the tariff on inputs of a public project. Practically the normal rate of
tariff may be 25% and if majority of output from public project is contributed
with the help of imports, the domestic resources are being protected at a rate
much higher than 25%. According to Bhagawati and Desai, the ERP can be
defined as “the incremental value added is the difference between value added at
domestic prices and at import prices”. Therefore, this can be expressed as:
Value added at market prices – Value added at world prices
-----------------------------------------------------------------------Value added at world prices
This can also be represented as
Value added at market prices
-----------------------------------Value added at world prices
Value added at market prices
i.e. ERP = DRC – 1 DRC =Value added at world prices
Therefore, ERP helps in project appraisal in similar lines with DRC provided a
slight change is followed in the form of reducing SER.
ERP + 1 < SER for any socially acceptable projects.
Fundamental of DRC
The DRC (Domestic Resource Cost) version of Lal (1974) presents the criterion
SER> ---------(X – M)
Value added at market prices
Value added at world prices
Where, value added is the difference between the value of what a project produces
and the value of nay inputs purchased from elsewhere.
The measurement of ‘value added’ depends on many characteristics such as
technology, labour, etc.
Value added at domestic price is simply the value of payments made to domestic
capital and labour.
For example, we assume that there are two goods Q1 and Q2 which are traded
along with a good Q3 which is domestically produced to export through the public
project. Two domestic inputs K and L are used for this purpose. The world prices
of these goods can be assumed as P1, P2, P3 respectively. The traded by applying
the equation we can compute DRC as,
w = wage rate,
( w × l3 ) + ( r × k 3 )
p 3 − ( p1 × f1 )
91. l3 = labour used in manufacture of product Q3 i.e. L/Q3
r = rate of interest
k3 = capital used for product Q3 i.e. K/Q3
f1 = share of Q1 and Q2
A DRC focuses on the size of domestic resources given up per unit of foreign
exchange earned. It is only in these terms that the ratio makes sense.
Illustration : The following details are available in respect of a project:
Value of tradeable inputs at domestic prices
Value of non-tradeable inputs at domestic prices
Value of tradeable inputs at world prices
Sales realization at domestic prices
Sales realization at world prices
Effective Rate of Protection (ERP) of the project. Comment on the ERP
If the exchange rate of rupee per US dollar is 35, what is the Domestic
recourses cost of the project?
Sales realization (SP)
At domestic prices (Rs At world
92. ERP =
Value added at domestic prices - Value added at world prices
Value added at world prices
120 − 60
×100 = 100%
If value added at domestic prices is same as the value added at world prices, ERP
= 0 which means project does not enjoy any protection. Here the project enjoys
100% protection against international competition.
Value added at domestic prices
×Exchange rate =(120 ÷ 60) × Rs. 35
Value added at world prices
= Rs. 70 crore
LIMITATIONS OF SCBA
No standard method or technical applicable to all types of investment project.
Quantification and measurement of social and benefits are formidable.
However these limitation can be rectified by removing subjectivity in it.
Thus the project has to be appraised that the project will generate sufficient return
on the resources invested in it. The viability of the project depend on technical
feasibility, marketability of the products at a profitable price, availability of
financial resources in time and proper management of the unit. It should be also
within the framework of national priorities bases on social cost benefits analysis.
In brief a project should satisfy the tests of technical, commercial, financial and
managerial feasibilities as given above.
SELF ASSESSMENT QUESTION
1. What are the required information for the proper project appraisal?
2. Describe the different stages in the project appraisal process.
3. Write “Significance of appraising the managerial competence from an
industrial project and how it can be made?
4. Explain the different methods of profitability appraisal of a project.
5. What do you mean by SCBA? How it can be made.
6. What are Economic Rate of Return and Effective Rate of Protection and
how it could be computed?
7. Explain the UNIDO guidelines for SCB Analysis.
93. LESSON – 7
To know the nature and significance of project planning,
To explain the steps involved in the project planning,
To give an idea about project designing and time estimation.
Project Planning is foreseeing with blue print towards some predicated goals or
ends. Project plan is a skeleton which consists of bundle of activities with its
future prospects; it is a guided activity. It is a plan for which resour4ces are
allocated and efforts are being made to commence the project with great amount
of preplanning, project is a way of defining what we are hoping to do about
certain issue. The project alone is not responsible for what happens during the
course of a planning. Project is a final form of written documents that guides us as
to what steps need to be taken next.
NATURE OF PROJECT PLANNING
One cannot conceive a project in a linear manner. It involves for activities,
resources, constraints and interrelationships which can be visualized easily by the
human mind and planned informally. However, when a project crosses a certain
threshold level of size and complexities, informal planning has to be substituted
by formal planning. Besides that it is an open system oriented planned change
attempt which has certain parameters and dimension. So that, the need for formal
planning is indeed much greater for project work than for normal operations. The
pre-defined and outlined in detail plan of action helps than manners to perform
their task more effectively and efficiently.
There are always competing demands on the resources available in a region or a
country because of the limited availability and ever expanding human needs.
Planning for the optimum utilization of available resources becomes a pre
requisite for rapid economic development of a country or a region. Project
planning makes a possible to list out the priorities and promising projects with a
view to exercising national choice among various alternatives available. It is a
tool by which a planner can identify a good project and to make sound
NEED FOR PROJECT PLANNING
One of the objectives of project planning is to completely define all work
requested so that it will be readily identifiable to each project participant. Besides
that there are four basic reasons for project planning.
94. To eliminate or reduce uncertainty
To improve efficiency of the operation
To obtain a better understanding of the objectives
To provide a basis for monitoring and controlling work
FUNCTIONS OF PROJECT PLANNING
The following functions are to be performed carefully in the Project Planning
It should provide a basis for organizing the work on the project and
allocating responsibilities to individuals.
It is a means of communication and co-ordination between all those
involved in the project.
It induces the people to look ahead.
It instills a sense of urgency and time consciousness
It establishes the basis for monitoring and control.
It planning a project, the project manner must structure the work into small
elements that are:
Manageable, independent, Integratable and also measurable in terms of progress.
Project planning must be systematic and flexible enough to handle unique
activities, disciplined through reviews and control and capable of accepting
STEPS IN PROJECT PLANNING
Planning decisions involves a conscious choice or selection of one behavious
alternative from among a group of two or more behaviour alternatives. The three
main steps involving project planning decisions are:
1. An individual becomes aware that there are alternative ways of action
which are relevant to the decision to be made.
2. He must define each of the alternatives. Hence, the definition involving a
determination of consequences or impact of each of the pro-posed
3. The individual must exercise a choice between the alternative i.e., he has
to make a decision with maximu input, feed back and participation of
superiors as well as subordinates.
95. Planning is a systematic attempt to achieve a set of goals within the specified time
limit under the constraints of available resource restrictions involving the least
sacrifice. Broadly speaking speaking planning involves two differences
a) Planning by incentive and
b) Planning by direction
Planning by incentive mainly depends on the controlling of economic tools to
push economic resources towards the attainment of set goals within the specified
Planning by direction gives more emphasis on the direct participation of the
central planning authority in ht economic activities to attain the set goal within the
estimated time limit.
Planning is decision making based upon futurity. It is a continuous process of
making entrepreneurial decisions with an eye to the future, and methodically
organizing the effort needed to carry out these decisions. The following figure
vividly explains the key elements involved in the planning structure. This type of
well structured project plan helps to establish an effective monitoring and control
Project Planning Structure
The various activities involved in Project planning is given in the following chart
as Project Planning Structure.
Work Description and
Net work Scheduling
Planning and decentralizing
The different way of allocating the activities of a project are important means of
delineating various degrees of decentralization. These are three main ways in
which project planning can be decentralized into manageable divisions viz.,
96. Project planning by subject
Project planning by type of plan and
Planning in phases
Planning by subject is a simplest way of dividing the powers of planning. The
planner takes decision on related operation and planning by subject. He plans,
decides and directs the part of plan. He is the sale incharge of the plan from
beginning to final completion.
Planning to type of plan broadly define premises and assumptions leaving the
detailing to be done by persons at the grass root level of planning. Generally such
cases involve decisions which are rather routine and involve a lower degree of
professional and financial risk.
Planning in phases are designed to several individuals who participate at the
formulation stage. The level of people involved is directly related to the phase and
the degree of risk involved.
AREAS OF PROJECT PLANNING
Comprehensive project planning covers the following; planning the project work:
the activities relating to the project must be spelt out in detail. They should be
properly scheduled and sequenced.
Planning the manpower and organizations: The manpower required for the project
must be estimated and the responsibility for carrying out the project work must be
Planning the manpower and organizations: The manpower required for the project
must be estimated and the responsibility for carrying out the project work must be
Planning the money: the expenditure of money in a time-phased manner must be
Planning the information system: The information required for monitoring the
project must be defined
TYPES OF PROJECT PLAN
The routinisation of planning is done by types of planning decisions, They are as
a) One shot or single use plans and
97. b) Standing or Standard use plans
Single use plans: It includes programmes schedule and special ways of operating
under particular circumstances. Single plans are meant as objectives which centre
on focused and desired results. In can also be known as short term plans to deal
with the specific problem for specific place with prescribed time limit.
Standing plans: Standing plans are those plans which include policies, standard
methods and standard operation, procedures. They are designed to deal with
recurring problems. It may be treated as standard document to be used in different
plans to deal with a set of problems. The design procedure and steps are already
described. It may require adjustment considering the unit of operation.
PROJECT OBJECTIVES AND POLICIES
Project planning begins with the end result, the goal and works backward. Often
the focus of project planning is on questions like who does what and when before
such operational planning is done, the objectives and policies guiding the project
planning exercising must be articulated.
If the project team lacks a clear goal, even excellent skills and the best equipment
will not enable the team to do a good job. Well defined objectives and policies
serve as the framework for the decisions to be made by the project manager.
Throughout the life of the project, he has to seek a compromise between the
conflicting goals of technical performance, cost standard and time target. A clean
articulation of the priorities of management will enable the project manager to
take expeditious actions.
An effective project goal has the following characteristics. These characteristics
are captured in the term SMART, an acronym for the aspects of a goal
commitment. These characteristics of a project goal are specific, measurable,
agreed upon, realistic and time framed.
The objectives of a project may be technical objectives.
Time and cost goals
Policies are the general guide for decision making on individual actions. Some of
the policies of a project are:
Extent of work given to outside contractors
Number of contracts to be employed
98. Terms of the contract etc,
Project policies must be formulated on the basis of following principles:
It must be used upon the known principles in the operating areas;
It should be complementary for co-ordination
It should be definite, understandable and preferably in writing,
It should be flexible and stable,
It should be reasonably comprehensive in scope.
TOOLS OF PROJECT PLANNING
There are different tools available for drawing the project plan in a formal way.
They may be grouped into two categories. Traditional tools and network analysis.
They are: The Gantt Chart,
Gantt Chart: It is the oldest formal planning tool designed by Henry Gantt in
1903. Under this, the activities of project are broken down into a series of welldefined jobs of short duration whose cost and time can be estimated. It is a
pictorial device in which the activities jobs are represented by horizontal bars on
the time axis. The length of the bar indicates the estimated time for the job. The
left hand end of the bar shows the beginning time, the right hand and the ending
time. The manpower required for the activity is shown by a number on the bar.
An illustrative bar chart is shown as follows.
Time in weeks from project start
99. The project review dates are indicated by a vertical dotted line and at this time a
horizontal line is drawn beneath each bar to indicate the progress actually made
upto that date. The length of the progress line is then drawn to represent the
percentage of the job that has been completed at the review date. The merits and
demerits of Gantt are below:
1. It is simple to understand
2. Is can be used to show progress
3. It can be used for manpower planning
DEMERITS: 1. It cannot show inter-relationship among
activities on large complete projects
2. There may be physical limit to the size of the bar chart
3. It cannot easily cope with frequent changes or updating
These are more sophisticated than the traditional bar chart. In these
techniques, the activities, events and their inter relationships are represented by
net work diagram which is also called an arrow diagram. The following diagram
shows an illustrative network diagram.
A network diagram is drawn in which the lines between the nodes represent the
jobs, the nodes being numbered to identify the jobs.
The advantages of network techniques are:
They can effectively handle inter relationships among project activities.
They identify the activities which are critical to them. Completion of the
project on time indicate the float (spare time) for other activities.
They can handle very large complex projects and
They can be easily computerized and updated, while the network
techniques are a superior tool for project planning they suffer from several
They are not easily understood by the project personnel
They do not define an operational schedule which tells who does
what and when.
Thus, a comprehensive project planning must have SMART goals, sound policies
and designed scientifically.
A project is a blue print for actions oriented activities of organization/individuals
projects reflects the plans for action in it totality.
So, project design is the heart of the project entity. It defines the individual
activities which go into the corpus of the project and their inter relationship with
each other. It identifies the flow of events which must take place before a project
can start yielding the results for which it has been set up. Project designing is
primarily convened with the development of the detailed work plan of the project
with time schedule. The design can most conveniently express the interrelationship between various constituent activities of a project in the form of a net
work diagram. This design gives a clear picture of the work elements of the
project and paves the way for detailed identification and quantification of the
While designing a project it is essential to fix/set time target for each and every
activities of the project. It helps to complete the projects as per time schedule
through which it can enjoy optimum benefits. Time estimate can be made by
making a work break down of the project, estimating the time schedules for each
work, putting them in proper sequence as per technical or any other logical
101. manner and finally matching their build-up on a time scale with the available
The time estimation for completing a project depends not only the work
content/sequence but also be influences by resources and constraints. So, the basic
factors involving in the time estimation are work, constraints, resources and also
the data available. Besides that, three time values can be obtained for each activity
of a project viz.,
Optimistic time (to)
Most likely time (tm)
Pessimistic time (tp)
The optimistic time is the time required if no hurdles or complications arise. The
most likely time, tm, is the time in which the activity is most likely to be
completed. This estimates takes into consideration normal circumstances, making
allowances for some unforeseen delays. The pessimistic time, tp, is the time
required if unusual complications and / or unforeseen difficulties arise.
Conditions of time estimate
Time estimate should be obtained by skipping around the network rather
than by following a specific path. If estimates are obtained by following
one path, there is tendency for the person providing estimates to add them
mentally and compare them with a previously conceived notion of the
time of the total path.
The estimates of to, tm and tp should be defined independently of each
The time available for completing the project should not influence the
estimates of to, tm and tp.
It should be made known that to, tm and tp are estimates and not schedule
The estimates of to, tm and tp should include allowances for occurrences
which are generally considered as random variables (weather conditions,
administrative delays) but not for occurrences that are normally not
considered as random variables (flood, war etc.)
Once the three time estimates for each activity are obtained, the expected value of
activity duration is calculated. The expected value, te, is usually obtained by the
102. te =
to + 4 tm + tp
most likely time
The time estimates for various activities of a project is given in the following
to + 4 tm + tp
The network diagram with average time estimates is shown in the following
103. Difference approaches of time estimation
1. Time study approach:
In this approach the time T for completing a work is T = a/P x n
where a = total quantity of work, P = productivity factor, n = normal size
But it is very, difficult to realize the above data.
2. Previous project data:
In this approach data from recently competed projects are used without
consideration of a , p and n. Often these data are used for estimating broad work
package duration. Their values are also used for estimating the overall project
3. Estimating approach:
In this approach experienced project personnel are asked to guess project
duration. This approach is widely used for estimating time duration for a project.
Three estimates optimistic, most likely pessimistic are made in this approach to
make up for error in the estimates. A single time, known as expected time the is
then worked out as
to + 4 tm + tp
This approach has been used for calculating the average time as given above.
4. Range Estimates:
These estimate may also be a estimate or even past data. No two do time data
from past projects for any work will be the same; they can be better expressed by
e.g. vendors quite often guest deliveries like 6-8 months or 10-12 months.
5. Estimates from vendors and contractors:
104. Vendors and contractors are asked to indicate time estimates as they are often
asked to quote budgetroy cost estimates. These estimates in a competitive
situation are supposed to provide a realistic estimate.
6. Allocated an committed time
Certain activities requires a fixed duration likes an incubation period. The
duration could be changed, within a limit, to meet the requirements of the project.
In practice, therefore, instead of trying to accurately estimate the duration, a
reasonable duration is allocated and commitment obtained from the people who
will be held responsible for implementation. When the duration is not acceptable
to any one, it may change.
Thus, Project plan is a skeleton which consists of bundle of activities with its
future prospects. It helps to allocate the resources, efforts and time in a project
way which increases the efficiency of project performance. Moreover, it helps
exercise control and monitor the project work thereby facilitate the time
completion of project.
SELF ASSESSMENT QUESTIONS
Explain the nature and significance of project planning?
What are the functions of project planning?
What are the different types of project plan?
How project objectives and policies guide the planning process?
Describe the different goals of project planning?
“Project designing and time estimation are the two important components
project planning” – how?
How the “time estimation” must be done?
Write the different approaches of time estimation.
105. LESSON – 8
PROJECT SCHEDULING AND TIME MONITORING
To know the nature and significance of project scheduling
To study how time monitoring can be done effectively through project
To identify the applicability of “Schedule in vies of resource constraints”.
To emphasize the need for and process of project cost monitoring.
To explain the process of value engineering in cost monitoring
It is one of the key components in the project control system. It refers to when it is
to be done and how much is to be done. The purpose of scheduling is to obtain
commitment, communicate the commitments to concerned and ensure
coordination through self regulating first efforts. The scheduling is helpful to link
the summarial activities appearing in the network.
PURPOSE: The ongoing scheduling and monitoring process enables one to:
Successively detail out the schedule to provide equivalence with reality.
Adopt the schedule to the changed realities
Provide intervention when stability of the work system is being threatened
and revitalize the system.
Monitoring is an action inducing efforts meaning thereby that it would ensure that
commitments made by various agencies are followed by action.
TIME MONITORING EFFORTS
For monitoring the time aspect of the projects, the efforts should be taken.
Conduct appreciation programme for the owner.
Development of project execution plan and overall project implementation
Preparation of special condition of contract for scheduling and monitoring
by work package contradictions.
Evaluation of bids in relation to scheduling and monitoring.
Appearance or review the detailed schedules and progress reports
submitted by vendors and contractors.
Review with owner, consultants, contractors and vendors.
Project audit and corporate review
Monthly progress report to the owners
Installation and operation of an on-line information system.
On the job training for on-going scheduling and monitoring to the
So schedule control is to ensure adherence to the agreed time schedule for the
project. Monitoring and control of project and time, therefore becomes essential
to ensure adherence to project schedule.
Scheduling of non critical activities can be done by two schedules:
Early start schedule
Late start schedule
Early start schedule refers to the schedule in which al activities start as early as
possible. In this schedule
are events rear at their earliest because all activities start at their earliest
starting time and finish at their earliest finishing time.
there may be time legs between the completion of certain activities and the
occurrence of events which these activities lead to, and
all activities emanating form an event at the same time.
The early start schedule: It suggests a cautious attitude towards the project and a
desire to minimize the possibility of delay. It provides a greater measure of
protection against uncertainties and adverse circumstances. Such a schedule
however, calls for an earlier application of resources. A model for early start
schedule is given below:
The early start schedule
The late start schedule: It refers to the schedule arrived 4 when all activities are
started as late as possible. In this schedule,
0all events occur10 their latest 20
because 25 activities start at their latest
starting time and finish at their latest finishing time.
some activities may start after a time lag subsequent to the occurrence of
the proceeding events.
all activities to an event are completed at the same time:
The late start schedule reflects a desire to commit resources late as late as
possible. However, such a schedule provides no elbow room in the wake of
adverse developments. Any unanticipated delay results in increased project
duration. A model for late start schedule is given below:
The late start schedule
108. Example 1:
SCHEDULING TO MATCH AVAILABILITY OF MANPOWER
Let us consider a small project for which the network diagram is shown in fig.
In fig. activity duration is shown above the activity arrow and manpower
requirements are shown below the activity arrow. Only 12 men are available for
the project (a manpower resources constraint).
The early start schedule of this project is shown as a graph on the horizontal time
scale in fig.
Looking at the manpower requirements for the early start schedule we find that it
is as follows: 20 for the first day, 14 for the second day, and 5 for the fifth day.
Obviously this schedule is unacceptable in view of the manpower constraint. So,
we explore the possibility of shifting activities. Our efforts at shifting activities,
keeping the project duration at five days soon reveals that nmo schedule is
feasible with only 212 men. So we extend the duration of the project by one day
try various schedule to see whether we can find a feasible schedule. A little
juggling of activities shows that a schedule like the one shown in fig. is feasible –
this is the best we can do.
109. SCHEDULING TO MATCH REALIZE OF FUNDS
The cost estimates for various activities of our illustrative project is given in the
table. For out discussion here weeks have been changed to months.
Cost per months
Cost in months
The government has decided to release Rs. 1,56,00,000 required for the project in
the following manner.
Rs. 69,00,000 in the first year Rs. 68,00,000 in the second year, and Rs. 19,00,000
in the third year. It has also stipulated that the unspent amount would lapse and
hence cannot be carried forward.
Before we develop the project schedule a preliminary question may be asked: is it
possible prima facie to schedule this project without extending its duration
beyond 28 months, which is the minimum time required given the network logic
and activity duration? To answer this question let us look at the funds requirement
for the early start schedule and late schedule. This is shown in Fig.
From Fig. we find that:
The rate of expenditure is relatively higher for the earlier stages in the
early start schedule and is relatively higher for the later stages in the late
A rate of spending greater than that of the early start schedule is not
possible (This is because in the early start schedule all activities start as
early as possible). Any release of funds above the early start schedule
requirement curve is beyond the capacity of the project to spend.
The rate of spending corresponding to the late start schedule is the
absolute minimum necessary to complete the project on time. If the rate of
spending is less, than that corresponding to the late start schedule the
project duration will have to be necessary extended.
A pattern of funds release lying between the two bounds, early states
schedule requirement and late start schedule requirements, prima facie
suggests that a schedule can be worked out without extending project
Let us not look at the cumulative funds release pattern for our illustrative project.
This lies between the early start schedule requirements as late start schedule
requirement. So prima facie it suggests that a feasible schedule without extending
the project duration can be developed. Let proceed further and consider
scheduling year by year. The activities thus begin in year 1 according to the early
start schedule are (1-2) and (1-3). If both these activities are commenced as early
as possible, the fund requirement for year 1 would be Rs. 84 lakhs. Since this
amount exceeds Rs. 69 lakhs, the amount to be released in year 1, the expenditure
in year 1 has to be reduced by Rs. 15 lakhs. For this we consider the possibility of
shifting activities to subsequent periods. Looking at activities (1-2) and (1-3) we
find that (1-2) is on the critical path, so there is no flexibility available with
respect to it. Activity (1-3), however, can be shifted as it is not on the critical path.
Since activity (1-3) requires Rs. 5 Lakhs per month it has to be shifted by three
months so that the amount spent in year 1 in equal to the amount released in year
1. Since there is free float of six months for activity (1-3), we shift it by three
We not go to years 2. The effects of shifting activity (1-3) by three months are as
follows: (i) the funds requirement for year 2 on account of activity (1-3) increases
by Rs. 15 Lakh over and above what it is for the early start schedule, (ii) The
earliest finishing time moves to 23 months from 20 months. Since this shift occurs
within year 2, there is no change in funds requirement on account of activity (34), (iii) The earliest starting time for activity (4-5) moves to 23 months from 20
months and the earliest finishing time for activity (4-5) moves to 25 months from
23 months. This decreases the funds requirement for year 2 by Rs. 7.5 lakhs = Rs.
75.5 lakhs. However, the funds budgeted for year 2 are only Rs. 68 lakhs. So we
consider the possibility of shifting some activities to year 3. We find that by
shifting activity (4-5) to year 3 the expenditure in year 2 can be reduced to Rs. 68
lakhs, the budget of the year. As a result of this shifting the expenditure for year 3
111. (first four months of it) equals the budgeted funds release for year 3. The schedule
arrived at finally is shown in Fig.
PROBLEMS IN SCHEDULING REAL LIFE PROJECTS
In the above discussion we have considered simple examples comprising few
activities and one constraint, to indicate the broad approach. In real life projects
the activities run into hundreds and there may be several constraints. The problem
of scheduling in such cases tends to become very complex. For solving such
problems the technique of linear programming can be used. However, when a
problem has numerous activities, say more than 100, the technique of linear
programming becomes computationally unwisely and inordinately expensive,
even with the aid of fastest computers available.
In view of the practical difficulties in using linear programmer for solving largescale scheduling problems, heuristic programs have been developed. A detailed
discussion about these aspects are given in paper 4.
PROJECT COST MONITORING
Cost control is important to al companies, regardless of size. Small companies
generally have tighter monetary controls, mainly because of the risk with the
failure of us little as one project, but with less sophisticated control techniques.
Large companies may have the luxury to spread project losses over several
projects, whereas the small co., may have ten projects.
Cost control is not only “monitoring” of cost and regarding perhaps massie
quantities of data, but also analyzing the data and to take corrective action before
it is too late. Cost control should be performed by all personnel whoever may be
the cost centre projects office. Cost control is actually a such system of the
management cost and control system. The purpose of any management cost and
control system is to establish policies, procedures and techniques that can be used
in the day-to-day management and control of projects and programs. The planning
and control system must, therefore, provide information.
The appropriate system must consider a cost/benefit analysis, and include such
items which are:
Planning & control techniques facilities
Derivation of output specifications (project objections)
Delineation of required activities (work)
112. Co-ordination and communication between organizational units
Determination of type, amount and timing of necessary resources
Recognition of high risk elements and assessment of uncertainties
Suggestions of alternative courses of action
Realization of effect of response level charges on schedule and output
Measurement and reporting of genuine progress
Identification of potential problems
Basis for problem solving decision marking and corrective action
Assurance of complying between planning and control
Planning & control techniques require:
New terms (new systems) of information form additional sources and
incremental processing (managerial time computer experts etc.,)
Additional personnel or smaller spurn of control to free managerial time
for planning and control task (increased overhead)
Training is use of Techniques (time and material)
A well disciplined Management Cost Control System (MCCS) will produce the
Policies and procedures that will minimize the ability to distort reporting
Strong management emphasis on meeting commitments
Weekly term meetings with a formalized agenda, action items and minutes
Top management periodic review of the technical and financial status
Simplified internal audit for checking compliance with procedures
113. COST CONTROL SYSTEMS
Effective management of a progress during the operative cycle requires that a
well-organized cost and control system be designed, developed and implemented
so that immediate feed back can be obtained, whereby the up-to-date usage of
resources can be compared to target objectives established during the planning
REQUISITES OF EFFECTIVE CONTROL SYSTEM
The requirements of an effective control system (for both cost &
schedule/performance) should include:
Through planning of the work to be performed to complete the project
Good estimating of time, labour and costs
Clear communication of the scope of required tasks
A disciplined budget and authorization of expenditures
Periodic re-estimation of time and cost to complete remaining work
Frequent, periodic comparison of actual progress and expenditure to
schedules and budgets, both at the time of comparison and at project
Management must compare the time, cost and performance of the progress to the
budgeted time, cost and performance, into independently but in an integrated
manner. The first purpose of control therefore becomes a verification process
accomplished by the comparison of actual performance to date with the
predetermined plans and standards set forth in the planning phase. The
comparison serves to verify that:
The objectives have been successfully translated into performance standards.
Performance standards are, in fact, a reliable representation of progress, activities
Meaningful budgets have been established such that actual Vs planned
comparisons can be made.
In another words, the comparison verifies that he correct standards were selected
and that they are properly used.
114. The second purpose of control is that of decision making. Three useful reports
are required by management in order to make effective and timely decision:
The project plan schedules & budget prepared during the planning phase
A detailed comparison between the resources expanded to date and those
predetermined. This includes an estimate of work remaining and the impact on
A projection of resources to be expanded through progress completion
These reports are then supplied to both the managers and the doers. Three useful
results arise through the use of these reports, generated during a thorough decision
– making stage of control.
Feed back to management, the planners and the doers.
Identification of any major deviation from the current program, plan, schedule
The opportunity to initiate contingency planning early enough that cost,
performance and time requirements can undergo corrective action without loss of
These report, if properly prepared, provide management with the opportunity to
minimize downstream changes by making proper corrections here and now.
The management cost and control (MCCS) takes on paramount importance during
the operating cycle of the project. The operating cycle is composed of four
Work authorization and release (Phase II)
Cost data collection and reporting (Phase III)
Cost analysis (Phase IV)
Reporting: Customer and management (Phase V)
These four phase, when combined with the planning cycle phase I constitute and
closed system, network that forms the basis for the management cost and control
COST CONTROL METHODS
115. The methods that can be used at different stages of the project for cost control are
1. At zero date:
On the banks of the finalized basic package an itemized control estimate is
prepared. Using the net work plan, the control estimated is converted into cash
flow plan and annual/quarterly budgets. The control estimate and the budget
provide onward control of commitment and expenditure. Further, when time
aspect of fund flow and commitments are kept under control with the help of
budgetary restrictions, the interest burden for the projects gets reduced.
During detailed Engineering:
The control estimate prepared before the zero date will be very soon overrun
unless design and engineering procedures are constantly reviewed. For which
value engineering review should be carried out during the following stages of
Overall plot plan
Specifications of plant and machinery
Utility systems design
Standard specifications an drawings
3. During procurement and sub-contracting:
After engineering the next important phase for cost reduction is procurement.
Normally, competitive acceptable item at the lowest cost. But competitive bidding
alone will not ensure procurement at lowest cost unless the following steps are
taken in addition to competitive bidding.
Vendor association in specification
Detailed scope and specification
General conditions of contract
Delivery is erectable sequence
116. Competitive bidding
4. During construction:
There is not much scope for cost reduction during construction. However, there
are certain as listed below on which close control must be exercised for keeping
Idle chares, Inventory cost, Cash flow planning
Cost of operating staff and administrative expenses
CASH FLOW PROJECTION
Cash is required when construction is in progress as equipments start arriving
during this period. The executors/contractors will also raise monthly running bills.
Cash requirements must correctly assessed and arranged adequately. Fund
shortage will not only slow down work but also attach additional costs. Over
provision of fund will unnecessarily keep fund idling, this resulting in excessive
interest burden. To make cash flow projection, a probable cash flow statement
may be prepared at different point of time periods.
Cash flow projection/forecast showing the sources and uses of cash (money) for a
given period is an important as balance-sheet in that period. The inflows would
typically be revenues from sales of products, sale of fixed assets, issue of shares
and loans, out flows would be costs incurred requiring payments to creditors,
purchase of fined assets or investments etc. Budgeted, cash flow must be made
along with the control flow.
The difference between budget and actual for each period is known as variance.
Analysis of the period and cumulative variance provide a control mechanism
helping to ensure that each expenditure and commitments are not allowed to rise
above the projects ability to provide the funds from its operations.
VALUE ENGINEERING/VALUE ANALYSIS
Value Engineering is a systematic analysis and evaluation of the techniques and
functions in the various spheres of an organization with a view to exploring
channels of performance improvement so that the value in a particular product can
be bettered. Value Engineering aims at cost reduction. Value engineering probe
into economic attributes of value and increases the productivity, thereby achieve
117. Generally the concept value engineering is applied to direct costs is direct
materials direct labour etc., value engineering is mainly used be for a product is
born and is in the design and development stage itself. The efforts being directed
at the stage of design review from all angles is termed as value engineering.
A value engineering review uses costs as the basis of review and ensures that
value is included in the design. Value of an item, in this context, would mean the
minimum cost at which the function provided by the item under review from an
other item. In this process, the cost of the item can be brought down without
compromising the essential performance the value goes up.
STAGES OF VALUE ENGINEERING REVIEW
The various stages at which value-engineering review could be carried out have
been show in the following fig.
In can be seen from the figure that much benefit can be obtained with vary little
effort when value engineering is applied at the early stage of the project. Through
systematic value engineering, it is claimed that 10-20% of the project cost can be
easily reduced. The major part of this saving can come from value engineering
review of the basic engineering review. Whatever may be the stage, value
engineering has to deal with function and cost. For this cost function visibility is
essential. The cost of each function will be worked out by estimation the cost of
each work package. When the cost of each function is expressed as percentage of
the total project cost and also compared wherever possible with the industry
118. average the cost worth gap in each package and therefore, opportunity of value
improvements gets established. This helps me to find out design alternatives by
suing various study and other creative techniques.
Thus the essence of value engineering is to identify unnecessary cost and then
eliminates it. The methodology of value engineering requires a cost function
visibility. The range and depth of visibility will vary depending on the state of
project development. But what ultimately will ensure an improved value are the
ideas unfortunately be produced mechanically like the function cost work
A heuristic is a rule of thumb like schedule critical activities first or schedule the
activity which has the largest independent float in the end. A heuristic program
consists of a collection of such heuristics. In recent years may heuristic programs
have been developed. They are formulated usually as computer programs. These
programs may be broadly divided into two types resources leveling programs and
resources allocation programs. A resources leveling program seeks to level
resource requirements given a constraint on project duration. A resources
allocation program tries to find the shortest project schedule, given fixed
Ten Commandments of Cost Control:
Effective cost control depends on the following factors
1. Realistic estimates
2. Maintain Contingencies
3. Cost Forecasting
4. Considering Variances
5. Pricing the project
6. Manage Inventory
7. Effective Designing
8. Working Capital management
9. Monitoring and Control of costs
10. Information management
119. SELF ASSESSMENT QUESTIONS
Discuss the importance of management cost and control system
How cost control can be done at different stages?
What do you mean by value engineering? And how it will be helpful to
exercise cost control
What is early start schedule and late start schedule?
Explain the significance of project scheduling?
How the time monitoring can be done effectively?
How would you calculate the variability of project duration?
Illustrate how scheduling can be matched with the availability of
Illustrate how scheduling can be matched to release of funds
Explain the process of project cost monitoring.
120. LESSON – 9
PROJECT EXECUTION AND ADMINISTRATION
To know the basic requirement of systematic execution
To analyze the nature and significance of different functions of project
To identify the suitable organizational structure for effective project
Project execution is the process by which goals and promises of a project or
programme are carried out. Once a project has been established and the goals are
set, the project manner has to act to achieve these goals. Due to multi-disciplinary
character for a project the manager has to look around for help and get the things
down through others. This help can be expected on from internal and external.
ESSENTIAL OF PROJECT ADMINISTRATION
For a company executing projects either regularly or for the first time it would be
necessary for the chief executive to issue what may be called project charter. It
must define the project scope, the project goals, name and authority delegated
project manager, project reviewing authority and request co-operation of all
concerned in the execution of the project. An elaborate effort in this direction may
produce what is known as a project manual.
To demonstrate the project manager’s authority in a simplest and quickest way it
is essential to develop a proper organization chart. The different forms of
organization charts that suit to particulars circumstances and nature of job have
been discussed in the earlier lesson.
There are two system for the management of project and they are:
Project work system
Project control system
Project work system can be designed by developing and preparing the
Work breakdown structure
121. Project execution plan
Project procedure manual etc.
Similarly for effective project control system it is essential to design the tools
such as project planning, project scheduling and project monitoring.
FACTORY DESIGN AND LAYOUT
In creating a factory, an entrepreneur creates something which is attractive, useful
and ingenious from material resources which lack the dimension of targeted
benefits. For this, the entrepreneur uses his skills, abilities and strategies to
combine a variety of material and human resources. These potential resources
manifest themselves in the selection of the factory location, in planning and
constructing the factory building, in procuring and installing machinery and
equipment, in putting up other production facilities and auxiliary services, and in
recruiting and selecting men of competence to use the physical resources for the
purpose of producing goods.
The term factory design refers to the plan for a particular type of building,
arrangement of machinery and equipment, and provision of service facilities,
lighting, heating, ventilation, etc. in the building.
IMPORTANCE OF FACTORY DESIGN
Factory design and layout of the factory are significant aspects of the factory
organizations. They have direct relationship with the process of manufacturing,
productively and value of the product. It also influences the operational costs of
the enterprise. It also boosts the morale of workers and ensure maximum
FACTORS AFFECTING FACTORY DESIGN
The following factors influences the design of a factory:
Nature of the manufacturing process
Material Handling and movement
Cost of Building
Lighting, Ventilation and Service Facilities
Nature of Product
Future expansion, modernization etc.
Projecting the image of a factory.
The factory design and layout should be flexible so that it may be adapted easily
to technological change, modernization, diversification and expansion with
minimum cost and time.
Any planning exercise requires of the planner a good knowledge of what is
involved in the activity concerned, such as the nature of the materials to be
handled, their quality and the quantity, the processes they have to be subjected to,
inspection and quality control at various stages, assemble procedures, packing
etc. He could also know the sequence of operations. He should look ahead beyond
the immediate future and anticipate changes, modifications, additions, deletions
etc., which may be forced upon his organization as a result of expansion,
obsolescence, diversification or any other reasons. Having anticipated these,
provision should be made to accommodate such changes.
While working on factory layout plan, a very important aspect to be kept in mind
is the fact that the movement of materials from one stage of manufacture to the
next should be minimal. For this, this movement has to be streamlined. If this is
not initiated, it will result in the wastage of human effort and time, both of which
have a telling effect on the efficiency of an organization and the cost of
production. In industrial life, the economic and efficient usage of all the factors of
production is the key to profitability and the ability to compete in the market.
A plant layout is “a floor plan for determining and arranging the desired
machinery and equipment of a plant, whether established or contemplated, in the
one best place to permit the quickest flow of material at the lowest cost and with
the least amount of handling in processing the product from the receipt of the raw
materials to the shipment of the finished products”.
During the course of appraisal, considerable emphasis is laid on a proper and
scientific plant layout as once the plant and equipment are erected, it becomes
difficult and costly to change at a later stage. The following aspect are kept in
view while evaluating the plant layout:
123. ♦ Production technology and product – mix
♦ Efficient, economic and uninterrupted flow if human and materials
♦ Proper space for maintenance
♦ Future expansion/diversification of the project
♦ Safety precautions particularly when explosive or bulky material is
required to be handled
♦ Proper lighting and ventilation
♦ Proper layout of utilities and services and provisions for effluent disposal,
♦ Effective supervision of work, and
♦ Proper storage and stacking space, where required
The success of an enterprise to a greater extent depends upon the factory design
and layout. The location, layout, amenities will influence productivity and
facilitate better management. More importantly, the efficiency of the production
flow depends largely on how well the various machines, production facilities and
employee amenities are located in a plant.
Project design in the first stage in the execution of the project. Project design is
concerned with developing project scheduling techniques and also drawing the
schedule for implementation fo the project. This is more or less a time frame for
each phase in the project development. It includes major items of project
implementation such as finding of location, construction of building, procuring
plant and machinery and finally executing the production prgroamme.
Project design along with network analysis helps to develop work plan of the
project and present it in the form of diagrams representing duration of time for
each work and adjustment of the time schedule framed with reference to the
problems that usually arise in the project execution. Project design is useful to the
entrepreneurs in the following ways:
It gives a comprehensive idea about the entire project – described in every
phase along with the time schedule within which it has to be completed.
It is a diagrammatic representation of work plan devised to execute the
project, after adjusting the usual delays that may arise4 in the implementation fo
The various constituent continent activities of the project are narrated in
sequence to highlight the various phases of the project.
It defines the individual activities which go into the corpus of the project
and their interrelationship with each other.
It enables to identify the know of events which must take place for the
It helps entrepreneurs in coordinating project activities.
It serves as an effective tool of planning and implementation of a project
It helps managers to plan the project economically.
With the advent of the computer and large-scale introduction of computer based
planning and control in Indian public castor units, network analysis cn
considerably enhance managerial effectiveness in the context of any time bound
action programmes. Petty defaults have caused big diseconomies in the public
sector enterprises in this country. Computer-based network analysis can handle
these problems economically and efficiently. The binding condition is, however,
that management is serious in effecting economies in different areas of activities;
and activities and events are closely watched for initiating corrective action in
The main task of a project manager is to design systems and manage through
them. A business system refers to the total picture of men, machine, materials and
paperwork involved in the implementation of any phase of a project. System has a
planned sequence of operations for carrying out a recurring work involved in a
system with family and consistently which is called a procedure.
The first step in system design for project management is to conceive the total
physical system and its natural modules. In the next step, the connection between
these modules has to be identified. Finally, a control system using information as
the media has to be developed for self control as well as forced control of the total
project. Project management system is mainly constituted by project work system
and project control system.
If the project is organized on the lines of process units or technological systems,
coordination will be extremely simplified and cooperation would be almost
assured. Therefore, better result can be obtained if the design of work is
125. systematized. The process of systematization starts with the development of a
work breakdown structure.
Work breakdown structure (wbs)
Work breakdown structure, WBS is short, is a technique which breaks down a
work into its components and at the same time establishes the connections
between the components on the lines of a family tree.
The work breakdown structure represents a systematic and logical breakdown of
the project into its components parts. It is constructed by dividing the project into
its major parts, with each or these being further divided into sub-parts. This is
continued till a breakdown is done in terms of manageable units of work for
which responsibility can be defined. Thus the work breakdown structure helps in:
Effective planning by dividing the work into manageable elements which can be
planned, budgeted, and controlled.
Assignment of responsibility for work elements to project personnel and outside
Development of control and information system.
Work breakdown structure and Project organization
The project organization represents formally how the project personnel and
outside agencies are going to work. The work breakdown structure defines what
work is to be done in a detailed manner. To assign responsibility for the tasks to
be done, the work breakdown structure has to be integrated with the project
Work can also be broken down using a function-oriented approach. This is
normally the approach used by contractors for distribution work in-house which is
normally organized on functional lines. Here again, the breakdown upto a certain
level is natural, thereafter it assumes a certain pattern of grouping which can
change with the designer of the WBS.
Work breakdown through the hardware approach is, therefore, the only natural
and permanent way of breaking work. Added to this, using a rational codification
number it is possible to establish the linkage of the hardware element with
software and agencies. Performance target, schedule, budget and accountability
can similarly be fixed for any hardware element. Thus, hardware-oriented work
breakdown structure provides the basic framework for project work system
126. Project Execution Plan (PEP
Project execution plan (PEP) refers to that exercise of matching the project
hardware and software with the executing agencies to that a viable work system
Project execution plan, in fact, includes four sub-plans. There are:
Work packaging plan
Systems and procedure plan
Project execution plan is a strategic plan – it does not deal with the operational
details of building a project. The operational details are covered in a network plan
which is developed later after the project execution plan is approved by the
owner’s plan for project execution and, therefore, it must from the basis for
development of all operational plans including network plans.
This is the first step in the preparation of a project execution plan. Owners
invariably need some agencies with whom they can share responsibilities. In the
interest of developing self-regulation systems it would be necessary to contract
out those areas where the owner’s company does not have inherent competence.
Which type of contract to choose, which type of reimbursement to make, what
conditions of contracts to stipulate, and what payment terms to offer, are all issues
that must be examined during this phase of the project. Contract planning would
involve examination of a number of alternatives since there are so many possible
arrangements in terms of sharing of responsibilities, types of reimbursements and
general conditions of contract.
Work Packaging Plan
Work packing plan will be the next important step in the preparation of the project
execution plan. A work package in a project is the smallest division of work
where it stil retains the characteristics of a project. This when a project is
progressively divided into systems and the system into subsystems, a stage is
ultimately reached where further division into components will strip it of its
multi-disciplinary character – the work at that stage can be consideration these
127. packages, grouping them or keeping them as they are, in order to from viable
Work packaging enables better organization and management of projects. A work
package or several work packages may be assigned to one individual who could
serve as a mini project manager. This enables projectization of the entire project
execution effort which, in turn, ensures the closest possible adherence to time,
cost and technical performance targets.
Work packaging can also ensure that all agencies in a project think and channelise
their effort in one direction, i.e. towards the completion of the packages only.
Thus, design engineers, procurement engineers and construction engineers will
then give priority to their work in relation to a work package and not according to
functional convenience. Fulfillment of the requirements of a work package will
alone be considered and achievement and not the mere volume of work
completed. This will lead to a well-coordinated completion of the project.
Thus, the contracting plan and work packaging plan together produce a list of
contracts with the scope of work defined in terms of self-contained work
Having decided the number of contracts and their scope, the owner is now in a
position to set his own house in order. The owner can deliberate on the form of
organization to be adopted so that the interest of the project is best served.
Several standard organizational arrangements are possible, ranging from pure
functional organization to pure project zed organization and an owner has to
choose his own arrangement depending on the project size, location, complexity,
work packages, type and number of contacts. It should be however, noted that an
organization can become more self-regulation if it is on taskforce or project zed.
The participants in such cases fully identify themselves with the project objectives
and would regulate their behaviors on their own, as the situation may demand.
System and procedure plan
The last section of the project execution plan deals with system and procedure. A
heavy emphasis has to be placed on routine system and procedure so that no
intervention is required in the day –to-day operation of a system. There are at
least eight routine sub-system of project management for which appropriate
procedures can be conceived right at the start of the project implementation.
These eight sub-systems are:
While the routine system and procedure for each company will be
different, in most of the cases the difference may not be very significant. it is
quite possible to examine the system and procedure of one project and adapt it
after making minor modifications.
PROJECT PROCEDURE MANUAL
A project procedure manual is to be prepared in such a way that the
interacting agencies are able to see their roles and manual relationship in
pursuance of the common goal.
Preparation of a project procedure manual should start with each project
management sub system. A system decomposition has to be carried out on each
sub system to identify the need for procedure write-ups. While carrying out
decomposition the question to be asked is what the system must achieve and what
contributes to the effective functioning of each of the element. By asking this
question at successive levels it is possible to develop a company picture about the
The procedure to be developed for making the system self-regulative
would not, however, come out automatically from this analysis. The decision has
to be empirical, and in some cases intuitive.
In order to ensure effectiveness, project manager or executives have to maintain a
record date wise the point discussed and decision taken which are required to be
followed for implementation. This is known as project diary.
A project manager would be holding a number of meeting in a say-some with
vendors, some with contractors. Some with his own staff and others may be with
various outsiders. many decision are taken in these meeting and many
commitments are made. Also, a lot of brain-work is during these meetings.
Information derived on these occasions, decision arrived have to be properly
recorded in the project diary. This will go on record to enable their
129. communication and implementation. Information noted in the diary help to
justify the decisions at later date this record may also be used to defend against
non- admissible claims and litigation this diary help to prepare a follow-up
register also. The follow-up register will contain all pending work with dates
committed against each.
Maintaining diary help the person to get relief from, the burden of carrying
everything in their head. It could boost up one’s memory theryby helps to avoid
the problems of unattended work due to lack of memory.
PROJECT EXECUTION SYSTEM
Once these systems and procedures have been developed for the project, it is the
duty of the project administrator to set for smooth take off. It requires proper
project execution systems which should be more concerned about external
intervention for survival than on its internal self regulating capability.
The external intervention will be of the following forms:
♦ Project direction
♦ Project co-ordination
♦ Project communication
♦ Project organization
♦ Project control
These terms are often construed as actions for getting results. Too often the terms
are used interchangeably to mean management. Therefore, for the successful
execution and administration of project requires direction, organization, coordination, communication and control all at the same time but in varying
proportion. We shall discuss the nature of significance of project direction,
communication, co-ordination in this lesson.
Project direction refers to the use of authority to channelise the activities of the
project on desired lines. During the initiation of start-up period of the project this
direction shall be provides by the project manager. But once the project inters the
production period direction will be exercised by other members of the project
organization of else the project will stall.
130. Project initiation/start-up
The need for project direction as mentioned before, is maximum at the time of
start-up of implementation. The project manager during this period needs to
provide directions relating to:
Scope of work
Specification of results of completed work
Basis of work
Division of work – imported Vs. indigenous, departmental Vs. contract
Schedule of work
Budget of work
Systems and procedure for work
Co-ordination of work
Authority and accountability for work
Control of work
The success of a project is heavily dependent on team work. All the items from 1
to 10 are finalized with the involvement of project participants or else the
directives will appear authoritarian, and will unnecessarily invite opposition. If
the directions can be formulated through a participative approach, the some can
be issued formally in the name of a project manual with instructions for strict
adherence to the same. Direction, during the project initiation period, means not
simply giving a push to the project; the direction issued at this stage will, in fact,
shape the destiny of the project.
Direction during production stage
Direction after the initiation period can be considered to be of the administrative
variety. Invariably, after the start-up period, direction is provided of a case-to-case
basis through formal documents or personal contacts. A group meeting may also
be used for this purpose. On-going directions may refer to approval of work
schedules, detailed budgets, specification, purchase orders, work orders,
construction drawings, travels, miscellaneous expenses, changes in baseline etc.
131. Ongoing direction
Project start-up, design review, purchase order and work orders are on-time
directions. But a project will require only when unforeseen events occur, directors
otherwise will require to be provided when problems occur during project
execution. In either case, a decision has to be made as to what should be done and
the same should be authorizing for implementation. Thus, decision making and
direction are part of every-day function of any manager.
Routine directions involve five steps:
Understanding the decision environment
Establishing the decision alternatives
Evaluation of the alternatives and selection of course of action
Communication the decision to the individual or agency who is to
implement the decision
Checking up if the decision is working so that the decision could e steered
by the consequences. This refers to the feed back system discussed by us
Communication in a project
For on going direction a two-way communications system is essential. For that
matter, the entire process of direction, co-ordination and control in a project
revolves around communication.
It is often concluded that projects are run by communications. In fact, according
to Peter Drucken, 63% of management problems are caused in whole or in part by
faulty management communications
Communication has two dimensions physical and mental, passing a memo,
drawing, data, instruction, information, etc. are the physical aspects of
communication; understanding the same in the light of role expectation, empathy,
preconceived notion, language barriers, listening skills etc., are the mental aspects
of communication. While physical aspects of communication can be easily
achieved, the mental aspects often present barriers to communication. Prefer
communication requires a conscious and determined effort.
Affective communication in a project would require a communication oriented
action plan. The actions that may be taken in this regard are as below:
Organization or work, people and work place with communication
Selection and installation of appropriate communication devices
Project review and co-ordination meeting at predetermined frequency
Predetermined document distribution matrix.
Establishing healthy attitude towards communication by appropriate
Installing structured reporting systems
Implementing routing communication systems and procedures
Establishing a control room
Using desk-top computers for communication.
Hence, in any action plan, organization of work and people is a basic project
management requirement. It is suggested that this must receive a communication
Co-ordination can be defined as the effort to bring parts into super relation for
harmonious functioning. A well co-ordinated project is as pleasing as a price of
Co-ordination in a project gains its importance because of the need for
simultaneous working of number of activities. Therefore, one cannot proceed
simply with the execution of a project without proper co-ordination. Home, it is
the important task in the effective project execution and administration.
PROJECT CO-ORDINATION PROCEDURE
Co-ordination basically addresses itself to two aspects of work – physical
matching and timing. The physical aspect would refer to what is to be done, how
much is to be done and who to do it; the timing aspect would refer to when these
will be done. A schedule document which deals with all these aspect of work
should be prepared to enable proper co-ordination.
The word breakdown structures provide the basic frame work for both physical
ant time co-ordination preparation of work breakdown structure, structuring the
133. organization, establishing a project procedure manual, housing people under one
roof wherever possible. – sets the stage for effective physical co-ordination.
Similarly development of project schedules coordinated with break down
structure and organization chart sets the stage for the time co-ordination.
Once the stages are so set, the day to day co-ordination in a project is ensured
co-ordination meeting and
A project is a group effort and in group there will always be differences of option.
But coordination is not merely smoothing out differences; it is re-integration of
the parts into a whole facing into account the subdivided functions and their
PRE-REQUISITES FOR SUCCESSFUL PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION
Time and cost over-runs of projects are very common in India, particularly in the
public sector. Due to such time and cost over-runs, projects tend to become
uneconomical, resources are not available to support other projects, and economic
development is adversely affected. To minimize time and cost over-runs and
thereby improve the prospects of successful completion of projects. A lot of
things can be done to achieve this goal, the more important ones appear to be as
Sound project organization
Proper implementation planning
Timely availability of funds
Judicious equipment tendering and procurement
Better contract management
Often project formulation is deficient because of one or more of the following
♦ Superficial field investigation
♦ Cursory assessment of input requirements
♦ Slip-shod methods used for estimation costs and benefits
♦ Omission of project linkages
♦ Flawed judgments because of lack of experience and expertise
♦ Undue hurry to get started
♦ Deliberate over-estimation of benefits and under-estimation of costs
Care must be taken to avoid the above deficiencies so that the appraisal and
formulation of the project is through, adequate and meaningful.
Sound project organization
A sound organization for implementing the project is critical to its success. The
characteristics of such an organization are:
It is led by a competent leader who is accountable for the project performance.
The authority of the project leader and his team is commensurate with their
Adequate attention is paid to the human side of the project.
Systems and methods are clearly defined
Rewards and penalties to individuals are related to performance.
Proper implementation planning
135. Once the investment decision is taken – and often even while the formulation and
appraisal are being done – it is necessary to do detailed implementation planning
before commencing the actual implementation. Such planning should inter alia,
♦ Develop a comprehensive time plan for various activities like land
acquisition, tender evaluation, recruitment of personnel, construction of
building, erection of plant, arrangement for utilities, trial production run,
♦ Estimate meticulously the resource requirements (manpower, material,
money, etc ) for each period to realize the time plan.
♦ Define properly the inter-linkages between various activities of the
♦ Specify cost standards
When the project appears prima facie to be viable and desirable, advance action
on the following activities may be initiated: (i) acquisition of land, (ii) securing
essential clearances, (iii) identifying technical collaborators / consultants, (iv)
arranging for infrastructure facilities, (v) preliminary design and engineering, and
(vi) calling of tenders
Timely availability of funds
Once a project is approved, adequate funds must be made available to meet its
requirements as per the plan of implementation – it would be highly desirable if
funds are provided even before the final approval to initiate advance action.
Piecemeal, ad-hoc, and niggardly allocation, with undue rigidities, can impair the
maneuverability of the project team. It is a common observation that firms which
have a comfortable liquidity position are, in general, able to implement projects
expeditiously and economically. Such firms can initiate advance actins
vigorously, negotiate with suppliers and contractors aggressively, organize input
supplies quickly, take advantages of opportunities to effect economies, support
suppliers in resolving their problems so that they can in turn redound to the
successful completion of projects, and sustain the morale of project-related
personnel at a high level.
Judicious equipment tendering and procurement
To minimize time over-runs, it may appear that a turnkey contract has obvious
advantages. Since these contracts are likely to be gagged be foreign suppliers,
136. when global tenders are floated, a very important question arises. How much
should we rely on foreign suppliers and how much should we depend on
indigenous suppliers? Over-dependence on foreign suppliers, even though
seemingly advantageous from the point of view of time and cost, may mean
considerable outflow of foreign exchange and inadequate incentive for the
development of indigenous technology and capability. Over-reliance on
indigenous suppliers may mean delays and higher uncertainty about the technical
performance of the project. A judicious balance must be sought which moderates
the outflow of foreign exchange and provides reasonable fillip to the development
of indigenous technology.
Better contract management
Since a substantial portion of a project is typically executed through contracts, the
proper management of contracts should be done:
♦ The competence and capability of all the contractors must be ensured –
one weak link can jeopardize the timely performance of the contract.
♦ Proper discipline must be inculcated among contractors and suppliers by
insisting that they should develop realistic and detailed resource and time
plans which are congruent with the project plan.
♦ Penalties – which may be graduated – must be imposed for failure to meet
contractual obligations. Likewise, incentive nay be offered for good
♦ Help should be extended to contractors and suppliers when they have
genuine problems – they should be regarded as partners in a common
♦ Project authorities must retain latitude to off-load contracts (partially or
wholly) to other parties well in time where delays are anticipated.
In order to keep a tab on the progress of the project, a system of monitoring must
by established. This help in:
Anticipating deviations from the implementation plan
Analyzing emerging problems
Taking corrective action
137. In developing a system of monitoring, the following points must be borne in
♦ It should focus sharply on the critical aspects of projects implementation.
♦ It must lay more emphasis on physical milestones and not on financial
♦ It must be kept relatively simple. If made over-complicated, it may lead to
redundant paper work and diversion of resources. Even worse, monitoring
may be viewed as an end in itself rather than as a means to implement the
EFFECTIVE PROJECT MANAGEMENT IN INDIA
The effective management of project is essential for the development of economy
in as much as the development itself is the off-shoot of a series of successfully
managed projects. This reveals that the project management is an extremely
important problem area for a developing country such as ours. Unfortunately
many projects experience schedule slippage and cost overruns due to a number of
reasons. To remedy the situation, projects ought to be meticulously planned,
scrupulously implemented and professionally managed to achieve the objective of
time, cost and performance. Modern technique of project management can play a
major role in streamlining the management of projects.
Projects management is a complex process bristling with a number of variables
contributing to success in a project. It is not a facile task to ensure overall
effectiveness of the project. Several factors contribute to its success. The project
determinants are plenty and many success of the projects interalia include factors
which little or no management control is possible. Discretionary factors can be
controlled either within the project itself or in the larger system, and the end
products serve as the basis for the determination of degree of success.
The study of factors for effective projects management comprising both
internal and external determinant factors are taken into account. The internal
factors are project managers, project team, project management techniques,
project organization structure, project monitor and evaluation system, use of
computers, detailed project engineering know how, management reporting
system, etc. The internal factors are vital to project management systems. The
external factors are supporting factors for effective project management which
includes supports from Government departments, construction management and
project management consultants, etc. Both the internal and external factors are
equally responsible for effective successful project management which is briefly
138. INTERNAL FACTORS
The project manager is the crux of the coordinating authority with various
functional heads. He is the seminal coordinating authority forging a lasting
rapport with the financial institutions, government and statutory bodies, etc. He is
the main plank and fulcrum of the project and he is a person who has been
associated with the project right from the scratch to the completion of the project.
He play role like a lynch-pin. He encompasses into his fold the whole gaumt of
the project team and also entire spectrum of clientele contractors and turnkey
consultants. The foremost ami and motto of the project manager is to accomplish
the project cost within the stipulated amount. Hence, it can be observed that the
project manager plays a vital role in the firmament of industrial project.
The project team comprises of section heads of production, electrical and
mechanical who are looking after the activities of their respective wings. The
project team is a la cricket team where we could find players adept in bowling,
batting and fielding with the result al the players would put their unstinted and
indefatigable effort to translate their action of accomplishing the objective of the
team. For any project, success could be attributed to the able support of all the
players and the project manager would don the role of a captain of the cricket
team or of a captain of ship. It is germane to mention that if he project team is
juvenile in its attempts, the project will end up in a flash in the pen.
Project Managerial Techniques:
The project organization structure should be in consonance with the nature
of the project, its complexity, and type of process technologies developed.
Centralized policy formulation with decentralized implementation appears best
suited for project management. The organizational structure should provide for
scheduling and monitoring, contract management, materials and equipment
procurement, on site co-ordination and control and information processing, etc.
Adequate powers should be delegated to enable on the spot decisions and thereby
minimize avoidable delays. The well designed and established project
organization structure will effective project implementation and improve project
management performance tremendously.
Project Monitor and Evaluation System:
139. A well designed and in built project monitoring and evaluation system will
minimize project slippage. A project management information system with the
help of computer net works and methods would enable project monitoring and
control at various levels and that would naturally enhance the project management
Use of Computers:
Project management software package are used to meet deadlines, to
reduce costs and ultimately to optimal utilization of resources. They offer services
like planning, coordinate and monitor product launches, plant commissioning, and
erection, maintenance, and construction activities. They also identify crucial
problematic areas and sound warnings on possible delays and contingencies and
also to take instant and remedial measures to arrest the lapses before assuming
hiatus in the project management. They generate instant reports in project status,
keep track of project progress and trends to achieve targets and also allocate the
resources in order to achieve realistic goals. Undoubtedly, the usage of computers
save precious time and money. The application of computers will enhance and
uplift the overall project management effectiveness.
Management Reporting System:
The management information and reporting systems ensures monitoring or the
project progress and also identifies the specific information requirement of the
project. To achieve this objective every project should develop requisite reporting
formats for input and output of data, proper information flow and communication
systems and setting up adequate date processing and storage systems necessary
for the purpose. The well knit management reporting system will go a long way I
assisting speedy implementation of projects’ performance.
Support from financial institutions:
The financial institutions support is an important determinant of project
management performance though achieving the project objectives of time, cost
and quality. This study has grasped the fact that there is average time delay of 6 to
7 months in obtaining finance. The financial institutions has a role to play in
project identification, appraisal, implementation and monitoring and provision of
adequate funds to projects as and when it is required will avoid delay in
implementing the projects.
Early Clearance from Government Department:
140. The simplification of bureaucratic rigmarole and redtapism of the government
departments in project approval and sanctioning for public sector projects and
liberalization of industrial licensing, foreign exchange regulation provision,
MRTP clearance, environmental clearance etc. for private and joint sector projects
would minimize and reduce the time delay in clearing such approvals thus
ensuring early implementation of industrial projects so as to trigger fillip to the
project management success.
Detailed Project Engineering Know-how:
Detailed and scientific projects engineering know-how is sine-quinine to have
optimum utilization of the project cost. The latest development in design and
engineering technology could be applied for cost effectiveness. All these goes to
ensure effective project implementation for improving the performance of the
Construction management plays a unique part in the matter of industrial project
management. The construction management includes under its fold the
construction of factory and office buildings and erection and construction of
factory sheds and plant commissioning etc. These ought to be constructed
according to the project schedule so as to minimize project delays.
Project management consultants are professionally qualified who are fully
equipped to perform services to the project management organization in the entire
gamut of erection, commissioning and implementing the industrial projects. A
delay in project consultant’s performance of his hob would mean procrastination
of the project, for which ultimately client suffers more than the consultants pay a
vital role in the various stages of the project right from the stage of
commissioning of the project. He is also abundantly responsible for closely
monitoring the progress of the project. He is also abundantly responsible for
closely monitoring the progress of the project at every phase of the project. The
unstinted and unflappable support of the project consultants would naturally
brighten the project’s success.
SELF ASSESSMENT QUESTIONS
Explain the significance of Project design.
What is work breakdown structure? Explain its importance
Explain the factors influencing the factory design and layout.
What do you mean by project execution plan?
Explain the importance of project procedure manual?
What is project diary? Why it is essential,
Describe the prerequisites for successful project implementation?
What are the essential of project administration system and explain its
Describe the determinants of effective Project management.
142. LESSON – 10
To explain the significance of Project organization.
To give an outline about relative applications of different forms of
Once a project has been established and the goals are set, the project
manager/sponsor has to act to achieve these goals, since a manager/sponsor gets
things done through others and also since most of the projects are multi
disciplinary, a project manager has necessarily to look around for help. This help
can be experted both from internal and external and sources; internally, from
within the institution which employs the project manager and externally from
various institutions and individual so having competence and skill relevant to the
establish systematic arrangement of works, activities (or) talks between
individuals and group with the necessary allocation of duties and responsibilities
among them to achieve project objectives. This process in nothing but a project
An English author Harrison (1981) defines a project organization as the
arrangement and relationships between Client Company, contractor, and subcontractor organizations and their respective project managers who are all
involved in undertaking a project in a particular environment.
Project organization must have specific objectives a formal structure of authority
with some persons in leadership roles and others in sub-ordinate roles, division of
work which entails specialization by members in various activities or functions, a
formal system of communications and generally a set of formal procedures and
customs that distinguish them from the social entities.
The prime objective of a project organization it to accomplish the specific project
in the most economical, efficient and effective manner within the constraints of
time, budget and performance or quality standards.
FORMS OF PROJECT ORGANIZATIONS
The traditional/classical form of organization is not suitable to the projects. This
is due to the following inherent features of projects.
143. Project is a non-routine, non repetitive
Work often plagued with uncertainties.
It involves co-ordination of efforts of persons.
The relationships in the project setting are dynamic, temporary and flexible.
Beside that, the traditional form of organization has no means of integrating
different departments at levels below top management and it does not facilitate
effective communication, co-ordination and control.
Hence, there is a need for entrusting an individual or group with the responsibility
for integrating the activities and functions or various departments and outside
organization involved in the project work. Depending on the authority that is
given to the person responsible for the project, the projects organization may take
one of the following forms:
Line and staff organization
Task force organization
Totally projectized organization
LINE AND STAFF ORGANIZATION
In this form of project organization, a person is appointed with the primary
responsibility of coordinating the work of the people in the functional
departments. Such a person is commonly called as project coordinator/project
manager who acts essentially in a staff position to facilitate the co-ordination of
line management in functional departments.
He serves only as the focal point for activity control, that is, a center for
information. The project manager does not have authority and direct
responsibility of line management. He may gently coax line executive to strive for
the fulfillment of project goals.
The project manager in this position, does not make any decision for the project,
nor does he provide any staff service top the functional departments who make all
the decisions relating to the project. The project manager merely collects
information. Collects and communicates the same to the chief executive.
144. This arrangement may be chosen by a chief executive who wants to directly
control the project but cannot devote much time to keep track of details. The chief
executive may expect the project manager to co-ordinate and expedite the project
which the latter will find a very trying proposition in view of his not having any
He may influence some decisions taken by the chief executive or by the
functional departments, but he cannot himself make any decision which can
become binding for others. In other words, he has to rely on personal authority for
getting things done and not on positional authority.
The project manager may find it difficult to exert leadership and feel
unsure of his role due to deprival of formal organization authority. He has
to influence others only through his professional competence closeness to
top management and persuasive abilities.
This arrangement may work for every small projects. It cannot works for
large projects even if the project manager is provided with supporting staff
since the real person, who in this arrangement wields authority and can
therefore co-ordinate and expedite the project, is the chief executive who,
as stated earlier, may not have much time for the project.
B. DIVISIONAL ORGANIZATIONS
145. Under this form of project organization, a separate division is set up to implement
the project. Headed by the project manager, this division has its complement
personnel over whom the project manager has full like authority. In effect, this
form of organization implies the creation of a separate goal oriented division of
the company with its own functional departments.
This form of organization facilitates the process of planning and control, brings
about better integration of efforts and strengthens the commitment of projectrelated personnel to the objectives of the project, the project manager in this role
provide departments who will executive the project.
The project manager, in this case, will be a specialist in project management toosl
and techniques, and in view of his superior knowledge relating to scheduling,
budgeting and information systems, he is in the best position to advise other
functions. A project manager in this role can also carry out service activities like
collection and transmission of data, follow-up one functional group to service
another group to service another group, maintain records, measure progress,
analyze progress and prepare progress reports. He may also act as a single focal
point regarding communication between various participating functions and
between his company and other interacting companies.
It is to be noted that in each case, while he performs a ser4vice for the
participating functions, he does not take any decision for them. Nor does he direct
he various functions such as new schedules, budgets or technical coordination are
to be achieved. He may advice the functional groups but a final decision would
rest with the functional groups. He does not, therefore, have any authority which
can shape the destiny of a project. Figure shows such an arrangement. Most
companies tend to use this arrangement when project management is used for the
first time in the company as this does not require much change in the working of
146. DIVISIONAL ORGANIZATION
It is also interesting to note that a project manager in such an arrangement fully
identifies himself with the project and considers himself responsible for its
successful completion, However, the fact remains that at times of adversely the
project manager, in such an arrangement, is liable to throw up his arms and
declare that he could be held least accountable for fulfillment of the project goals
as he hardly had any voice in its execution.
The drawback in this arrangement is that while a great deal could be
expected, not much may be delivered. The project manager would
expect to be heard, but he might not. The functional managers would
expect him to take all the responsibilities without any authority, but he
cannot. Yes as has been mentioned before, it will be for the first time
that someone other than the chief executive will claim a project as his
own and work as best as possible for its success.
It is possible in this arrangement to encourage direct communication
with the work force, or the source where work is being done, without
going through the times of authority. This arrangement, however,
would not entitle the project manager to issue instructions to the work
force however senior he may be in the organizational hierarchy. Any
147. instruction has strictly to come from the functional base irrespective of
whether it relates to schedule, budget, information system or coordination with other functional groups or outside agencies.
The direct approach, though devoid of any authority, may not get automatically
accepted unless this has the backing of the chief executive and in course of time
becomes an organizational practice. Yet if lines of communication are not made
direct, there would be inordinate delay and much of the advantage that could be
expected from the arrangement would not be there.
C. MATRIX ORGANIZATION
The like and functional forms of organization si conducive to an efficient use of
resources but is not suitable for an effective realization of project objectives. The
divisional form of organization si suitable for an effective realization of project
objectives but not conducive to an efficient use of resources. The matrix form of
organization seeks to achieve the twin objectives of efficient use of resources and
effective realization of project objectives the cost of greater organizational
complexity, of course. A competent project manager will succeed in acquiring
some authority because of his sheer identification with the projet and its cause to
the extent a project manager is able to acquire the authority, the functional
manager will be forced to dispense with the same. When this arrangement of
sharing authority between a project manager and other functional manager it
formalized, we have an organizational form, which is known as matrix
Flow of Project Authority
A matrix, as shown in Figure, is a concept borrowed from algebra where an
individual will abide by the decisions made by two superiors – one belonging to
the project and the other to the specialized function. One will be this direct like
boss and the other his project boss. Both are responsible for the successful
Flow of Project activity
148. completion of the project boss. Both are responsible for the successful completion
of the project and therefore, both ought to have authority over the working force
through whom the project is being executed. The following figure shows the
A mutually supportive relationship should exist between the partners in a matrix
set up for the successful execution of a project. Matrix organization is, thus, a
deliberate attempt to provide authority, i.e., a chair to those who are asked to
assume responsibility, and as long as one does not put one’s chair before one in
dealing with work, there should not be any problems.
The main feature in the matrix operation is that, the parties involved in the matrix
will have a common concern as well as a specialist concern. As long as the parties
respect the specialty of the others and look to one another for help and support for
the common cause, a matrix will work extremely well. But is one assumes that
what should have even a common cause is not common, and also believes that
149. help would not be forthcoming unless the other party is forced, matrix is unlikely
Ideally one would like to see both the parties are understanding mutually
supportive and not trying to overtake each other. If the matrix ever operated at
that level, the arrangement can be called a balanced matrix. Much as one would
like to see a matrix remain balanced, it may not remain so not early because of the
personally factors of the partners but because the company may not want it to
Thus, a matrix may be filled either to the project side or to the functional side
depending on circumstances. If the project influence is more in decision-making
for the project, then the arrangement is considered a strong matrix. On the other
hand, if the functional departments are seen to be influencing the decision-making
more, the arrangement is considered a weak matrix. While a company may
operate on matrix, one may see it operating with different strengths in different
But such problems are very real in the operation of a matrix. It may be weaker
than the weakest acceptable or stronger than the strongest desired. A balanced
matrix where there is a balance of power between the project manager and
functional manager is an ideal but non-exist out situation. Therefore, many people
consider a matrix a complex organizational arrangement and would like to avoid
it if possible.
D. TASK FORCE ORGANIZATION
An alternative arrangement which clearly accords authority to the project manager
and avoids disillusionment of either the project manager or the functional
manager due to maloperation of the matrix is a task force. In this arrangement the
project manager is delegated the fall authority to make decisions for the project,
but that would be required to operate within the functional organizations’ policies
and procedures. There is clearly o intervention from the various functional
departments, no duel decision making and no dual reporting relationship for the
working force, the project manager makes all the decisions but within the policies
and procedures laid down for him.
A task force is created by drawing personnel form various functional departments
and putting them under the project manager. The staff so assigned will continue to
receive administrative support from their home departments but whey will
respond only to the project manager. While they will receive all directions.
Referring to the domestic matrix, the mother is supposed to concentrate on the
home and the faterh on the career. It works in a similar manner in a project too.
The functional departments provide the individuals with expertise for projects to
150. use, and a home to return to when the expertise is not longer needed by the
project. The project merely requisitions the expertise and directs its use in the best
interest of the project. So the project should decide what is to be done, when it is
to be done and at what budget, it should be for the functional departments to
decide who should do it, what back-up he should be given, what norms and
standards he should follow so that the work is completed as per specifications and
within the time the budget.
Trouble normally starts when the functional departments would not take-up the
work that is needed first or would not deploy resources to do it within the time
and budget. The work may happen when resources to do it within the time and
budget. The work may happen when resources are withdrawn without the project
manager’s prior knowledge. When things, occur as above, the arrangement not
doubt is weak matrix. On the other hand, if the project manager starts deciding
who should work for them? On the other hand, if the project manager starts
deciding who should work for them, encourages violation of functional standards
and norms gives technical decisions without consulting functional departments,
does not allow withdrawal of staff for training or optimum utilization of the
potential of the concerned staff, then the arrangement is stronger than a strong
matrix. In either case the company executing the project is not going to get the
best from its people. Form the project manager; they will be required to follow the
home organization’s policies and procedures. If there are direction from the
project manager asking violation of functional policies and procedures, the task
force will notify both the functional head and the project manager. The functional
manager may either accord approval or take it up in case, the functional manger
and the project manager cannot settle it between there selves. On the other hand,
there may not be any reference at all to the functional manger or corporate
management, if the project manager sorts it out at his level by taking the
functional staff into confidence whenever decisions are made.
TASK FORCE ORGANIZATION
151. Figure shows the task force arrangement. The project mangers authority is
indicate by the lines and dotted lines show the relationship between the functional
staff and the functional manager. The relationship shows by the dotted like
enables communication of the functions staff with their respective functional
departments for obtaining technical support of additional staff support but no
decisions relating to the project. It is also necessary that communications to
functional departments to its staff loaned to the task force has to direct linkage
between to its staff loaned to the task force has to direct linkage between the
functional staff and their home organization.
Unlike the matrix the loyalty of the functional staff in this arrangement is clearly
with the project. The functional department’s influence is virtually non-existent.
Therefore unless the functional representative have strong functional
commitment, functional excellence is likely to e compromised for expediency.
The functions will require strong corporate management support to ensure
adherence or policies and procedures laid down by them.
This arrangement, as can be seen in just the opposite of the arrangement shown in
the Figure, Functions in this arrangement have been relegated to the staff position
and the position and the project has assumed the dominant like role. Naturally, the
time and cost objective of the project will receive the best attention in this
arrangement, but one cannot be too sure about the quality objective. The project
with this arrangement moves very fast, and that is the single dominant reason why
many people would prefer a task force arrangement.
There may not be any real risk in going for a task force arrangement if the
technology for the project is simple, and the project is also small. The functional
staff in this case need not be top specialists; one specialist may cater for multiple
disciplines. This ensures maximum utilization of specialist time which is normally
not expected to happen in a task force arrangement.
E. TOTALLY PROJECTIZED ORGANIZATION
A totally projectized organization is an arrangement in which the project manager
has total authority even regarding functional policies and procedures. There is no
constraint whatsoever with respect to any function. The functional specialists
have not one to notify. They will be carrying out what the project demands and
the project manager instructs.
152. Many people compare this arrangement to a mini company a totally autonomous
organization in which the project manager is the chief executive. It will,
necessarily have decisions and departments headed by very senior functional
specialists who can function independently without any support whatsoever. They
would act on behalf of the project manager for taking decisions in their area of
Such an arrangement is obviously possible when the project is too large and
complex or geographically so located that there is no way of managing it without
granting autonomy to the term handling the project. The project manager for such
a project will obviously be a very senior person to justify delegation of so much
authority by the company. The project manager, in such an arrangement, will be
required to carry out lot of administrative functions besides his core project
business. It would not be surprising to find the project manager spending more
time in the administrative matters than on the business of the project in this types
Totally Projectized organization
Figures shows a totally projectized organization. The difference between this
arrangement and the one shown in the figure is not the mere elimination of dotted
line relationships but also the inclusion of personnel accounts and many such
functions which are not the project manager’s immediate concern. Yet this
arrangement may be justifies for a project because of its size, complexity,
location, importance to the company and also need for special treatment,
particularly in case of a jolt or collaborative project or if the financial institutions
so desire that it be organized that way.
The totally projectized arrangement may also be desirable if the company is
executing only one gigantic project.
153. A matrix is also expected to work for very large and complex projects, but it
practice, it adds its own complexing. A matrix is also effective for small but
complex projects where many multi disciplinary specialists are required for short
durations. However, unless the number of such projects is many, a matrix
arrangement would not be justified. So either total projectization or fast force
arrangement would appear to be the best arrangement for execution most projects.
And in both these arrangements the project manager is delegated authority
commensurate with the responsibility he is expected to undertake. Project
objectives get primary attention in both these arrangement.
The traditional form of organization is not suitable for project work because it has
not means of integrating different departments at levels below the top
management and it doesn’t facilitate effective communication, coordination and
control. Hence, project organization may take one of the following forms – line
and staff organization, Divisional organization, Matrix organization, Task force
organization and Totally projected organization.
Features of Good Project Management Organization
There should be an effective project head
Good and experienced Project group
Separate Project department in case of continuous project activities
Involving agencies like project, operation, consultant, finance and
commercial departments effectively.
Good System of selection, training, promotion and remuneration of project
Well equipped computerized information system and impossible with
project management softwares.
Capable to execute the projects along with the operation activities.
In large project organization own construction facilities may be created.
Thus this chapter discusses different forms of organization of human resources for
the effective execution and management of project.
154. SELF ASSESSMENT QUESTIONS
1. Define Project organization and explain its importance
2. Briefly describe different forms of project organizations.
3. What is matrix organization? Explain its significance.
4. Explain the merits and demerits of Divisional form of project
5. What is Line and staff from organization? Explain its merits.
6. Under which situation projectised organization will hold good?
155. LESSON – 11
To know the principles of Project contracting
To explain the contracting process.
To describe bidding and bid evaluation
To impart the significance of Project negotiation.
To outline the pricing and delivery terms of Project contracts.
The project charter and the organizational arrangement accords the project
manager appropriate authority over the in-house resources But not all projects can
be executed with in-house resources for the execution of the project. When a
project manager has to get things done with resources over which he has no direct
authority, it becomes necessary to acquire the required authority in lieu of some
considerations. Such an arrangement can be termed as a contract and the authority
so acquired as contractual authority. If this authority is acquired in house through
a contract, then the process can be termed as internal contracting. All other
contracts for the acquisition of authority can be termed as internal contracting. All
other contracts for the acquisition of authority can be termed as business
A contract as such is an agreement between two or more parties in writing to do
or not to do certain things. Business contracts are those agreements which are
enforceable at law. They are entered between two or more competent parties for a
legal consideration which is usually payment in the form of money. For an
internal contract the consideration is normally absent. Legally, of course, a
contract can be valid even though there may not be any consideration, but then it
is not a business contract.
In order in enter into a contract, there must first be an offer or proposal signifying
the willingness of one arty ot do ro abstain from doing something at the desire of
the other party. The desire of the other party is expressed in the enquiry often
known as Notice Inviting Tender (NIT) and the offer to carry out the services t
certain terms is known as Tender.
156. The sequence of events resulting in a business contract are as shown below:
Enquiry – Issue of NIT to selected parties or to the newspapers by the project
authority sand sale of tender document.
Offer – Submission of the tender document by the bidder.
Acceptance – Considerations as accepted given a legal form and content duly
signed by competent authorities of both parties.
Contract – The contract consists of an agreement on stamped paper, a detailed
letter of intent with agreed variations and the original tender document.
R’S OF CONTRACTING
Contracting, whether it is for a consideration or otherwise, is an essential
arrangement for getting work done in an environment where authority
relationships and responsibility delineations are unclear or non-existent. It is said
that contracting is practiced even in a domestic environment where parents obtain
desired behaviours from a child for a certain consideration. The same continues
without our being aware of it in all our social relationships. Knowledged of
contracting is, therefore, as much a basic requirement for day-to-day living as that
of the three R’s.
If one choose not to over-play the legal aspects, contracting itself can be found to
constitute the 3 ‘R’s in the case of contracting are: Responsibility, Reimbursement
The first ‘R’ in a typical contract covers issues such as:
What to parcel out to the contractors and what to retain
How to define the work parcels so that the contractors now their scope
precisely and there is not overlapping, undefined, unallocated or
ambiguous work areas.
What are the relevant performance parameters for fulfillment of which
contractors must assume responsibility?
Collectively, the above are often referred to as scope of work. Schedule of work,
technical specifications, scope drawings, special conditions of contract,
157. responsibility of matrix and special write-ups in appropriate combinations are
used to ensure clarity.
The factors listed below may be considered while taking a decision on the number
Specialty of the works
Location of the work sites
Value of the contract
Availability of contractors
Need to accommodate local contractors
Need to obtain performance guarantee for a system from a single party
Concern for early completion
Concern for completion at minimum cost
Concern for top quality
Current work load of the contractor and capability of the contractors
Time schedule of the work
The second ‘R’ of a contract refers to the type of reimbursement and it is as
important as the first ‘R’. Perhaps this ‘R’ is more important for the contractor
than the owner. While the owner may refer to he responsibility to describe the
contract arrangement, the contractor may choose to refer to it by the types of
reimbursement such as lumpsum contract, item rate contract, etc. We shall,
however, prefer to use, responsibility as the basis for assigning any name to a
III. RISK FACTOR
158. The last ‘R’ of a contract refers to the risk factors. Both the owner and the
contractors are so much concerned about this ‘R’, that most of the pages of a
contract deal with only this matter. In fact, a contract is considered to be an
instrument for transfer of risk from the owner to the contractor, and necessarily
this should evoke some resistance from the contractors. The least that a contractor
would do is to seek protection in one form or other. But while the contractor
would do is to seek protection in one form or other. But while the contractor risks
only his fee, the owner runs the risk of not having his plant at all. Naturally, the
owner would seek more protection and would not like to take any risk against
which the does not have adequate insurance. The insurance, however, cannot be
always in the form of a financial insurance policy. Only small risks can be
covered by insurance and a little more protection may be provided in the contracts
are awarded through a proven contracting process.
METHODS OF CONTRACTING
Execution of projects is being made mainly thorough contracting. The different
methods of contracting and its relative merits and demerits are given below:
(A) TURNKEY PROJECTS
Engineers & Contractors take a single commitment for the design, engineering,
procurement, delivery, construction, erection and commissioning of the project
and training of operating and maintenance of personnel.
Two type of turnkeys are
2. Fee plus reimbursement
Turnkeys contracts are used for complete plants. Usual turnkeys contracts have
some sort of advanced technical know-how, which limits the number of
competitors that can bid-know-how for construction and operation of the plant. In
turnkey projects, the owner is not involved until the project/plant is ready for
operation/commission. But, companies require some involvement during the
execution. As a result, the turnkey contract now carefully detail the company’s
rights and responsibility.
A turnkey contract may be defined as: “a single contractor acquires and sets al
necessary remises, equipment, and supplies operating personal to bring project ot
state of operational readiness. All that the customer needs to do is to turn the key
to begin full effective usage of the new facility. Some time the contractor
continues to assume operational control. Turnkey facilities are appropriate for
customers who are unable to perform or wish to avoid their own subcontracting
159. for ordering and testing components acquired from several vendors. Recruiting,
screening and training is a highly specialized task. A turnkey contractors is
compensated either through surcharges on each item or thorough services
procured for the facility of by a commitment in advance to a fixed price”.
Therefore, turnkey contract may help in cutting down the number of responsibility
centres to the extent of one. In a turnkey project a single contractor has complete
responsibility to supply the owner a plant which is complete and ready for he
owner to operate by simply turning the key. Turnkey thus is an expression for the
extent of responsibility that a contractor undertakes; it is not to be mixed up with
he commercial and payments terms. Turn-key would not necessarily mean a fixed
price contract; it is quite possible for engineering consultancy organizations to
undertake turnkey responsibilities for projects ever without having capabilities of
supplying and financing. On the other hand, in a lumpsum turnkey contract a
contractor offers the owner a complete plant for a single price. Even when a
turnkey contract is entered into the process of dividing the work does not totally
stop with the decision to go turnkey. It only reduces the number of agencies the
owner is required to coordinate. The turnkey contractor in turn will be required to
subdivide the work further as it is not possible to have all the capabilities required
for a complex project under one single roof.
Advantages of Turnkey Contract
In projects that are undertaken by government or state-owned enterprises.
Ownership and control after the completion of contract is retained with the owner.
This is especially true in the case of traditional turnkey contracts, when the
involvement of the turnkey contractor could be eliminated once the contract is
completed, as he has no share in capital ownership, and hence there would be no
conflict as regards policies and management of the operations of the enterprise.
In the turnkey contract a major advantages to the promoter stems from the fact
that the responsibility for the contract lies with a single source and the promoter is
relived from responsibilities for the equipment or plant and performance.
In the turnkey contract a major advantage to the promoter stems from the fact that
the responsibility for the contract lies with a single source, and the promoter is
relieved from responsibilities for the equipment or plant and performance.
The turnkey contract generally ensures that the projects is put into operation more
rapidly than other contracts since both design and construction are the
responsibility of one entity.
When a turnkey contract extends beyond the commissioning stage the teething
problems of a multidisciplinary project can be resolved by the contractor’s inhouse trained personnel.
160. Disadvantages of Turnkey Contract
The cost of a turnkey contract may be significantly higher than that of a
traditional form of contract because cost estimates are often expressed in overall
terms without a detailed breakdown of costs.
The turnkey contract do not allow the promoter to participate or become
familiarize with the facility that the promoter will operate after the handling over
of project contract to engineering company.
The turnkey contract do not permit the normal checking procedure by the sponsor,
as is sought to be developed by the promoter as it leads to internal conflicts.
Lampsum Vs, Cost-plus
In order to make a lupus offer a contractor would like to have all the details. If the
details are not known he would like to build contingencies in his price to take care
of the unknowns. It is this aspect of pricing that can make a lumpsum contract
more expensive than a cost-plus contract.
On the other hand, if the work can be framed out by the owner at a fixed price, the
owner would know at a very early stage of the project his total liability and also if
he is going to be within the approved budget or not. His anxieties to that extent
will be less. With cost-plus contract, the owner would not have the advantage of
knowing what the total cost is going to be till a very late stage. The owner will
therefore, be anxious all he time due to this uncertainty. Naturally, whenever
possible the owner would like to go for a lumpsum contract.
The specially of the cost-plus contract is the opportunity it provides to start work
immediately, thus eliminating the need for detailed scope definition and
preliminary engineering by the contractor in submission of his proposal. It allows
flexibility to the owner to change his mind at any stage without being forced to
pay exorbitantly. The owner can also upgrade his design, specification and quality
of construction without any objection from the contractor.
(R) EPC (Engineering, Procurement and Construction)
The method of contracting is a step behind turn-key approach where the
contractor is responsible for complete engineering, procurement and construction
of the entire project complex. The contractor is also responsible for process
design and basic engineering of ‘open art process units’, although process design
and basic engineering of licensed units is obtained from process licensers through
approach where multi-split contracts are in practice. In the MSC (Multi-split
contracts), the project implementation was performed in different phases by
different contractors. The traditional projects were either based on cost
reimbursable basis or handled on a multi-split contract basis. It was cumbersome
161. for the project team to have a perfect coordination between many outside parties
with that of the internal structure. To overcome this difficulty specially in
managing mega projects where time, cost and performance play equally important
roles project management is its breed, in a turnkey contract execution mode, the
individual contractor is responsible for complete execution of the project
including process design, basic engineering, detailed engineering, procurement,
construction, commissioning and the performance guarantees.
Advantages of EPC Projects
1. Single project responsibility helps manage the total project without any
2. As the company is authorized to execute the project at agreed terms
without project sponsor’s intervention may smoothen the implementation
process and remain and less susceptible to time overrun.
3. Decision making to procurement, engineering, and construction aspects
can be processed quickly.
4. Little or no competition from small contractors since only by contractors
undertake this type of total project execution.
This may create power crisis in the project organization leading to
non-coordination with EPC contractor.
Non involvement or sleek participation of project authorities may
create a communication gap which may be determental to the total
performance. Non coordination from project authorities may hinder
smooth flow of information that is essential for critical decisions on
The rigidity of contractual obligations may also affect changes in
design, and construction methods and dissatisfy the client on
(C) DESIGN/BUILD CONTRACTS
The pit owner selects a consulting engineer to develop a preliminary design
packages, which may represent 25-30% of overall design and is sufficient to
allow the pit to put for tender-so that the contractor completes the design and
construct the plant.
Advantage over turnkey is that it allows the owner, a better chance of defining
exactly what he wants, rather than what the contractor thinks he needs.
(D) SEMI-TURNKEY or COMPONENT CONTRACTS
162. Contactor gives subcontracts for the supply, delivery, construction and installation
of selected elements of a pit facility on a lumpsum turnkey basis.
In LDCs, this is adopted to reduce the overall lumpsum price substantially.
This can also be done by the owner.
(E) TRADITIONAL DESIGN/BID/BUILD CONTRACT
This is the traditional contract in LDCs, especially for infrastructure.
The project is divided into two types, design and build.
Owner hires independent consulting engineer to design the pit fully and puts it for
tender. Then the consulting engineer is retained to be the owner’s representative
during the construction phase.
In complex pits, a fast-track approach is adopted whereby the pit is divided into
separate overlapping design/bid/build packages.
(F) MODERN METHODS
BOOT is an outgrowth of the latest hue the cry over the boosting private sector
involvement in the development of major projects. There has been a growing
trend in the recent past both in the developing and developed countries, of
encouraging private sector to participate in various projects through concessions
labeled as BOOT project strategies. The term BOOT was introduced in the early
80s by the Turkish Prime Minister Turgat Ozal to designate a ‘build, own and
transfer’ or ‘build, operate and transfer’ project; this term is often referred to as
the Ozal formula.
Smith and Merna defines BOOT as: “a project based on the granting of a
concession by the principal, usually a government, to a promoter, sometimes
known as the concessionaire, who is responsible for the construction, financing,
operating and maintaining he facility over the period of concession before finally
transferring the facility, at no cost to the principal, as a fully operational facility.
During the concession period the promoter owns and operates the facilities and
tries to recover the costs of investment, maintenance while operating the facility
to result a margin of profit”
163. The related acronyms used to describe concession contracts include:
Finance – Build – Own – Operate – Transfer
Build – Own – Operate
Build – Operate - Lease
Design – Build – Operate – Maintain
Design – Build – Operate – Transfer
Build – Operate – Deliver
Build – Own – Operate – Subsides – Transfer
Build – Rent – Transfer
Build – Transfer – Operate
Build – Operate – Transfer
Features of BOT model
The salient features of BOOT model can e identifies as:
A joint venture (JV) company would be formed to implement the project.
Members of the JV would include foreign contractors and eventual
operators of the project each having global recognition. Possibilities may
exist for local electricity authorities or any other acceptable local entries to
opt for an equity stake in the JV.
The JV then raises 100% finance as required. It also arranges for
construction of the project through commencement to completion.
During the operating phase, the JV assumes commercial responsibility for
managing the project.
A supply consortium could be formed with the major project suppliers and
The JV then entries into a turnkey power plant supply contract with the
At the end of the project operation period (say ten years after
commencement of operation) it is intended that the host government
164. would purchase the shares from the investors in the JV based on a
Classification of BOOT Contracts
BOOT projects may be classified on the basis of the method of procurement type
of facility, the location of the facility and the method of revenue generation. They
Speculative to invited
Infrastructure to industrial/process
Domestic to international
Market-led to contract-led
Projects suitable for BOOT contracts
Country highways, bridges and tunnels, water, gas or oil pipelines and
hydroelectric facilities are considered suitable projects, as a private economic
equilibrium is obtainable. However, subsides are often necessary for high-speed
train networks and light rail trains, as prices paid by users are often low and
governments generally prefer to control prices. The characteristics of BOOT
projects are particularly mass transit railways and power generation, and as such
they have a political dimension of public welfare that is not the features of other
privately financed projects.
The major components of a BOOT project include:
♦ Build-design, procure, manage construct and finance the project
♦ Own-own the asset during concession period and the license for the
♦ Operate- manage and operate plant, carry out maintenance, deliver product
or service and receive offstage payment.
♦ Transfer –hand over the plant in operating condition at the end of the
BOOT contracts may be determined by four major packages:
Comprises all the components associated with building a facility, normally
undertaken in the pre-completion phase and includes: feasibility studies, site
165. investigation, design, construction, supervision, land purchase, commissioning,
procurement, insurance and legal contracts.
Comprises all the components associated with debt finance, equity finance,
standby loan agreements, shareholders agreements, currency contracts and debt
service arrangement for financing the building.
Comprises all the components associated with revenue generation and includes:
demand analysis, duty and tariff levels, and assignment of revenues, tariff
structures and revenues from associated development.
Advantages of BOOT Project
The BOOT project offers both direct and indirect advantages exclusively for
developing countries like India as follows:
Promoting private investment
Completing projects on time without cost overruns
Good management and efficient operation
Transfer of new and advanced technology
Utilizing foreign companies’ resources
Injecting new foreign capital into the economy
Providing additional financial source for priority sector projects
Allowing no inroads on public debt
Releasing the burden on public budget for infrastructure development
Creating positive effect on the credibility of the host country
The general advantages of BOOT projects are:
This would offer the possibility of realizing a project that would
otherwise not be build by either the host government or its
The willingness of equity investors and lenders to accept the risks
would indicates that the project are commercially viable.
The promoters control and continuing economic interest in design,
construction and operation of a project will result in significant cost
effectiveness, which will benefit the host country in many respects.
This may also reduce the overall cost involved in undertaking any
mega-projects for public welfare. Efficiency and effectives and
effectiveness are inevitable in developing highways, mass transport
systems, tele-networks etc., of public utilities which demand huge
The usefulness to the host government to use a BOOT project as a
benchmark to measure the efficiency of a similar public sector project.
In general public sector projects exhibit cost and time overruns which
can be reduced to a great extent by using the benchmarking effect.
The continued direct involvement of the project company would
promote a continuous transfer of technology, which ultimately be
passed on to the host country. A strong training program would leave a
fully trained local staff at the end of the concession period.
A BOOT project has an obvious appeal to a government seeking to
move its domestic economy into the private sector and especially for
the Third World countries where public sectors have become whiteelephants.
Commercial lenders and export credit guarantee agencies will be
constrained by he same host country risks whether or not the BOOT
approach is adopted.
This benefit may be lost if the host government provides too much
support to a BOOT project, resulting in the promoter bearing no real
A BOOT project is a highly complicated cost structure, which requires
time, money, patience and sophistication to negotiate and bring it to
fruition. The overall cost to a host government is greater than that of
traditional public sector, projects, although proponents of the BOOT
approach argue that over4all costs are less when design and operating
efficiencies are taken into account and compared with public sector
Efficiency landmarks that are generally set under BOOT project are
quite high. These benchmarks might create crisis on the part of
executives who may not perform upto the required standards under
such projects. The projects may be a futile boondoggle under such
Change in the form of technology may be strongly resisted by the
existing staff members of any government organization. This is
because it is perceived that such transfer of technology may bring in
new problems that cal for updating their knowledge and removing fear
of inability to cope with such changes.
Political influences may permeate this smooth process of encouraging
privatization and become an obstacle while executing important
167. BOT, which stands for Built-Operate-Transfer, encapsulates the process
whereby a government turns over to the private sector what would normally be an
public sector project (example, transportation or infrastructure projects) for
building an initial operatin and after a limited period (say a 25 years concession)
transfer back to the government. The expression ‘built-operate-own’ transfer
(BOOT) is also used. The structure of BOT financing normally takes the form of
limited recourse lending to specially incorporated project vehicle which holds the
concession from the host government to carry out the construction and operation
of the project. A concession agreement will usually form the basis of BOT project
financing. It is essentially a license or permission to implement a project, and is
rather a hybrid document. Not only must it be satisfactory to the parties to the
concession agreement, but it must ultimately meet the requirements of project
investors and lenders. Thus it contains commercial terms (for example,
concession period, project infrastructure specification, construction timetable and
concession fee, etc.) and financial terms (for example, ability of lenders to create
security over the concession agreement and project assets, recourse of lenders to
the host government and the effect of premature termination on project
indebtedness). The other variations to the BOT structure are DBFO (design-buildfinance and operate), DCMF (designed-constructed-managed-financed) and BOO
TENDERING AND SELECTION OF CONTRACTOR
A contract presumes that the parties entering into a contract are competent and
normal. But if, for instance, the contractor selected for a specific work is not
competent technically, financially or managerially, then the risks will multiply
several times. This uncertainty must, therefore, be resolved at the first instance. A
well laid out procedure for prequalification of contactors and tendering can
resolve this uncertainty. Such a procedure is known as tendering procedure.
A tender may be defined as an offer to carry out certain work or supply certain
material or services in accordance with clearly detailed description and
conditions. The tendering procedure deals with prequalification of contractors,
preparation of tender documents, mode of floatation of enquiry, receipt of tender
guidelines for evaluation of tenders and selection of contractor. We will discuss
this in some details in the context of reducing risk and uncertainty in the
execution of a project.
The need for contractors originally arose because plant sizes grew to such an
extent that it became almost impossible for the traditional equipment suppliers to
perform their own function efficiently as well as to deal with the organization,
administration and overall design problems connected with complete plant
projects. Bearing in mind that a contracting firm will usually tender only for
plants worth several million dollars, it will be appreciated that the preparation of a
tender is a major operation in itself and may cost (in the case of a substantial
168. project) up to US $ 250,000. The cost of preparing turnkey tenders may be reestimated between 1 and 2 per cent of the value of the project, unless it is a repeat
project (such as a complete plant of a similar size).
In the case of large projects, there are likely to be only two or three competitors
tendering, and they are often pre-selected once they have an established reputation
in the same or similar fields with projects of the same order of magnitude. In fact,
some firm now prefer to by-pass the procedure of competitive tendering
altogether on some projects because of the cost involved and instead to negotiate
direct with a single favoured contractor. Nevertheless, a contractor must have the
facilities available to tender for complete plants on a lump sum turnkey basis, if
Prequalification of contractors
For prequalification of tenders, notifications are issued in the press, at embassies
etc. as appropriate giving details such as name of the purchaser/engineer, outline
of the project, enquiry issue and tender submission dates, instructions for applying
for prequalification and submission date for the contractor’s prequalification data.
Normally, a prequalification document, issued on request to a contractor seeks
information on the organization, experience in the intended type of work,
availability of resources like managerial, technical labour and plant, and also asks
for financial statements. The contractors desirous of prequalification responds to
the questionnaire and such details as may enable his qualification.
He has had similar experience earlier and is performance reports for
previous contracts are satisfactory.
His past turnover and present financial commitments indicate no
constraints on fund availability for execution of the proposed contract.
He has the necessary infrastructure, adequate technical manpower,
construction equipment and his present commitments would not
prevent him from executing the proposed assignment satisfactorily.
His credibility in terms of his associates and associations with other
agencies including foreign agencies, job performance and relationship
with customers are sound.
After evaluation, the short-listed contractors are informed about their selection
and their confirmation obtained as to whether they will submit the tender.
Preparation of tender documents
A tender document is prepared by the purchaser/engineer in as detailed and clear
manner as possible to define the technical requirements of the work involved as
also the responsibilities which the purchaser and contractor will have to share
between themselves. A good tender document will include the following:
Letter of invitation to tender
Instruction to tenders
General condition of contract
Special conditions of contract
Bill of quantities
General information about site
Form of tender
Professional institutions like Institute of Mechanical Engineers have also
standardized the tender form. A tender form for supply and erection of plant and
machinery may cover the following items it the order listed below:
Terms of payment
Conditions of contract
Contract prices adjustment
The document is then issued to the short-listed contractors for submission of their
Receipt of tenders
The tenderers may make a request to visit the site. Normally, the
purchaser/engineer accompanies the tenderes to the site and provides further
information. There may be a pre-bid conference to clarify the various issues to the
tenderers. Supplementary queries can be clarified through correspondence till the
due date for the bidding. On the due date bids may be opened in front of the
tenderers present. The purchaser/engineer will announce and record the names of
tenderers and prices including prices of alternative tenders. They would also
announce and record the names to tenderers, if any, who are disqualified due to
Evaluation of tenders
The tenders are evaluated from technical, commercial, contractual and managerial
angles. Contractor’s confirmation or classifications are sought on various matters
which either do not conform the tender requirements or those that have nto been
offered by the contractor. The correspondence may reduce the points of
disagreement but a post-bid meeting often cannot be avoided. Normally, separate
meetings are held with each contractor to obtain clarification and also to bring all
the offers in line with the tender requirement.
170. The actual evaluation process includes checking the acceptability of the offer
against technical specifications, management specification and various
commercial and contractual terms and conditions. An adjusted contract price will
be arrived at in each case. Normally, the lowest bidder who is also technically and
managerially acceptable is awarded the contract.
An agreement is now to be signed on a stamped paper. The form of agreement is
probably the most standardized document. The form of agreement refers to the
various documents which will together form the contract. The accompanying
documents normally are:
Original tender papers comprising the conditions of contract,
specifications, dates, drawings and other relevant information.
Schedule of rates/prices including those for engaging workmen,
equipment, etc., for contingent works required during execution not
envisaged at the tendering stage.
A list of deviations from original tender stipulations as mutually
agreed upon between the purchaser and the contractor after
Other relevant attachments
Form of guarantee
Finally, whenever required, a guarantee from sureties in the following standard
form of IMechE may be asked from the contractor as an insurance against
uncertainties in dealings with the contractor.
By an agreement dated and made between the purchaser and the contractor the
parties enter4 into a contract as stated below:
Now we hereby jointly and individually guarantee to the purchaser punctual, true
and faithful performance and observance by the contractor of the covenant on is
part contained in the said agreement and undertake to be responsible to the
purchaser, his legal personal representatives, successors or assigns as sureties for
the contractor for the payment by him of all sums of money losses, damages, cost
charges and expenses that may become due or payable to the purchaser from the
contractor in consequence of default in the performance. Nevertheless, the total
amount to be demanded shall not exceed 15 per cent of the contract price.
This guarantee shall not be revocable by notice and our liabilities as sureties
hereunder shall not be impaired by any alterations made or agreed to in the
general conditions of contract.
171. TYPES OF TENDERING PROCESS
Unfortunately for the contractor, a high proportion of inquiries are, for one reason
or another, not vary serious. This tends to occur mainly in countries where the
infrastructure may not yet be ready for a particular type of plant. It is upto the
contractor to assess the seriousness of each inquiry. The tendering policy of most
contractors can be categorized into one of the following three types.
Highly selective tendering
This is often historical in origin and is followed by contractors with long
experience with certain industry, product of process. This type of tendering has
the advantage of low costs and a high proportion of successful contracts achieved
by negotiation rather than competition. The danger is that the announce and
record the names to tenderers, if any, who are disqualified due to late submission.
Evaluation of tenders
The tenders are evaluated from technical, commercial, contractual and managerial
angles. Contractor’s confirmation or classifications are sought on various matters
which either do not conform the tender requirements or those that have not been
offered by the contractor. The correspondence may reduce the points of
disagreement but a post-bid meeting often cannot be avoided. Normally, separate
meetings are held with each contractor to obtain clarification and also to bring al
the offers in line with the tender requirement.
The actual evaluation process includes checking the acceptability of the offer
against technical specifications, management specification and various
commercial and contractual terms and conditions. An adjusted contract price will
be arrived at in each case. Normally, the lowest bidder who is also technically and
managerially acceptable is awarded the contract.
An agreement is not to be signed on a stamped paper. The form of agreement if
probably the most standardized document. The form of agreement refers to the
various documents which will together form the contract. The accompanying
documents normally are:
Original tender papers comprising the conditions of contract,
specifications, dates, drawings and other relevant information
Schedule of rates/prices including those for engaging workmen,
equipment, etc., for contingent works required during execution not
envisaged at the tendering stage.
A list of deviations from original tender stipulations as mutually
agreed upon between the purchaser and the contractor after discussins.
Other relevant attachments.
Form of guarantee
Finally, whenever required, a guarantee from sureties in the following standard
form of IMechE may be asked from the contractor as an insurance against
uncertainties in dealings with the contractors.
By an agreement dated and made between the purchaser and the contractor the
parties enter into a contract as stated below:
Now we hereby jointly and individually guarantee to the purchaser punctual, true
and faitful performance and observance gy the contracgor of the convenant on his
part contained in the said agreement and undertake to be responsible to the
purchaser, his legal personal representatives, successors or assigns as sureties for
the contractor for the payment by him of all sums of money losses, damages, cost
charges and expenses that may become due to payable to the purchaser from the
contractor in consequence of default in the performance. Nevertheless, the total
amount to be demanded shall not exceed 15 per cent of the contract price.
This guarantee shall not be revocable by notice and our liabilities as sureties
hereunder shall not be impaired by any alterations made or agreed to in the
general conditions of contract.
TYPES OF TENDERING PROCESS
Unfortunately for the contractor, a high proportion of inquiries are, for one reason
or another, not very serious. This tends to occur mainly in countries where the
infrastructure may not yet be ready for a particular type of plant. It is upto the
contractor to assess the seriousness of each inquiry. The tendering policy of most
contractors can be categorized into one of the following three types.
Highly selective tendering
This if often historical in origin and is followed by contractors with long
experience with certain industry, product of process. This type of tendering has
the advantages of low costs and a high proportion of successful contracts achieved
by negotiation rather than competition. The danger is that the contractor is
susceptible to changes in the industry concerned and to technological innovations.
Moderately selective tendering
173. This is the most common type, particularly among European contractors whose
favoured field of operation are discernible. The danger is that firms can become
too complacent or, on the contrary, that they are unable to restrict their activities.
This is tendering for all projects without regard to the type and/or value. While a
broad front is offered, a large number of small contracts must often be undertaken
with a disproportionate amount of supervision and design cot, giving rise to high
tendering costs. The acceptance rate is generally lower than for more selective
Moderately selective tendering is thus to be preferred by the majority of
contractors, although all may we4ll claim to follow this type of procedure.
The tendering period also varies considerably. If this is too short, an inaccurate
tender with a large number of qualifications and exclusion clauses can result. On
the other hand, a tendering period is rarely considered by the contractor to be too
long. A point worth noting is that many contractors are reluctant to request an
extension of tendering time for fear that this gives the potential client an
impression of inefficiency. Yet it is usually better to seek such an extension rather
than to submit an inaccurate tender.
Prior to a client asking for bids for a plant, a feasibility study is necessary. This
may be conducted by the client itself, by an independent consultancy organization
or in some cases b y the contractor. Such a feasibility study may be preceded by
an advisability study that initially defines the project and assesses its possible
attractiveness; this is usually carried bout by the client. The feasibility study itself
examines the markets for the products to be manufactured (with due regard for
supplies, technological restraints, plant location, financial constraints and time
schedule) in order to determine the overall economic feasibility. Based on the
results of the feasibility study, a summary initial schedule is devised, usually
comprising three parts namely; advantages and disadvantages of various solutions
and reasons for choice of the recommended solution; full information on the
recommended proposition; a summary estimate of costs.
This schedule can be enlarges and refined to form the basis for decisions
concerning the technical, financial and managerial aspects of the project.
Additional inputs might include; descriptive and memoranda indicating
construction and operating methods, breakdown of supplies and equipment
leading to particular specifications, time schedules, the margins of risk; technical
files comprising overall plants and drawings of the main components of the plant;
an evaluation (to within + 10 percent) of the costs and expenses entailed.
174. From this detailed initial schedule, the final schedule will be drawn up. This will
contain detailed technical specifications and work plans, definitions of the work to
be carried out by different specialists, the timing and an estimate of expenses
broken down as accurately as possible. The calls for tenders are then based on the
description given in this final schedule. They contain the specifications fo the
plant and its components, including civil and other works, as well as appropriate
administrative and commercial clauses.
If the client does not already have a list of approved contractors, interested
contractors may be invited to submit prequalification documents. The purpose of
these is to ensure that firms making bids are technically and financially sound.
There is a wide variation in the amount of information that is provided to the
contractor under different types of tender. The man types of tender comprise those
involving the detailed design, procurement, erection and commissioning of a plant
or unit employing a specific process. The design content can vary considerably
within an agreed definition. The other major type concerns the overall design and
procurement of a plant to meet a stated performance. The contractor in this case is
able to utilize its choice of available process.
Many contractors will classify the type of bid in order to define the amount of
work to be performed by their staff into three different categories. An
approximate estimate bid contains no original detail but is based on previous
projects of similar scope and capacity. An order of magnitude bid is usually
required for a plant feasibility evaluation by the client. No original engineering
details are given and the bid us constructed from cost-capital cures and an
approximation based on past estimates and scaling factors. The definitive estimate
is based on defined engineering data with complete plot plans and elevations,
piping and instrumentation diagrams, equipment data sheets and quotations,
structural sketches, soil data and complete specification. For the compilation of
such an estimate, the contractor may, in turn obtain bids on 50 to 90 per cent of all
the process equipment required. The contents of a typical tender of this type are
shown in the figure 5, the proposal being divided in three sections; technical data,
commercial data and cost data.
Contend of a Tender
1. Technical proposal
Plot-plans and elevations
Process flow diagrams
Engineering flow diagrams
Utilities flow diagrams
Schedule of professional staff
Resume of key personnel
Project management policy
Engineering department descriptions
Construction department descriptions
Procurement department descriptions
Financial control descriptions
175. Heat balance
Equipment list and data sheets
Model of proposed plant
Lists of reference plants
Total price for services offered
Total breakdown by materials
Price breakdown by materials
Lobour and overheads
Amount of subcontract work
Amount for offsite facilities
Tax provisions Specification
Escalation and penalty clauses
Schedule of payments
Introduction and background
Origin of the company
For large-scale tenders, the contractor usually appoints a proposal manager to coordinate the whole proposal preparation and to liaise with the client. This applies
especially to the larger contracting companies.
For major contracts, biding contractors may be required to deposit bid-bonds
when making their tenders in order to ensure the seriousness of their tender to
ensure the seriousness of their tender and to guarantee the customer against the
waiving of the bid if the company is selected. These bid-bonds usually amount to
between 1 and 2 per cent of the contract table.
Tenders are all opened at the same time, and examined and compared with the aid
of a table showing the main data. In some developing countries, a preferential
coefficient (X) may be given to local firms, and foreign contractors are selected
only if their prices are at least X per cent below the lowest local bid. This coefficie may vary widely but it can be as high as per 30 per cent.
Comparison of tenders does not necessarily lead automatically to the choice of a
contractor. If the bids are very close, each company may be asked to submit a
revised second bid, in which case it is to be expected that differences will be
widened to such an extent that the lowest bid can be accepted. Once the contractor
has been chosen, negotiations with the client can start. These usually take several
176. months in the case of large contracts and it is not unknown for the negotiation
period to run into years.
GLOBAL TENDERING AND BID EVALUATION
These are very significant to the project managers engaged in design,
construction, execution, installation, operation and maintenance of large-scale
assets in order to derive optimum benefits from the capital intensive projects.
Global tenders are issued for high tech requirements particularly associated with
international credits like World Bank loans. Since the source of supply may be
outside the country, a detailed plan must be done and global tender must involve
simplicity in language and clarity, specifying tendering and accepting authority. It
is necessary to ensure that the accepting and tendering parties must be specific to
commit. Tendering is nothing but visualization of various events that have to take
place in the execution of contract spread over two to three years, and legislating
for the buyer’s stand a respect of al these, which should be practical, consistent
with canons of financial propriety and allow for proper legal actions.
The chief merit of global tendering is that it gives equal opportunity to every
supplier/contractor to make an offer within the terms and conditions of tender and
thus it promotes competition. Global tendering is particularly recommended to
ensure safeguard against public procurement.
Bids must be procured from really interested parties by proper prequalification
and applying the bid bond clause. The tender is awarded to the responsible bidder
whose price is the lowest, provided it is deemed reasonable and most
advantageous. The bidder has to satisfy himself that full information has been
furnished as required in the specifications, as lack of information will be at the
risk of rejection of bid. The bids received will be scrutinized by the project team
according to the bid evaluation criteria to ascertain the most suitable evaluation of
bid for the total project.
Formal advertising of tender is resorted to in the bidder’s interest; there must be
time for formal solicitation and for the delays that may frequently develop. While
submitting application for pre-qualification, the bidders must furnish package
number, description of work intended for pre-qualification and name and address
of the bidder, address of registered office of the firm.
The bidder must also furnish the lists of technical personnel with then experience,
names of sub contractors and the nature of job handled by them. The details of
similar works executed in last ten years indication name, address of clients, nature
of job, contract value, completion times, etc., need to be furnished by the bidder.
Information on current orders in hand, expected time of completion have also to
be furnished by the bidder.
177. The bid application, completed in all respect in seven copies must be submitted to
the project authorities so as to reach them within a specified date. One set of
sealed copy of application must be sent under registered post to the Directorate
General of Technical Development, Coordination Section, New Delhi. The
following should be subscribed on the envelop; Package number Description …
Application for pre-bid qualification for plant modernization phase. The project
authorities have the right to verify the credentials of the applicants and their
facilities, etc., and call for additional information, if required, to ascertain the
bidders’ capabilities. The project authorities also reserve the absolute right to
reject, at their discretion, the application of any or all bidders without assigning
Once the bids are received, the project authorities evaluate them on a preliminary
basis, with a checklist, as to whether all key points, including commercial terms,
costs, delivery schedules and other contractual aspects, have been fully covered.
In order to shortlist the vendors, the acceptable bidders are arranged in ascending
price order, after eliminating bidders with unacceptable quotations, or with
incomplete bids. The preliminary evaluation enable to focus greater attention on a
few vendors with competitive bidding, the need (if any) solicit additional
After initial scrutiny of the promising bidders’ information a complete technical
evaluation of the bids of the potential suppliers is performed by tabulating the
data in a suitable way. It is desirable to specify for the shortlisted vendors the
following checklists in program. Vendors, quotation reference, quotation date,
validity expire date, vendors complete address, local representative, complete
delivery material delivery point, basic price of material escalation terms, payment
details, recommended spares, mandatory spares, shop assembly, shop painting,
shop testing, packing, graphs, catalysts, lubricants, drawings, engineer services,
warrantees, import duties, agents’ fees, currency exchange etc., inspection fees,
adjusted base cost, freight cost, operating cost, feed stockiest, utility cost, field
service estimate, allowance for estimated extras, total estimated present cost also
form a part of the checklist. It is necessary to scrutinize additional costs/savings
and availability of vendor support at this phase.
The detailed commercial scrutiny is usually conducted after evaluating the bid
technically. The commercial scrutiny consists of checking whether everything I
the specification is covered in the price. These aspects include the following :
drawings, documents, maintenance, operating manuals, test facilities, test
178. certificates, painting and insulation, shop assembly, packing, creating, field
service, freight to deliver payment, warranties, guarantees delivery crating, field
services, freight to delivery payment, warranties, guarantees delivery date, unit
rates, bases of escalation, discounted value of money, currency exchanges,
imports costs and costs of values applies to down payment, progress payment,
final payment, operating costs, variable annual costs, escalation costs, field
service costs and other cost components.
It helps the project authorities to meet the short listed vendors in apreaward
conference prior to selection for reviewing any questions which have arisen
during the technical and commercial evaluations and to confirm all aspects of the
bid. It is desirable that a team of senior officers connected with the project meets,
the shortlisted vendors so that negotiations, if necessary, can take smoothly and
also to have discussions on ethical consideration.
The conditioning process helps the project authorities, to consider intangible and
other factors which might influence vendor selection. A low bid may not
necessarily be the cheapest bid when the following aspects are considered:
additional expenditing, follow-up, additional engineering review, delayed receipt
of drawings, interchangeability of spares with existing equipments, local vendors,
local pressures/support, future service availability, initial maintenance,
compatibility with existing infrastructure, additional support facilities application
of learning-curve for cost-reduction, transporting over dimensional consignments,
The vendor selection process is accomplished by the project committee. The
technical aspects are reviewed by technical personnel, while the commercial
aspects are evaluated by finance/commercial officers. A detailed presentation of
the pros and cons of all aspects of the individual vendor a made, and a vendor is
The pre-commitment meeting with the vendor enables the suppliers to know that
he is likely to get the contract. A formal agenda is made to cover a comprehensive
review of specification, contracts, and commercial terms in order to reduce
misunderstanding between the two parties. A broad identity of views on all aspect
is reached between the two parties. If the vendor has some lingering doubts, these
are recorded in written statements.
179. Formal award
The last step in the whole exercise is to formally award the contract to the vendor.
A telex or telephone order is initially placed. A formal written purchased order,
together with necessary documents, data sheets, specifications, contractual terms,
etc., is handed over to the vendor. After choosing the vendor, the next stage of
follow up of the contract’s implementation on manufacture, transport, installation
is planned, so that efforts are made to commission the project in time.
Steps required for bid preparation are given below:
A. Pre-bid invitation stage
Define as precisely as possible the need that is to be met.
Identify the product that will meet this need.
Specify operating and other relevant parameters.
Lay down specifications, as required, by reference to:
iii) other country’s;
iv) industrial associations
b) Brand names
c) Catalogues of sellers
d) Drawings, engineering designs
Specify test methods and procedures
Research supply market to know the structural characteristics of the
international market for the project.
Decide on procurement method and strategy.
Identify potential suppliers, through desk research.
Shortlist the more reliable ones through a pre-qualification systems
Prepare bid documentation and the invitation to tender. Define contract
terms and conditions and scope and nature of guarantees required.
Check for precision and completeness.
Establish evaluation criteria.
B. On receipt or opening of bids
Design a suitable format for bid tabulation.
Reduce all variables in different bids to a comparable basis, e.g. either
all FOB or CER terms
Express all prices/costs in a single currency and use an appropriate
exchange rate for the purpose.
As the ultimate cost to the buyer is more important than the price,
compare the relative cost of supplies from different bidders and not
only their price quotations.
For equipment, be assured by the supplies of the later availability of
spares/replacements and their supply price.
As operating costs are as important an element of evaluation as the
initial cost of the equipment, adopt a total-costing/life-cycle costing
technique when evaluating bids for equipment.
As the time profiles of the costs and possible output (and hence,
revenues) of different bids for equipment are likely to differ, use the
net present value technique and take into account the serviceable life,
salvate value at the end, and operating costs.
Follow these two objectives for the technical evaluation:
a) Assess deviations from prescribed specifications and, if these are
acceptable, make appropriate adjustments to the price for positive
and negative deviations to compare offers.
b) For commercial evaluation, reduce the payment terms of different
offers for productivity differentials (use of material and/or human
inputs per unit of output).
For commercial evaluation, reduce the payment terms of different
offers to a comparable basis. In the case of deferred payments, make
use of the net present value analysis technique.
DELIVERY TERMS OF CONTRACTS
There are five main types of contracts that are currently used by process plant
contractors. In order of decreasing degrees of the fixed price element, these are as
Lump sum (fixed price) contracts
Guaranteed maximum contracts
Target price contracts
Cost-plus-fixed fee contracts
Cost-plus-percentage fee contracts
The less experienced clients tend to prefer the sum type of contract as this results
in the greatest competition between contractors and the evaluation of bids is easy.
Contractors’ bidding costs for this type of contract are at their highest and there
are disadvantages. Not only is the bid time quite ling, but such bids are highly
inflexible, with any changes being difficult and expensive. Costs may be high to
cover any contingencies and risks, and the client-contractor relationship tends to
be more divergent than with other types of contract. Finally, the emphasis on the
low bid may give an unsatisfactory end product.
Fixed price contracts are used mainly where the client is in a position to specify
exactly what is to be built and where much of the engineering work must be
carried out prior to signing of the contract. Other types of contracts may be
181. converted to a fixed price contract when the work is sufficiently advanced to
permit an accurate, maximum cost estimate to be made.
Typical payment terms for engineering work are an initial down payment made on
contract signature, several instalments paid at intervals during plant construction,
and a final payment due after satisfactory completion and the expiry of any
performance guarantee period. In some cases, periodic installment payments may
continue over several years after plant completion. Installments may fall due upon
contract signature, during deliveries of equipment and plant construction, after
completion of acceptance costs, or at set time intervals.
Great care must be taken over the wording of payment terms since loosely worded
provisions can result in substantial financial losses to the contractor, particularly if
installment payments are determined by the dates of tests and the commissioning
of units. Whenever possible, fixed dates should be written into the agreement of
individual installment payments to avoid excuses for postponement being made
by the client, some of which may be trifling in nature. To minimize such risks, the
contract should also clearly specify the exact documents and certificates required
before a payment can be authorized.
Investments in projects involve huge capital outlay. Hence the project manager, in
collaboration with the finance and purchase departments, deliberates with the
equipment suppliers on quality, delivery schedule, price, payment schedule,
service and other relevant legal contractual aspects. This process of deliberation is
known as negotiations.
The term negotiation, is derived from Latin civil laws and refers to trading and
deliberations, leading to the purchase of equipments and services. Negotiation is
essentially a communication process between the parties incidental to the making
of a contract, or a business transaction.
The Oxford dictionary defines negotiation as a conference with another with a
view to compromising in an agreement. Negotiation is the art of arriving at a
common understanding with a manufacturer on the essentials of a contract in the
area of project management. Thus, negotiation attempts to find a formula which
will give each party the most profitable value in a specific situation, and is not
only a science but an art as well.
Many organizations consider that the man objectives of negotiations in project
management are to establish a fair and reasonable price and to develop a sound
relationship with the suppliers. Besides dealing with the immediate transaction,
the buyer must consider his future relations with the supplier. The buyer in
addition to being fair, should always conduct himself so that in future
182. negotiations, the supplier will submit his lowest price and perform the contract on
Negotiation is not to be confused with haggling over price. It is reasonable
discussion as regards price, cost, specification, justification for conditions and
delivery, control, price-revision, discounts, escalation, provision etc. The purpose
of negotiation is to find a common ground on which, both buyer and seller agree,
and arrive at a compromise acceptable to both.
Parameters of Negotiation
There are a large number of aspects that my crop up in the negotiation process.
Some of the important areas in which the buyer and the seller may concentrate are
mentioned below. These are price, cost, terms and conditions of the original
contract; variations in quantity; specifications and deviation from specified
tolerances; basis for price revision or escalation; facilities to be provided by the
project authorities; quality of subcontracted items; unforeseen amount of
construction maintenance repairs; continued supply of spares; buyback
arrangements of initially dumped unwanted spares; supply of critical buyback
arrangement of initially dumped unwanted spares; supply of critical drawings;
performance guarantee after initial warrantee is over; after sales service;
technology upgradation after initial supply of equipments on a continuous basis;
interrelation of legal terms; basis for penalty/bonus; payment schedule;
moral/ethical aspects; dispatch terms; instructions on insurance; removal of
rejected items; and risk purchase clause in the event of changes in delivery
Tools of Negotiation
The SWOT approach – strength, weakness, opportunity, and threats relevant to
the project team, suppliers corporate profile, the industry scenario, national
perspectives, international consideration, etc., will enable identification of the
bargaining position of the supplier in the context of social / political /
technological / financial / regulatory / economical / natural environment factors.
Negotiations must be conducted in peaceful in peaceful and comfortable
surroundings without disturbance of any sort.
It is essential that the negotiating team must be familiar with the market situation,
and possess thorough knowledge about the suppliers’ expertise on technical,
financial and manpower capabilities. It is not necessary to negotiate on each and
every item/supplier. It is desirable to negotiate only with the lowest two or three
tenders. The process of negotiation must be confined to high cost critical items.
Techniques like ABC/VED/MUSIC-3D analysis may be helpful.
Quantity discount analysis is used for simple comparisons while detailed analysis
of cost breakdown into labour, material, overhead etc., are used for complex
183. comparisons. The break-even analysis is also used for estimating the internal price
structure and to obtain greater insight into the suppliers proposals.
The concept of learning curve of the labour cost going down with repetitive jobs
may be used for repetitive labor intensive projects. Other techniques include
persuasion, questioning, discussions, vertical thinking, and prolonged silence,
walk out etc., depending on the situation.
The important personal abilities and qualification for negotiation are: (1)
knowledge, (2) attitude, (3) skill in identifying the issues under negotiation and
(4) planning strategies and techniques to revolve these issues effectively by
argument, persuasion and skills in communication,
Clauses headed “Contractor’s obligations” cover general provisions such as:
♦ Obligation to construct the facility in accordance with the project
♦ Applicable standards and codes;
♦ Order of precedence of contract documents;
♦ Obligation of the contractor to request for additional information;
♦ Obligation of the contractor to check and verify company information;
♦ Occasionally, contractors may be required to assume liability for
correctness and completeness of the information furnished by the client.
As a principle this is not acceptable because it implies that a contractor is
responsible for any mistakes made by the client;
♦ Obligation of the contractor to assume responsibility for scheduling
progress reporting, forecasting, etc.;
♦ Obligation of contractors to work out detailed work package;
♦ Statement that the contractor is fully knowledgeable fot he site conditions
and other local conditions (weather, access to site, etc.). Liability for
subsoil conditions and other things that cannot be detected by simple
visual check should be excluded.
♦ Obligation of the contractor to keep and to maintain the site clean;
♦ Obligation to inform the client of problems and other important matters
affecting the Project in general;
♦ Anything not included in the client’s information but that logically should
have been included shall be deemed to be included.
The list of the client’s obligations tends to be far shorter. Contractors should try to
add an umbrella provision to the effect that anything not specifically included in
the lump sum shall be deemed to be excluded (and thereby becomes
184. reimbursable). When the client wants to review or approve certain drawings and
information, an approval time of say 10 working days should be added, following
which the drawings, etc., shall be deemed to be approves. Any client changes
after those 10 days shall constitute a change in the order with price and time
Clients are usually responsible for obtaining permits and other official
authorizations, the supply of utilities (including construction utilities) and
feedstock, telephone and other communications’ facilities, canteen, toilets,
fencing, guards, roads, lighting, storage facilities, warehouse, etc.
This chapter narrates the significance of contracting, and its dimensions in
implementing a project. The project manager cannot get everything done through
an in-house staff. He has to make necessary arrangements for acquiring authority
over external organizations which will be required to participate in the execution
of a project against some consideration. Thus this chapter has emphasized the
contractual arrangement is a basic requirement in project management and hence
the basics of contracting, contracting principles, tendering and bid evaluation, and
also the delivery terms of contracting must be learnt by all concerned.
SELF ASSESSMENT QUESTIONS
What do you mean by the term ‘project contracting’? Explain its
Explain the basic principles of project contracting.
Briefly describe the 3 R’s of contracting.
What is global tendering? Explain how it can be processed.
What is bidding and explain the bid evaluation process.
What is project negotiation? Explain its objectives.
Explain the parameters of effective negotiation.
Briefly narrate the tools of negotiation.
Explain the different types of pricing contracts.
What are the contents of tender documents?
185. LESSON – 12
PROJECT FINANCING & PROJECT OVER RUNS
To give an overview about various sources of project financing
To point out causes for project overruns in project execution
To explain the remedial measures to overcome the overrun problems
To be successful in developing new business, it is essential that firms have
knowledge of project finance and are aware of how the potential projects they
which to develop are to be financed. This is because many projects are cofinanced. With some sections receiving bilateral funding (which may be tied to
the use of consultants from the country providing the finance) and others
receiving multilateral funding and thus being open to all international firms that
can prequalify. In many projects being developed in developing countries or
countries in transition the financial engineering of the project is becoming more
important than the design of the project itself.
Over the past two decades there have been considerable changes in the techniques
used to meet the financing needs of projects particularly in view of the increasing
scarcity of funds, high interest rates and the high level of debt in the beneficiary
countries. The most common sources of project finance in developing countries or
countries in transition are:
Multilateral funding agencies
Export credit agencies
Direct foreign investment
Bilateral funding agencies
MULTILATERAL FUNDING AGENCIES
186. The World Bank (which in the fiscal year 1991 approved some US$21.7 billion of
loans for 222 projects) and the various regional development banks (which in
1992 had a total lending in excess of US$10 billion) make up the largest group of
multilateral funding agencies providing finance for projects. Other multilateral
agencies offering regional project finance include the European Development
Funds (EDF), various Arab funds and the United Nations Development Program
(UNDP). Loans from al these agencies have some advantages over commercial
loans in that they may be for a longer period that those from the commercial
sector. The interest rates may be lower and fixed interest rates may be negotiated,
participation by these agencies will endorse credit for potentially interested
parties, and co-financing may be possible with participation from the commercial
banking sector and with cross-default clauses.
There are however several disadvantages in using project finance from
multilateral agencies. In principle, loans are available only for the public sector
and the project/loan approval process is vary lengthy, which often holds up the
project for years. Furthermore, it may be ties to some very expensive additions
such as environmental impact assessments and training. Another disadvantage is
that the funds may be provided in currencies that are default to hedge, thus giving
rise to currency risks.
Export Credit Agencies
Project financing from export credit agencies is generally available in two froms
and often in a combination of both: either from the national export-import bank
and / or as foreign aid. When tied together they are called mixed credits, and if the
country is a member of the Group on Export Credits and Credit Guarantees
(ECCG) of the OECD Trade Committee, these credits are regulated by OECD
arrangements. Most foreign aid of this type is used to purchase goods and services
from the private sector in the country that provides the financing. These agencies
provide a number of project finance services.
Loans and Guarantees
These consist of concessional loans or guarantees for a concessional loan or a
combination of both. In some countries, the agency provides a guarantee for
financing, which is then used to secure loans commercial banks.
This is credit guaranteed by the export credit agency, which is made available,
often at a concessional rate of interest, for a fixed period. Repayment is over a
period of 5-10 years from the compoletion date of the project, and the repayments
of the capital plus interest is secured by negotiable paper such as promissory notes
or bills of exchange. Bank charges, bonds, insurance costs, etc., are usually
included in the project offer if this type of financing is foreseen. The main
187. disadvantage for the contractor is that no progress payments are made ant that
project finance is not available until the project is completed. The supplier is
usually required to assume some of the risk of financing.
This is essentially an arrangement between banks whereby a bank in the country
of the contractor enters into a loan agreement with a bank in the country of the
client or in the country in which the work is to be undertaken. Lending banks are
authorized to make progress payments in cash, to the contractor on submission of
invoices together with appropriate paper such as bills of lading. The loan
agreement specifies the conditions under which the loan is to be repaid and bank
charges are paid direct by the lending bank to the borrowing bank. With this type
of credit, only insurance costs can be included by the contractor in the overall
project price. The credit periods can often be extended for large projects.
Hardware or equipment, or even sub-contracts, are often purchased from subsuppliers or subcontractors and then resold to the client. This type of credit is
probably the most commonly used in the Asian and Pacific region. Banks usually
require export credit insurance guarantees before they grant the credits.
Project lines of credit
These are special arrangements between selected banks in certain countries.
Under such arrangement, buyers in the borrowing country may place cash orders
for a variety of different contracts. Domestic contractors have been included as
potential borrowers. Since special arrangements are often made for a variety of
political or economic reasons or in response to governments initiative, the
government in the borrowing country usually guarantees the loans.
The advantages of financing through export credit agencies are that a fixed rate of
interest is often available and the concessional rates of interest are lower than
those4 charged by strictly commercial sources. Furthermore, the loans extended
are often for longer terms than commercial sources. Furthermore the loans
extended are often for longer terms than commercial loans and the official nature
of the loan may offer some protection against government expropriation.
However, there are also advantages, first in that the process of approval of loans is
often very bureaucratic and lengthy. Where loans are tied, the goods and services
available from the countries providing the credits may not be the best suited to the
project and may by far more expensive than those available from other sources.
Furthermore, additional equipment and spares, which may be found to be needed
later are not covered by the credits. Finally, serious problems arise if the project is
unable to generate sufficient foreign exchange to repay the loan.
188. The World Bank and some of the regional development banks, such a IDB
and ADB have made special provisions to provide project finance through
national export credit agencies in their respective regions of operation.
One major problem facing export credit agencies is the very conservative
attitude of development finance corporations in general, as many of them have
had negative experience in assessing credit risks in the construction industry.
Direct foreign investment
Direct foreign investment in developing countries has been a major source
of project finance for many industrial plants developed by industrialized counties
in developing countries in developing countries in transaction. Many international
manufacturers in such areas as electronics, textiles and automobile spare parts
have been forced to manufacture products in countries that have low labour costs
in order to be competitive. Both Latin American and Asian countries have made
major efforts to attract this direct foreign investment, which provides
employment, technology and skills transfer, project finance and access to
international markets. In many cases, the development of these industrial facilities
has been handled in part by both national and regional firms, often on a lump sum
In order to encourage the flow of direct foreign investment into
developing countries, the World Bank created the Multilateral Investment
Guarantee Agency (MIGA) in 1988. This offers investment insurance to mitigate
political risk through its guarantee program and provides promotional and
advisory services to assist its member countries to attract and retain direct foreign
MIGA’s guarantee program products investors from non-commercial risks
of currency transfer, expropriation, war and civil disturbance. It insures only new
investments, including expansion of existing investments, privatizations and
financial restructuring. Projects must be registered with MIGA before the
investments are made or irrevocably committed. MIGA can insure up to 90 per
cent of the investment amount, subject to a limit of US $ 50 million of coverage
Bilateral funding agencies
A considerable amount of project finance made available in developing
countries and countries in transition in provided direct by agencies from industrial
countries. In 1992, such bilateral official development assistance reached US $ 68
billion, of which US$34 billion was for developing countries.
189. National governments
Many governments will often fund small and medium sized projects out of
their own funds, either directly or indirectly by means of equity investments,
investment gratis, subsidized loans, tax concessions or subsidies on utilities,
manpower, energy or raw materials.
Commercial banks are a major source of project finance, offering loans for
five to ten years with floating rates of interest based on the LIBOR or the United
States prime rate. Commercial bank loans for large projects are typical arranged
as syndicated bank loans. There are two basic options open to project developers:
either the project developer assumes full responsibility for obtaining project
finance or it used the services of a bank specializing in project finance.
Alternatively, the client may use a local or regional bank to arrange or engineer a
financial package. The bank been determines the maximum foreign exchange
requirements and the possibilities of obtaining export credits and aid funds and
prepares a project finance package.
Institutional lenders, such as insurance companies, pension funds and
charitable organizations are becoming significant sources of project funding,
particularly for industrial buildings and shopping centre developments as well as
in the developments of “build-own-operate” projects, which are particularly
prevalent in ASEAN countries.
In the Asia and Pacific region, a number of Japanese leasing companies
have access to low-cost Japanese Government funding, and they are thus able to
offer attractive term financing for equipment and facilities. Several industrial
facilities and industrial parks have been developed on a lease-back basis. Project
financing of this type will be particularly pertinent to ASEAN countries trying to
develop industrial estates, shopping centre complexes, etc.
Contractors often initiate project finance but they are rarely able to
participate in the long-term financing of projects. They may participate in the
form of fixed-price contracts, with guarantees, and sometimes may take part of
their fees in the form of equity in the project. Contractors can also provide
assistance to their clients in developing the financial planning, as they are often
190. experienced in dealing with multilateral and bilateral lending agencies, export
credit agencies, banks, etc.
Some countries have taken equity positions in companies that own “buildown-operate” projects. A typical project finance request form used by engineers
and contractors to define the financing requirements of a particular project to be
developed may be found at the end of this chapter.
Counter trade is considered by most technical consultants and contractors
as the least desirable form of project finance and it is usually considered only
when there is not other form of finance available. In certain least developed
countries and several of the former socialist countries of Eastern Europe, there
may indeed be no alternative. There are however, several major engineers and
contractors that have long adhered to a policy of using counter trade as a means of
developing markets and have formulated well-defined policies, which have
produced a profit. These companies have set up international trade departments
within their company to manage these transactions.
There are different forms of counter trade, the most simple of which is
barter. This consists of a simple contract to swap one set of goods for another set,
with the contract being valid for a limited time period. The value of the goods
traded is agreed on at the time of negotiation of the contract. Barter is used to
repay debts or to pay for goods and services over a short period of time.
Another form of counter trade is known as direct compensation or buyback. Here, two contracts, one of sale of one of purchase, are linked and partially
or totally counterbalanced, with separate cash settlements being made for each
part of the transaction. In exchange for developing technology, goods and
engineering services in a turnkey plant, a contractor will receive payment in the
form of goods or material produced by the plant.
Concessionary structures include “build-operate-transfer” (BOT), “buildown-operate-manage” (BOOM), “build-own-operate” (BOO) and “build-ownoperate-transfer” (BOOT). While there is nothing new about this method of
project financing as such, what is new is the growing enthusiasm of governments
for this form of financing (particularly in ASEAN countries) mainly because it
does not increase public-sector debt. It has also been noted that, when the public
sector is not directly responsible for the project finance, greater emphasis is
placed on project viability and the financial engineering of the project, and when
implemented, such projects are often operated more cost-effectively.
Many industrial face financial problems at the project implementation
stage. The timely availability of funds on short and long-term basis is a prerequisite for the success of any business. Project managers are not wrong in
191. comparing the function of finance in business with that of blood in human
organism. The project appraisal takes into account the future cash flow
requirements of the project and it is not uncommon with the development finance
institutions to stipulate conditions regarding the availability of term finance for
project implementation and short term funds in the form of market and bank
borrowing for meeting the operating expenses once the project has been
We can presume that if the project is able to generate surplus at the
operational stage, the financial requirements would be met from short term
borrowings (including bank borrowings) though such assumptions suffer from
many inherent limitations.
There are project having reasonably successful operations yet they fact
constraints of adequate funds in view of policies like credit squeeze and the
prevailing inflationary conditions. In such cases, the development finance
institutions in their follow-up operations have to offer desired assistance to the
units to enable them to overcome these difficulties. An area of serious concern to
the institutions is when the project suffers on account of insufficient availability
of finance at the project implementation stage. The difficulties are accentuated
especially when there is time and cost overrun.
Meaning of overrun
It is appropriate for us at this stage to define as to what exactly we wish to
convey by overrun.
We can define overrun as the inability of the project administration to
complete the venture within the stipulated framework of cost and time. Whether
the said inability is attributable to internal or external factors is another matter.
Time overrun simply refers to spending more time on a project than
scheduled for it. Cost overrun is the excess of actual cost incurred on a project
over the budgeted or planned cost.
The best example for the time overrun is Srisailam Dam whose stone way
layed by the First Prime minister Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru and was scheduled to the
completed by the mid 1970s was simply overrun by a decade only when Mrs.
Indira Gandhi during 1983, the then Prime Minister of India, inaugurated the
tunnel of Dam which was partially complete. Some of the International projects
that were susceptible to cost and time overrun were : BART project of San
192. Fransisco, Opera House of Sydney, Channel Tunnel, Oosterscheld Aircraft project
The tie and cost overrun has been depicted in the diagram
= actual cost
= scheduled cost
= Scheduled time
= Actual time
CAUSES FOR OVERRUN
The reasons for overrun require a close scrutiny and in many cases the
institutions may have to take certain decisions depending upon the merits of the
case which may be considered unpleasant by the management.
As indicated above the reasons for time and cost overrun may be broadly
We may first examine the internal reasons which are basically
controllable, i.e. given a competent management the project can be implemented
within the stipulated time limit and to cost estimates. We also assume that the
193. time overrun itself is an important reason for the cost overrun. The rationale for
this is too obvious to require and further explanation. Time has value and all cost
estimates are valid within a given time framework.
Firstly, the cost overrun is the natural outcome of the cost underestimation
at the project preparation and evaluation stages. The principal motivation for this
willful cost underestimation is to keep the promoters’ contribution, about which
the institutions have somewhat inflexible norms, to the minimum possible. Once
the project financing is tied up, the promoters find themselves in a more
favourable position to express there inability to contribute substantially to the
overrun. The overrun undertaking is an instrument in the hands of institutions
which is of little practical significance.
Another strong argument is to attribute the cost overrun to uncontrollable
external factors with their genesis in governmental policies or inflationary
pressures in the economy for which obviously responsibility cannot be fixed at the
Secondly, there may be change in the project concept as such during the
implementation stage, viz., unsuitability of the location, changes in the designs of
civil structure, additions/changes in the various items of plant and equipment
following certain alternations in process technology, size of operation, product
mix etc. Most of these points would be further elaborated when we discuss the
technical problems at the project implementation and operation stages.
Thirdly, effective project implementation requires competent management
with ability to forecast problems and take corrective steps. The business
environment is always in a flux. Prices are changing: the availability of inputs at
the constructional stages poses problems. Human resources are to be organized
and assigned specific duties for timely action in various areas of implementation.
Any management which is incapable of performing these tasks efficiently would
be saddled with a cost overrun. This incompetence whether it systems out of
fictional fights of genuine incompetence gives rise to a number of problems.
Fourthly, the tendency of the management to overspend in travel,
entertainments, non-productive activities, etc. can distort the initial cost estimates.
Some control over expenditure, internal or institutional, is desirable to keep the
overrun within manageable proportions.
Fifthly, incompetent and dishonest management can add to the overrun
through underhand dealings in the purchases of construction materials and
Lastly, there are number of other reason such a delay in he recruitment of
essential project implementation staff, excessive expenditure on foreign
technicians, failure to comply with institutional conditions, inadequate
194. contingency provisions for non-firm items, involvement with a new/complex
technology, siphoning of funds, lack of experience on the part of promoters in
project implementation, etc.
As far as uncontrollable external factors are concerned, they generally fall in the
following broad categories:
1 Delays in the availability of utilities, more particularly power.
2. General short supply of materials and the consequent escalation in prices
3. Delays in the sanction and disbursement of assistance by the financial
4. Delays in the development of an industrial area and provision of necessary
5. Changes in government policies, especially with regard to industrial and import
licensing, foreign collaboration approvals and the actual time taken in obtaining
6. Foreign currency fluctuations to the detriment of the importer
7. Unforeseen political developments and the consequent delays in the receipt of
8. Inability of the domestic machinery suppliers to adhere to the delivery schedule
due to overbooking, strikes, non-availability of components/raw materials etc.
9. Delay in the arrival of foreign technicians.
10 Sudden changes in the market conditions thereby dampening the enthusiasm of
the promoters to go ahead with the project implementation as scheduled
Stage-wise Overrun in Project Life Cycle:
These reasons may be classified through stages of life cycle of the project.
At conceptual stage overrun problems may be due to failure to understand
basic requirements of a project, Unrealistic appraisal of in-house
capabilities and Underestimating time requirements.
195. At the planning stage the reasons may be of Omissions, inaccuracy of the work
break down structure, Misinterpretation of information, Use of wrong estimating
techniques, Failure to identify and concentrate on major cost elements and also
due to Failure to assess and provide for risks.
Under negotiations stage, overrun may arise due to Forcing a speedy compromise
of agreements, Procurement ceiling costs, Negotiation team that must win this
Under contractual stage contractual discrepancies, Sow different from REP
requirements, Proposal team different from project team may cases overrun
In designing stage, Accepting customer request without management approval,
Problems in customer communication channels and data issues and also due to
problems in design review meetings.
Similarly under construction stage overrun ay arises due to excessive material
costs, Overboard specifications, Manufacturing and engineering disagreements.
IMPACT OF COST AND TIME OVERRUN
After the time and or the cost overrun has occurred the following consequences
Increase in pre-operative expenses, mainly interest during construction.
The enterprise’s inability to repay principal and interest as per the
Adverse impact on the viability of the project
Loss on account of lost market opportunities
Sickness at birth and a host of other unsavory consequences associated
with industrial sickness.
CONTROLLING PROJECT OVERRUNS
The financial institution has to normally depend upon the information monitoring
system to find out the quantum of overrun and its reasons. It is also a common
practice with the institutions to carry out some kind of re-evaluation of the project
through visits and personal discussions to assess the impact of the overrun on the
long term project viability and to determine the quantum of additional assistance
needed to implement the project. Efforts are also made to motivate the promoters
to bring additional funds to meet a part of the overrun.
196. In view of the generally complex nature of the project overrun which may be due
to a combination of controllable and uncontrollable factors, it is not possible to
prescribe effective remedies to avoid its occurrence in absolute terms. However,
certain institutional safeguards may prove useful in limiting its magnitude. There
Proper project appraisal covering managerial, financial, economic
technical and market aspects
Effective co-ordination between project and follow-up wings of the
institution so that persons entrusted with responsibility of looking after the project
at disbursement and implementation stage get fully conversant with the project
concept, strong as well as weak points of the management, critical areas in
Introduction of a well-designed information system fairly early in the
project implementation stage
Appointment of a nominee immediately after sanction of assistance and
the association of the nominee director in all important matters such as
finalization of contracts, purchase, appointment of key personnel etc.
e) Use of project scheduling techniques like PERT/CPM and their constant
Closer coordination between term lending institutions and the commercial
banks on the one hand and financing institutions themselves where more that one
institution is involved in project financing on the other.
Closer co-ordination of the financing institution with the local authorities
for timely allotment of land/shed, sanction of electricity connection, approval of
buildings plants, and the provision necessary infra-structural support.
Streaming of operations of financial institutions so that the time taken is
sanction of assistance and disbursement is kept to the minimum. The institution
would also be well-advised to decentralize its operations and to have a second
look at some of the stipulations which the promoters find difficult to comply.
Thus, cost can be reduce in all reduced in all areas, but one cannot and must not
be stingy while managing projects involving crores of rupees cost must be
controlled but it must be done with grace. Hence this chapter suggest that cost is
the final measure of project management effectiveness and discusses various
measures for keeping the same under control.
197. SELF ASSESSMENT QUESTIONS
What is Project overrun? Explain its significance.
Describe the nature and causes of cost and time over runs.
How does the cost and time overrun be controlled?
Explain the causes for overrun at the different stages of project life cycle.
198. LESSON – 13
To control the need and functions of project control,
To explain the various of project control.
To discuss the significance of different techniques of projects control
Once the project has been launched, it is essential to control the projects to
achieve the desired results. In this process the control becomes closely interwined in an integrated managerial process. Project control involves a regular
comparison of performance against targets, a search for the causes of deviation
and a commitment to check adverse variances.
Project control serves two major functions:
It ensures regular monitoring of performance
It motives project Personnel to strike for achieving projects objectives
steps in Projects Control.
There are two important steps in the project control viz;
Establishment of controls.
On-going controlling activities using above controls.
It is nothing but controlling a project when it enters the production perio-using the
controls established during the initiation period.
Control during the production period involves four steps, There are
Setting targets for what should be achieved,
Measuring of what is happening including anticipation of what may
Comparison between what should happen and what is happening or likely
Taking corrective actions to make things happen, as they should these four
steps should fellow each other till the work is completed.
Projected Control Purposes:
The Projects Control can be exercised on different aspects. Such as
On the progress of the activiteis
On the performance of project activities
On project Schedule
On Projects Cost
The subsequent chapters discuss about significance and mode of schedule control
and cost control of project.
Problems of project Control:
Effective control is critical for the realization of project objectives. Control of
projects in practice tends to be ineffective. There are three main reasons for poor
control of projects viz.,
Characteristics of the project Largeness and complexities Maintenance of
non-routine activities Co-ordination and communication problem.
Managers do not have required experience & training Lack of competence and
inclination to control projects.
Poor control and information system: Delay in reporting performance
inappropriate level of detail Unreliable information.
In dealing with complex projects is pictorial representation showing the various
jobs to be done, and the time and money they involve is generally helpful. One
such pictorial charges, also known is the bar chart, was developed by Henery
Gantt around 1900. It consists of two coordinate axes, one representing the time
elapsed and the other, jobs or activities performed. The jobs are represented in the
form of bars as shown in Fig.
200. The length of a bar indicates the duration the job or activity take for completion.
Generally, in any project some jobs can be take up concurrently and some will
have to be completed before others can begin. Hence, in a bar chart representing a
projects, some of the bars run parallel or overlap each other times-wise (these
correspond to concurrent jobs) and some run serially with one bar beginning after
another bar ends (corresponding to an activity that succeeds a preceding activity).
In fig. for example activities A, B and C can start at the some time and proceed
concurrently or in parallel, though they take different time intervals for their
completion. Activity D, however, cannot begin until activity A is over. The bars
representing A and D therefore run serially.
Let us consider a specific example. A piece of equipment is made of two parts A
and B which are to be assembled together before they are dispatched. Part A is of
cast steel, which requires a pattern and a mould. Part B is a machined item made
on special machine M which needs to be purchased and installed. Parts A requires
special hear-treatment before assembly. The assembly needs to be tested with a
specially constructed rig before dispatch.
The time scale for each activity is as follows:
Preparing a pattern for casting
Preparing a mould
Costing the cleaning operation of A
Heat-treatment of A
Obtaining and installing machine M
Machine part B
Assembling part A and B
Preparing the test rig
Testing the assembly
Packing for dispatch
The bar chart for this project is shown in Fig. The various activities are shown
along the ordinate or the vertical axis and the time elapsed along the horizontal
The chart is self-explanatory.
201. WEAKNESSES IN BAR CHARTS
The example in Section 1.2 was deliberately chosen to shown that the bar chart
may appear to be a excellent pictorial representation of a project. However, in
practice, bar charts have serious limitations. A few of these are:
Interdependent of activities:
In a programme where there are a large number of activities that can be started
with a certain degree of concurrency, the bar chart cannot show clearly the
interdependent among the various efforts or activities. This is a serious
deficiency. The mere fact to or more activities are scheduled for simultaneous or
overlapping times does not necessarily make them related or interdependent, or
completely independent. Consider, for example, the project represented in Fig.
Such activities as preparing a pattern, preparing a mould, costing and cleaning,
and heat-treating have to run sequentially, i.e., one activity must be completed
before the other can begin. The bars representing these activities are not allowed
to overlap. On the other hand, installing machine M and preparing the test rig can
proceed simultaneously because they are completely independent activities and
hence the bars representing them can run parallel to each other. However, this is
exactly the weakness of the bar chart, because two parallel bars need not
necessarily stand for independent activities, as the following example will show.
Suppose a project involves digging foundation, erecting side boards or
shuttering, and pouring concrete. The time consumed is shown against each
Erecting side boards
If the activities are not allowed to run in parallel but in strict sequence, the total
time taken for the completion of the project is 50 weeks. As we can easily see,
erection of the sideboards can start after the completion of, say, one-half of
foundation digging. Similarly, poring of concrete can start, say, 5 Weeks after the
erection of side boards. The bar charts for these activities will as shown in Fig.
According to this plan, the side board erectors still have 4 weeks of work after the
excavation job is over. However, if due to certain unexpected difficulties the
excavation is delayed by 1 or 2 weeks, how will reflect on the sideboard erection
or the concrete pouring job? This is not revealed by the bar chart.
202. Project progress:
A bar chart cannot be used as a control device since it does not show the progress
of work. A knowledge of the amount of work in progress or jobs completed is
absolutely necessary in a dynamic programme. Changes in plans are a necessary
part of a large project and a bar does not offer much assistance under such
However, a conventional bar chart can be modified to give this additional
information as shown in Fib. 10.d. Suppose 16 weeks have elapsed after he
project started: be the progress made in the project can be depicted by partially
filling in the blank bars. Foundation digging, according to Fig. 10.d is weeks
One of the most important deficiencies of the bar chart is its inability to reflect the
uncertainty or tolerances in the duration times estimated for various activities. The
modern day space system programmes or other complex projects are largely
characterized by extensive research, development and technological progress. The
traditional knowledge or practices play a very insignificant role. In such
situations, the completion of various stages or jobs cannot be forecast with
exactness. Uncertainty about a test becoming successful or a sudden break though
in technology to know-how will always provide situations which will make
rescheduling of various events a necessary part of the project and give it a
dynamic character which is not reflected in a bar chart.
Because of the shortcomings or the inadequacies of the chart in meeting the
requirements of the modern day management, efforts have been made to modify it
by adding new elements. One such modification was discussed in Section 1.3.
Under ‘Project Progress’ with reference to Fig. Another important modification,
relatively successful, has formed a link in the evolution of the Gantt chart into the
PERT or CPM network.
This modification is called the milestone system. Milestones are key events or
point time, which can be identified when, completed as the project progresses. In
the Gantt chart a bar which represents a long-term job is broken down to several
pieces, each of which stands for an identifiable major event. Each event is
numbered and an explanatory table given identifying the number with the event.
These are specific event (points in time) which management has identifies as
important reference points during the completion of the project. This work
breakdown increases the awareness of the interdependent between tasks.
203. Figure A show a Gantt chart and Fig. B the corresponding milestone charts. Two
important points to be notices are that: (a) the long time jobs are identified in
terms of specific events or milestone; and (b) these milestones or key events are
plotted against the time scale indicating their achievements by specified dates.
While the milestone chart was definitely an improvement on the bar chart, it still
had one great deficiency, i.e., it did not clearly show the interdependent between
events. In a milestone chart the events are in chronological, but not logical,
sequence. A natural extension of the milestone chart was the network where the
events are connected by arrows in a logical sequence.
CRITICAL PATH METHOD (CPM)
The critical path analysis is an important tool in production planning and
scheduling. Gantt charts are also one of the tools of scheduling but they have one
disadvantage for which they are found to be unsuitable. The problem with Gantt
chart is that the sequence of operation of a project or the earliest possible date for
the completion of the project as a whole cannot be ascertained. This problem is
overcome by this method of Critical Path Analysis.
CPM is used for scheduling special projects where the relationship between the
different parts of project is more complicated than of a simple chain of task to be
completed on after the other. This method (CPM) can be used at one extreme for
the very simple job and at other extreme for the most complicated tasks.
A CPM is a route between two or more operations which minimizes (or
maximizes) some measures of performance. This can also be defined as the
sequence of activities, which will require greatest normal time to accomplish. It
means that the sequences of activities, which require longest duration, are singled
out. It is called at critical path because longest duration is singled out. It is called
as critical path because any delay in performing the activities should be taken
should be taken up first.
ACCORDING TO JOHN L. BURBIDGE, “One of the purpose of critical path
analysis to find the sequence of activities with the largest sum of duration times,
and thus find the minimum time necessary to complete the project. This critical
series of activities is known as the ‘CRITICAL PATH”.
Under COM, the project is analyzed into different operation or activities and their
relationship are determined and shown on the network diagram. So, first of all a
network diagram is drawn. After this the required time or some other measure of
then combined to develop a schedule which minimizes or maximizes the measure
of performance for each operation. Thus CPM marks critical activities in a project
and concentrates on them. It is based on the assumption that the expected time is
actually the time taken to complete the object.
204. MAIN OBJECTS OF CPM
The main objects of CPM are:
To find difficulties and obstacles in the course of production process
To assign time for each operation,
To ascertain the starting and finishing times of the work
To find the critical path and the minimum duration time for the project as
SITUATION WHERE CPM CAN BE EFFECTIVELY USED:
CPM techniques can be used effectively in the following situation:
In production planning
Location of and deliveries from a warehouse
Road systems and traffic schedules
ADVANTAGES OF CPM
The application of CPM leads to the following advantages:
It provides an analytical approach to the achievement of project objective
which are defined clearly.
It identifies most critical elements and pays more attention to these
It assists avoiding waste of time, energy and money on unimportant
It provides a standard method for communicating project plains, schedules
Thus CPM technique is a very useful analysis in production planning of very
205. PERT (PROGRAMME EVALUATION AND REVIEW TECHNIQUE)
There are so many modern techniques that have developed recently for the
planning and control of large projects in various industries especially in defence,
Chemical and construction industries. Perhaps, the PERT is the best known of
PERT is a time-event network analysis technique designed to watch how the parts
of a programme fit together during passage of time and events. The special project
office of the U.S. Navy developed the technique in 1958. It involves the expected
of any operation can never by determined expected time of any operation can
never by determined exactly.
Major feature of PERT or Procedure or Requirement for PERT
The following are the main feature of PERT:
All individual tasks should be shown in a network. Events are shown by
circles. Each circle representation event a subsidiary plans whose
completion can be measured at a given time.
Each arrow represents and activity the time consuming element of a
programme, the effort that must be made between events.
Activity time is the elapsed time required to accomplish element an event.
In the original PERT, three-time values are used as follows: Is
(a) t1 (Optimistic time) : It is the best estimate of time if everything
goes exceptionally well
(b) t2 (Most likely time): It is an estimated time what the project
engineer believes necessary to do the job or it is the time which
most often is required if the activity is repeated a number of times.
(c) t3 (Pessimistic time) : It is also an activity of under adverse
conditions. It is the longest time and rather is more difficult to
The experiences have shown that the best estimate of time out of several estimates
made by the projects engineer is:
t1 + 4t2 + t3
206. and the variance of t is given by-
V (t) =
Here it is assumed that the time estimate follows the Beta distribution.
The next step is the compute the critical path and the slack time. A critical
path or critical sequence of activities is one, which takes the longest time
to accomplish the work and the least slack time
ADVANTAGE OF PERT
PERT is a very important of managerial planning and control at the top
level concerned with overall responsibility of a project. PERT has the following
Pert forces nabagers and subordinate manger’s to make a plan for
production because time event analysis is quite impossible without
planning and seeing how the pieces fit together.
PERT encourage management control by exception. It concentrates
attentions on critical element that may need correction.
It enables forwards-working control, as a delay will affect the succeeding
events and possibly the whole project. The production manager can
somehow make up the time by shortening that of some other time.
The network system with its sub-systems creates a pressure for action at
the right spot and level and at the right event.
PERT can be effectively used for re-scheduling the activities.
LIMITATIONS IN USING PERT
The uses of PERT techniques are subject to the following limitations:
It is a time-consuming and expensive technique.
It is based on Beta Distribution and the assumption of Beta Distribution
may not always be true.
PERT is not suitable when programme is nebulous and a reasonable
estimate of time schedule is not possible.
It is not useful for routine planning of recurring events such as mass
production because once a repetitive sequence is clearly worked out;
elaborate and continuing control is not required.
The expected time and the corresponding variance are only estimated
207. DIFFERENCE IN PERT AND CPM
Although these techniques (PERT and CPM) use the same principles and are
based on network analysis yet they in the following respects from each other:
PERT is appropriate where time estimate arte uncertain in the duration of
activities as measured by optimistic time, most likely time, and pessimistic
time, where as CPM (Critical Path Method) is good when time estimates
are found with certainty. CPM assumes that he duration of every is
constant and therefore every activity is critical or not.
PERT is concerned with events, which are the beginning or ending points
of operation while CPM is concerned with activities.
PERT is suitable for non-repetitive projects while CPM is designed for
PERT can be analyzed statistically whereas CPM not.
PERT is not concerned with the relationship between time and cost,
whereas CPM established a relationship between time and cost is
proportionate to time.
CONSTRUCTION OF A NETWORK
We may take up a project involving manufacture of a new model car. The
activities involved are in table-1 with their sequential order indicated. The
duration and labour needs are also presented.
Table – 1 : New Model car – Network Activities
Fix axles, wheels & fuel tank
Build body shell
Fit doors to body shell
Build & test engine
Assemble and test chassis
Mount body to chassis
Road test the car
For the above project we can construct a network. Before we do it a descriptive of
how to construct a network is presented. A network contains connected ‘events’
and ‘activities’. ‘Event’ refers to the ‘starting’ or ‘completion’ of specific jobs.
The ‘circles’ in the network indicate the ‘events’.
Otherwise, the circles are known as ‘nodes’. ‘Activity’ refers to progress to work
leading from ‘one event to other event’. This is indicated by the ‘arrows’ in the
network. When drawing a network physical neatness, avoiding criss-cross, ‘loops’
must be avoided. A ‘loop’ results when two activities have the same ‘start’ and
‘end’ nodes or events.
In such a case, a ‘dummy’ activity, with time zero as well as resource needs zero,
is introduced to avoid a loop. Now, the network for the car project is attempted.
209. NETWORK DIAGRAM – CAR PROJECT
Fig 1 Network diagram – Car Project
210. A brief description is presented on the network in Fig. 1. Node or event A is the
starting point. Node B indicates the completion of ‘design’ work, A – B, therefore
indicates the progress of design activity, which needs 8 days for completion.
The numbers above the arrows thus indicate the time required for completion of
respective activities. Until design, B, is completed activities C, D, F and H cannot
be taken up. Hence, all these activities have common start node, viz B. Activity
‘G’ cannot be taken up, until activities D and F are over. So activities D & F
coverage at ‘G’, and so on. No dummy activity is needed for the project.
In the network, only one time estimate is given for each activity. As against this,
pessimistic (longer), optimistic (shorter) and most likely (via media) time
estimates may be given for each activity. These time estimates are notated as tp,
to tm. From these estimates, expected time (te) is worked out as follows:
(tp + 4 tm to) / 6 = te
The ‘te’ is taken as the activity duration and written above the activity arrow in
the network. The ‘te’ computation given above is based on ‘beta’ distribution
which underline very low probability for tp and to and very large probability for
Now, the different routes of the network can be deduced. A route simply means
the course of project from the starting point to the ending point of the project
accordingly, the routes of the project are:
The time duration of the different routes can be worked out by adding together the
time duration of individual activities falling in the respective routes, Accordingly.
Route I involves
8+1+1+2+1+1+1+1 = 8 days
Route II involves
8+3+1+2+1+1+1+1 = 18 days
Route III involves
8+6+3+1+1+1+ = 20 days
Route IV involves
8+2+1+3+1+1+1 = 17 days
211. The longest route is : A – B – H – I – L – M – N, which takes 20 days. This route
is called the critical path. The network diagram represents the critical path by
thick arrows or double line arrows, just to indicate the critical path prominently.
The time required for completion of the project is given by the time duration of
the critical path. If everything goes well, by end of 20 th day the new model car
would by ready, for this to happen, each activity in the critical path has to be
taken up and completed as per schedule.
That is ‘B’ must be over by the 8th day, H must be commenced on beginning of 9th
day and completed on 14th day. I to begin on 15th day and completed by 17th day,
L to begin on 18th day and completed on the same day, M to begin on 19 th day and
completed on the same day and N to begin on 20 th day and completed on the same
Now the concepts of earliest start time (EST), earliest finish time (EFT), latest
short time (LST), latest finish time (LFT), slack, total slack and free slack may be
EST refers to when a particular activity can be taken up at the earliest. Activity
A–B has to begin at day 0 day and will go till the end of day 8. Actually B-D, BF, B-H and B-C can be taken up immediately after A-B is over, i.e. from end of
day 8. (i.e. the beginning of day 9).
So, the EST for B-D, B-F, B-H and B-C is end of day 8. B-D will be over by end
of day 9 day and that the EST for D-G is end of day 9 (i.e. the beginning of day
10). The EST for G-J is not however end of day 10, by which time D-G will be
Because G-J cannot be commenced until F-G is also completed. F-G will be over
by end of day 12. So, for G-J the EST is end of day 12 or beginning of day 13 and
EFT refers to when a particular activity can be completed, assuming it has been
commence as per its EST. for A-B it is end of day 8, for B-D it is end of day 9, for
B-F it is end of day 11 and so on. For G-J the EFT is end of day 14.
LST and LFT are computed backwards from last activity, viz, M-N in this project.
M-N must be over by end of day 20. So, its LFT is end of day 20. Its LST is end
of day 19, so that by end of day 20. If you go backward, for activity L-M the LST
is end of day 18 and LFT is end of day 19.
Table-2 gives the EST, EFT, LST and LFT for the various activities.
Table – 2 : EST, EFT, LST and LFT
Slack or float refers to be extent an activity can be delayed without affecting
completion of the project on time. This is given by LST – EST or LFT – EFT,
Table 2 gives this also under total slack column. You will note that activities
falling on the critical path have no slack.
Because, none of the activities can be delayed, lest projects duration will increase.
There are two concept of slack: total slack and free slack. Total slack is simple
LST – EST or LFT – EFT. Free slack refers to slack or spare time available for an
activity when all succeeding activities in the network can be started at their
respective EST. Only three activities D-G, K-L and E-I have free slack.
USES OF NETWORK TECHNIQUES
PERT and CPM techniques have become useful to management in many ways.
The graphic representation of how each activity is dependent on others
help in better scheduling, monitoring and control of project activities.
To prepare the network itself considerable planning, analysis and in dept,
evaluation of the whole project are needed, which in turn help in better
execution of the project.
Network techniques can serve as indicator of bottle necks and potential
trouble spots and this helps in effective preventive handling of pitfalls of
that the project progress will as per original plans
Network diagram illustrates the type and extent of coordination required
amount several functionaries of the project team, viz., designers,
managers, contractors and others.
Network diagram helps in identifying critical tasks and thereby helps
diversion of resources to them so that they are not lagging behind
Network diagram helps in identifying critical path, which may be
changing a number of times as time estimates prove inaccurate. So the
critical path has to be identified everytime time estimates are changers and
this is easily done with the help of the network.
Network techniques help in resource allocation. Resources such as labour
and machine can be better allocated to project activities with the help of a
Network help in resource smoothing. That is, when resources
requirements are uneven over time, a sort of smoothening or leveling is
required. PERT and CPM are useful in this regard.
Network techniques help in ascertaining whether or not advisable to crash
project time and the impact of crashing on cost of the project. What
activities have to be speeded up so as to minimize cost escalation on
account of crashing are known with network analysis.
Network techniques help in cost control too. Starting works by their LST
could help in lock up of capital for a less period than when works are
started by their EST. This is a cost control exercise facilitated by network
RESOURCE ALLOCATION AND LEVELING THROUGH NETWORK
ERT and CPM techniques are not simple static involving the computation of
times, EST, LST, EFT, LFT and drawing the diagram. It is a dynamic tool. It
helps in resource allocation and resources leveling.
Resources allocation means how much resources be diverted to the project
concerned day after day as the project progresses.
In table : the number of workers required for each activity is given. With that
information we can compute what is the human resource requirement day after
The resource requirement depends on when the activities are scheduled to begin,
i.e., as per their EST or LST or any intermediary time. Suppose as per EST the
activities are scheduled.
Then the human resources needs would be as in table – 3
214. You know in the first eight days only ‘B’ will be takent up requiring every day 3
labours. On the 9th day, C, D, F and H can be taken up requiring a total of 19
labours and ‘D’ is completed that day. On the 10 th day C,F & H alone are in
progress and ‘C’ is over gby end of day 10. On the 11 th day E, F and H are in
progress and both E & F are over by end of the day. On 12th day ‘G’ is taken up as
both the preceding activities D & F are over by now.
And so on as you see in table 3.
Table 3 : Progress of activities and labour needs when activities are
scheduled by EST.
From table-3, you know how much labour is required on day to day basis, (see
last column) and how much is required activity – wise (see lat row). You can now
make allocations of human resources to the project.
215. In the same way, you can find what would be the day-to-day labour needs when
the works are scheduled as per their LSt, table-4 gives the same.
Between 9th and 17th days, there are differences in the daily needs under the two
pattern of job scheduling. During the period 1st – 8th day only one critical activity
is in operation and during 18th – 20th days too only critical activities are operated.
So, under both scheduling patterns the labour needs are same.
Table 4 : Progress of activities and labour needs when activities are
scheduled by LST.
Resource leveling means evening out the daily resources needs to the extent
possible. You find that under the EST scheduling the labour needs on 9th thorough
17th days are respectively 19, 17, 15, 7,9,9,6 and 3 persons and under the LST
scheduling, labour needs are 5,5,12,17,19,10,7,7 and 6 persons per day
respectively for the different days.
216. The daily needs are highly varying. Certain leveling or smoothening or reducing
the variations in daily needs can be attempted. That is what is called as resources
leveling. Why is leveling needed?
The reasons are:
Resources constraint can be one of the reasons. Say, not more than 12
persons are available on any one day, whereas we need as much as 19
persons on one day. By rescheduling non-critical activities using their
slack times, the above purposes can be served.
Practically speaking, too much needs on some days and too little needs on
other days are not signs of good planning.
Also, disruption in work is more probable when the peaks and through in
resource needs are not ironed out.
Optimum utilization of permanent/owned facilities, avoiding ideal time, is
possible with resource leveling exercises.
Say in our case only 12 labours are available on any one day. Is it possible to
complete the project on time with only 12 persons? May be some rescheduling
can be thought of. The method adopted here is called as ‘heuristic programming’.
Heuristic mean ‘rule of thumb’ that works and a collection of these rules is known
as ‘heuristic programming’. One approach of heuristic programming is
rescheduling activities that have larger slack time.
A resource leveling is suggested here. Let us go by LST scheduling given in table
– 4 for all but activities D and F. Let us advance F utilizing the 3 days’ slack. That
is we take the work on 9th itself and complete by 11th.
In so doing the labour needs on 9 th ,10th , and 11th days go up to 12 persons each
day and for 12th and 13th days go down to 10 and 12. So, we satisfy the maximum
labour availability condition now.
Further a cosmetic improvement is possible, by advancing D by and day to 12 th
day and by so doing the labour needs for 12th day become 12 and 10 for 13th day.
Now the labour requirements from 9th thorough 14th day become 12, 12, 12, 12, 10
and 10 persons. Definitely this is a better arrangement than the one depicate by
table – 4 or table – 3 scheduling.
This arrangement also ensures better utilization of permanent employees say 0
persons here. As per LST scheduling on days 9, 10 and 11 there is an avoidable
ideal time. Now, after rearrangement, all are fully utilized on these days. Thus,
there is a saving in the number of hired nonpermanent labours. The saving is to
the extent of 12 days’ labour. Hence, the need and score for resource leveling.
217. NETWORK TECHNIQUE IN PROJECT SCHEDULING
Network technique is predominantly used in project scheduling. When
will each activity be commenced, when the same has to be completed, which
activity can be delayed, when will the project be completed and related questions
are answered by PERT and CPM techniques. All these require time estimates and
sequential relations between jobs.
Time estimates are made based on past experience, the job nature and
availability of resources. In PERT, 3 estimates of time for each activity is made as
was already stated and the expected time worked out using a formula already
dealt with. This is needed since PERT deals with uncertain business environment,
In CPM only one time estimate is made as it assume certainty condition. But
estimates may be revise in both the cases as in assurance in past estimates come to
The sequence of operations is to be known thoroughly. This is crucial to project
scheduling. Again experience and through knowledge of the activities of the
project help in setting up the sequence.
Once time estimates and sequential relations are known activities scheduling can
be prepared. You have to find out EST, EFT, LST, LFT, total slack and free slack.
All these have been already explained. Then activities can be taken up as per their
EST or LST or some in between times taking advantage of slack of activities. Of
course, for critical activities EST and LST are same, also EFT and LFT are also
same. That is, they have no slack.
Under PERT we can find the probability of finishing a project by certain date. For
this we need to know the standard deviation of activity times for critical activities.
Std. deviation in the case of activity times is given by:
This formula again is unique to beta distribution. Calculate the std. deviation for
each of the critical activities. Square each of std. deviation figures. Add the
squared figures. Take square root for the summated figure. This is taken as the
project std. deviation of the earliest finish time.
An ‘Z’ value is calculated as follows:
Z = std. normal variate =
Due date Expected date of completion
Project std. deviation
Corresponding to the ‘Z’ obtained, from the normal distribution table ‘area’ under
normal curve is found. From that figure, the probability of completion by the due
date is known.
218. We may find the probability of completion by 22 nd day from commencement for
out car project, given the expected completion by 20th day.
We need to know the three time estimate for the critical activities which are as
Std. deviation of project =
(Tp-To) / 6
(10 – 2) / 6 = 4/3
(9 – 3) / 6 = 1
(5 – 1) / 6 = 2/3
(5 – 1) / 6 = 2/3
(5 – 1) / 6 = 2/3
(5 – 1) / 6 = 2/3
(4/3)2 +(1)2 +(2/3)2 +(2/3)2 +(2/3)2 +(2/3)2
4 4 4 4
+1 + + + +
9 9 9 9
Z Variate =
Due date Expected date
Project std. Deviation
22 − 20 2 × 3 60
6.4 / 3
Area under normal curve corresponding to Z = 0.9375 is equal to = 0.825. That is,
there is a probability of 0.825 or 82.5% that the project would be completed by
The probability computation is helpful in project rescheduling, if need be, where
the ‘P’ is very small, there is need for speeding up the work through
commissioning more resources or in postponing the due date. Hence the use of
PERT and CPM in project scheduling.
CRASHING PROJECT DURATION THROUGH NETWORK
Sometimes a project has to be completed sooner than the planned time. In our
case the project duration is 20 days. Say, you want o complete the project in 15
days for some pressing reason. Can you? May be you can. By commissioning
extra resources you may be able to achieve this. Why extra cost arises? May be
you have to work overtime incurring double the normal cost per time. May be you
have to hire additional facility paying more than normal hire charges.
Table – 5 gives normal time and cost and crash time and cost for the activities of
out car project. The normal cost is Rs. 1,19,000 and the crash cost is Rs. 1,55,750.
219. But you can complete this in 15 days, the new critical path duration with a cost
less than Rs. 1,55,750. How? You have to proceed methodically.
Table 5 : Normal and Crash time / cost
Find those activities in the critical path (or paths) where time cqan be cut
substantially with minimum extra rupees spent. The goal is greatest
reduction in project time for the least increase in project cost.
You have to work out the cost of crash per day for each activity. This
220. (Crash cost – Normal cost) / (Normal time – Crash time)
Route-III is the original critical path. Activity N cannot be crashed. And
only activities B, H, I, L and M can be crashed and the crash cost per day works
out to Rs. 3,000, Rs. 3,000, Rs. 6,000 and Rs. 5000 for these activities
respectively. We take up the least crash-cost-per-time-activity. B or H is our
choice. Say you take ‘B’ for crashing fully.
Two days you save now and extra cost is Rs. 2 x 3,000 = Rs. 6,000. Now
route III and route II are critical as both have 18 days duration. To cut project
duration you have to reduce the duration of both routes.
In route II the crushable activities are F(Rs. 1,000), J(Rs. 1,250) and
K(Rs. 6,000) and L and M in common with route III. So, the least crash cost
activity is F.
In route III the least crash cost activity is H(Rs. 3,000). By crashing F & H
by one day, the project duration becomes 17 days and extra cost is Rs. 1,000 +
Rs.3,000 = Rs. 4,000.
Now routes II, III & IV becomes critical each with a duration 17 days. To
reduce project duration, crashing has to be done in all these three routes T.
He crushable activities in route-IV are: C(Rs.2,000); E(Rs.6,000) and
I(Rs.6,000) and I and in common with routes II and III. We choose C for crashing
as its is least cost alternative. In route-III, still H is crushable by a day with extra
cost Rs.3,000. In route-II, ‘J’ can be crashed by a day with extra cost of Rs. 1,250.
So by crashing ‘C’ in route IV, H in route-I II and ‘J’ in route II, project
duration is cut by a day to 16 days at an extra cost of Rs. 5,250, i.e. (Rs. 1,000 +
3,000 + 1,250). Now all the four routes are critical with 16 days duration each.
We want to reduce the project duration to 15 days i.e. the duration of each of the 4
routes has to be cut by a day.
This easily done by crashing L and M at an extra cost of Rs. 3,000 +
2,500 = Rs.5,500. So, the extra cost of crashing is Rs. 6,000 for 2 days cut + Rs.
Rs. 4,000 for 1 day’s cut + Rs. 5,250 for 1 day’s cut + Rs. 5,500 for 1 day cut =
Rs. 20,750. So, the crash cost of the project is only Rs. 20,750, more than normal
cost of we adopt the methodology of network techniques for project time
You note that we crashed only activities B, C, F, H, J, L and M. Others are
not crashed. Still we have not exceeded the crash time project duration, viz, 15
221. NETWORK TECHNIQUE IN COST CONTROL
The project time crashing is itself an exercise of control when higher
penalties are expected for not being able to complete the project on time. Say a
project has to be completes by 15 th day, failing which a penalty of Rs. 10,000 per
day is charged. As per your scheme of things the work can be completed normally
by only 20th day. So a penaly of Rs. 50,000 is imminent. You can at this time try
crashing and say the crashing involves only an additional cost of Rs. 22,000/- You
have now saved Rs. 28,000/- is it not a cost saving and cost control.
Again, crashing project time can be a cost saving device in an another
way. You complete the project sooner than later. You have indirect costs i.e.
over-heads or on cost which are proportional with time. Hence, the use of
PERT/CPM in cost control. Quicker completion of a project might also benefit
the firm in the form of ‘incentive’ for early completion. It is benefit or an
equivalent to cost savings.
Cost and time over-runs can be strictly avoided / controlled using network.
So, it is a cost control device.
Idle time to permanent workers / facilities and demand for hired
personnel / facilities can be reduce through schematic scheduling and resource
leveling exercises. This again helps in cost control and cost reduction.
Lastly, by scheduling activities according to LST, as against according to
EST, capital cost, pilferage, etc. can be reduced. Take our car project. Say, a
labour day’s work involves a total outlay, inclusive of all, Rs. 1,000. Then the
daily and cumulative outlay under LST & EST scheduling would be as in table-6.
You find that excess capital (funds spend on work completed) is located up in
EST scheduling compared to LST scheduling, during 9th to 16th day. By
scheduling work as per LST, you can reduce the capital cost. This is an important
cost control area, when the project is large with long duration.
Table – 6: Daily and cumulative outlay (Figs. – Rs.)
223. RESOURCE MONITORING AND CONTROL
Resource aggregation, resource scheduling and resource smoothening are
the three aspects involved.
Resource aggregation is the acculation of resource usage based on the
results of time scheduling. It may be interesting to see what resources would be
used if every activity were started at its earliest start (incidentally, beware of
programs which claim to be capable of resource scheduling but which, in fact, can
only carry out resource aggregation without being able to perform leveling).
A resource aggregation can show the amount of each resource required on
each day of the project. Sometimes this will be expressed cumulatively,
particularly if the resource in question is money. The results should be available
either in the form of a table, a series of printed, or plotted histograms, or a plotted
It is sometime a good ideal, before carrying out the resource analysis of a
project, to do a resource aggregation based on the earliest start of each activity,
followed by author aggregation of resources used based on the latest start. If it is
anticipated that lack of resources will delay the project, these latest starts should
be based on an estimate of the project completion data. The comparison for these
two graphs will show the two extremes of probable resource usage. If they are
close, together, there is not much room for improvement by resource analysis.
Once the resource aggregation have been done, the resulting resource
schedule should lie somewhere in between the earliest and latest time aggregation.
It should look much smoother than the time analysis based results. The
improvement over the earliest/latest case should show the amount of effective
work the resource analysis process has carried out.
In cases where resources are effectively unlimited, and the goal is to
produce a smooth utilization of resources, then one should look at the results of a
resource aggregation based on earliest and latest starts to decide where to set the
Most resource smoothing programs will work reasonably well if the
availability of every resource is specified as being zero for the entire project, but
they work better if a positive but tight availability is allocated initially. This
availability can be estimated by inspection of the resource aggregation tables.
Early in the history of critical path analysis methods, attempts were made
to automate the resource scheduling process. The purpose of this was to enable a
computer to add up the usage required for each type of resource, taking into
account all activities in the network, on a day by day basis.
224. The computer would then be used to compare this estimated total
requirement with the numbers of resources expected to be available each day.
Should there be insufficient resources available for all the tasks on a given day,
some of the tasks would be rescheduled (delayed) in order to shift the timing of
resource needed. If the float available for delayed activities were sufficient, then it
would be possible to give thee jobs scheduled start dates lying somewhere
between their earliest and latest starts.
These would be the dates at which each activity should be started from the
point of view of sensible resource usage. If this were possible to achieve for all
resource, then the project could be scheduled for completion within its critical
path duration using the available resources.
Unfortunately, this kind of happy outcome is rare. Frequently targest dates
are assigned projects on the basis of customer pressure and competitive bidding,
with little thought to how the date is to be achieved.
The planner will have a difficult enough time to create a time analysis
schedule, which will bring the critical path down to the desired length. During the
process, he will probably make a number of sub-critical paths critical also, by
overlapping operations where possible, shortening pessimistic duration estimates,
increasing resources applied to tasks, and so on. The more the time-analyzed
network is squeezed down, the less flexibility will remain for the resource
scheduling algorithm to play with.
More frequently one will eventual arrive at a point where an activity
cannot be squeezed in, even by decaying it right to the end of its float. When this
happen a decision has to be made. Should the resource be exceeded? Should be
project be delayed past its planned end date? One question a planner may wish to
ask is: how long will the project take if I keep within the available resource? If
more resources can be acquired for the project, either by adding more men and
equipment, or by working overtime, then it may be necessary to have a
‘threshold’ level specified for each resource.
The objective to keep within the normal availability of a resource if
possible, but use the additional threshold level if it would otherwise become
necessary to delay the project, this is particularly appropriate for overtime
working, which one would prefer to minimize, for reasons of both cost and
Another situation which automatic resource scheduling can help to resolve
is the one where an essentially unlimited workforce is available to carry out a job.
In this case, the job could be accomplished at its critical path time analysis
duration, by starting every activity at its earliest start time.
225. There would then be large peaks and troughs in the usage of manpower
causing much hiring and firing of personal. It is not easy to hire manpower for
new hours at a time. One would prefer to hire a fixed number of men for the entire
projects, or at least only change the level of workforce occasionally. Resource
scheduling can help by carrying out a ‘resource leveling’ process.
The purpose of this is to give a fairly ‘lean’ availability of the basic
resource to be project, allow activities to use their total float in order to keep
within this smooth usage, and when the float is used up, to start using another
‘layer’ of availability of the resource. The result is a smooth recommended
resource utilization, which minimizes hiring and firing.
There is some advantage in carrying out resources scheduling backwards
from the end of the project. The question being asked is ‘When must I start in
order to carry out this project?’ The answer being given is usually ‘Yesterday’.
Projects involving assembly processes are sometimes best handled in this way.
One important criterion is the value of investment made in the project
whilst it is in progress. If the delivery of some costly item can be delayed until
near the end of the project (and the payment date), this can be valuable in terms of
interest charge for the money involved. If work is delayed until near the payment
date, any variable in terms of interest charges for the money involved in the work,
particularly if subcontractors are involved, can show a financial gain of the same
The main objection to scheduling projects backwards from the end, as far
as resource are concerned, is that the high priority items tend to be considered
first in the process, to be sure of fitting them in.
If they are considered first in a backward scheduling process, then they
occur towards the end of the project. This means that there is not very many
margins available if there is a delay on one of the high priority items.
It may be preferable to schedule such projects forwards from the
beginning, but use order. Delivery activities for high cost materials, or for any
items which do not use resources and which can be put off until later in the
PARALLEL AND SERIAL SCHEDULING
Considerable effort has been expended in the search for mathematically
ideal project scheduling nethods. Thereticians have tried to apply many ofhte
popular techniques to operational research to resource allocation, with sine
success. Linear programming approaches exist which will find the optimum
solution to networks of up to live activities. Mathematical optimization
226. algorithms tend to over-kill the problem and use more computational resource
than is practical.
This can be visualized as follows. Imagine a network with several possible
start points. This network is to be schedule on a day-by-day basis through the
project. First we consider day one.
Take all the start activities of the network. Those are all the activities,
which could start at day one. Build an ‘eligibility list’ consisting of those
activities. Take the activity with the highest priority from the eligibility list. Can it
start yet? Is its earliest start less than or equal to the day we4 are considering? If
so, compare its resource requirements for its nest day with the resource
availability on day one of the project. If all relevant resources are available in
sufficient quantity, Schedule the first day of that activity to occur on the first day
of the project.
If that completes the activity, then include all successor activities into the
eligibility list. Repeat the process for the activity with the next highest priority
from the eligibility list, and so on until all eligible activities have been considered
for that day.
Then move to the next day of the project. Any amounts remaining of
‘pool’ resources are rolled over to day two. The actions described in the above
paragraph are repeated for day two scheduled.
Notice that this process works more naturally when the resources available
to a project are limited, and the time available to complete it can be extended
Serial scheduling considers each activity in turn, rather than each day of
the project in turn. It can be visualized as follows: Consider a two-dimensional
table of resource availabilities. It will have an amount available for every resource
for every day of the project. Against this there is a pre-sequenced list of
activities, which comprise the projects. In addition to its time analysis results,
each activity will have an ‘earliest feasible start’ figure, which will initially be the
same a sits earliest start.
Each activity is taken from the list of activities in turn. The section of the
resources tables between the activity earliest feasible start and the activity late
finish is scanned to see if the activity ban be scheduled as a whole. If so, it is
scheduled at the first available point.
227. If not, then if the activity is split able, an attempt is made to fit the activity
in between its earliest feasible start and latest finish in sections. If this is
impossible, an extra layer of resource availability is called in for any resource
which was in inadequate supply, and the process is repeated for the activity, until
it can be fitted in.
If an activity is scheduled at a point later than its early start, the earliest
feasible start of all successor activities are updated to the greater than the finish of
the activity that his just been scheduled. When all this has been done for every
activity in the network, the project has been scheduled.
Notice that this process works more naturally if there is a fixed end date to
the project, but the resources can be exceeded if necessary.
Serial methods are now more popular than parallel methods, for a number
of reasons. Parallel scheduling tends to split activities rather more than serial.
Ideally, a parallel scheduling a algorithm would like to be able to split any activity
into one-day sections, particularly if activities have complex resource
requirements, or resource availability changes during the project.
Parallel schemes are typically heavy users of computer resources, which in
the time taken to carry out a schedule, and in the amount of computer memory
required per activity (which can limit the size of network that can be calculated on
a given computer).
Special Features in Resource Levelling
The above descriptions of the parallel and serial techniques show the basic
method involved in each case. There are many in finements and special features,
which can be added to both processes.
A ‘threshold’ amount can be associated with each resource, as mentioned
above. This a an additional emergency allocation of the resource which can be
used if the projects about to run behind time. The threshold resource level cuts in
when activities would otherwise be delayed past their latest finish.
Serial leveling schemes sometimes have a feature whereby two project end
dates are specified a desired project end and a project end. Resources are
classified into two sections – ‘important’ and ‘exceedable’. If the scheduling
system would have exceeded the availability of an ‘important’ resource, and (its
threshold level, if there was one), then the activity is allowed to delay itself pats
its latest finish. It is not allowed to delay past its secondary latest finish – that is,
the latest finish relative to the maximum project end date.
PROJECT MANAGEMENT SOFTWARE-GENERAL FACTORS
228. How is software for project management selected? Practical
considerations can short – cut the software selection process. If computer facilities
already exist, and are easily accessible, it may just be a matter of discovering
whether a program has already been acquired. It not, or if that program is
inadequate, the first step might be to find out what program are available for the
computer equipment, which is currently installed.
Computer manufactures maintain catalogues of programs, which have
been made commercially available for their equipment. Organizations in the
industry can advise on what may be available, or point out the major companies
who supply software for project management.
Even if the planner does have access to a large company computer with an
appropriate program, he should consider that he will be sharing a facility with
other users. He will not necessarily have the highest priority among them. Before
committing himself to use the locally available facilities, he should experiment to
see whether delays in computer across or in calculation time when using this
equipment are acceptable in the context of the project he is controlling.
It may be better acquire a small computer completely under his own
control, rather than to rely upon a large shared facility. The wider range of
possible machines under these circumstances will imply a wider selection of
computer programs. Many programs are only available for a restricted range of
computer equipment. The planner will wish to choose a combination of hardware
and software appropriate to his situation.
Consider in a little more detail some of the factors, which affect the choice
of software package. Many of the categories already summarized will overlap a
little. Capacity and speed, for example, are interrelated in that a theoretical ability
to handle networks of many activities may in fact be unusable because long
calculation times make the analysis of large networks undesirable.
The maximum network size which a computer program can handle may
vary from a few tens of activities to millions. The limitation almost always applies
to a single network. The user is allowed to have many independent network but
no one of them may exceed (say) 2000 activities.
The limit on the number of activities per network is generally determined
by the computational algorithm used in the program and by the memory capacity
of the computer. The larger the memory, generally the larger the network which
can be handled with a given computational method.
Sometimes, programs with a relatively low of network size will calculate
network sections independently and then combine the results. Taking a very crude
example, consideration network which divides itself into two distinct halves-say
229. phase I and phase II of a project – whereby the connections between one part and
the next run entirely through a single activity (perhaps a decision point as to
whether or not to commerce the second part at all). Then it is very easy very easy
to compute part I first, and then, use the earliest finish of the end of Part I as the
project start of part II.
If there is a definite required end date to the project, as is so often then
case, then that end data can be applied to part II of the project. The latest start of
the first activity of part II can then be applied to part I as a required finish date. To
express the computation of the network in critical path terms, please refer to Fig.
Notice that three computational passes are required to calculate the two networks.
If a program must resort to this kind of ‘subnetting’ or ‘interfacing’ in
order to be able to calculate a network of the required size, it will probably not
be operationally efficient.
The number of passes of the data tends to grow rapidly as the number of
independent network sections, and as the number of points of contract between
them increases too.
In general it is unwise to attempt to stretch the capacity of a program in
this way. Better use a tool that will be adequate for the maximum network size
envisaged. Allow an appropriate safety margin for the fact that networks tend to
grow, particularly if there is a computer available to solve them (yet another of
the countless corollaries of Parkinson’s first law).
The above comments should not be taken as advice to avoid subnets and
interfaces in general – only in those cases where they are forced upon the user by
computer – related limitations. It may well be convenient to divide a project into
subnets, provided that the computer program being used can take them in a single
mouthful for calculation purposes.
Generally, subnets can be numbered independently, so that same activity
number or event number can be used in two separate without fear of confusion.
This is particularly helpful when the same general pattern is repeated in different
parts of an overall network – for example the installation of pumps occurs many
times in networks describing the construction of an oil refinery. It may be
possible to duplicate one network and include it in many different places.
It may be convenient to assign responsibility for different network
sections to different individuals, particularly if the network is large. Normally
one will allocate a different range of possible activity number to each person
responsible for a network section, but such schemes have been known to go awry.
When they do, the logic is sometimes difficult to disentangle.
230. Where subnets are used, they must be able to connect at on or more points
into the main network. These connection points are commonly called interfaces.
The activities which are identified as interfaces do share a common numbering
system with the overall network, and so provide connections with it.
The fewer connection points for each subnet, the simpler will be the
evaluation of parts which cross several subnets and hence perhaps more than one
are of responsibility. If each planner working on a projects has activities separated
into his own individual subnet of subnets, he can more easily update the tasks
under his control with progress information, without needing close co-ordination
with his colleagues.
Many computer programs have a quoted limit of 32,000 events for
activity-on-arrow network, or 32,000 activities for precedence networks.
The Particular figure is a common one because it arises as a consequence
of a popular type of computer design. This design tends to group the fundamental
binary bits of which computer memory is constructed into sets of eight at a time.
Two sets of eight makes a conveniently sized storage medium for holding a
sequential activity counter.
Such a counter can count up to 32,767 easily, and with some difficulty can
be persuaded to count up to double that figure. This is why many programs quote
a theoretical limit of 32,000 or 64,000 activities. Nevertheless, the practical
maximum network size may be well below this figure, either because a very large
computer memory could be needed for the program in question to attain such a
maximum, or because calculation time might be unacceptably long.
There may well be several capacity limitations to a given computer
program. There may be different limitation on the network size which can be
handled in resources analysis as opposed to time analysis. This is because
different computation all methods will be used for these two functions. There may
be limits to the number of resources which can be processed per projects, and
limits to the number of resources which any one activity can be specified as using.
FACTORS INFLUENCING PRICE OF PROJECT SOFTWARE
The main factors affecting the price of computer programs are:
1. The maximum network size, which can be computed.
2. The kind of data which can be handle (arrow, precedence, arrow and
precedence, resources, costs, materials and other associated data)
231. 3. The calculation features (time analysis, resources aggregation, resources
smoothing, probabilistic analysis, cost performance analysis, and so on)
4. Flexibility of output reports, graphical presentation of results, and the like.
5. Ease of use (screen input, menus, special updating methods)
6. Speed (calculation speed, updating speed, report production speed)
7. Level of support provided to the user (documentation, training, and
8. Software maintenance costs and enhancement schemes.
SELF ASSESSMENT QUESTIONS:
Define Project Control and why it should be made?
What are the functions of Project Control?
How a project can be controlled significantly?
Why does the control of projects in practice tend to be ineffective?
Discuss the relative merits and demerits of different techniques of
What is Milestone Analysis and how it will be helpful to control
Differentiate the PERT & CPM
What is project monitoring? State the information system needed
What is system integration? State its importance in project
monitoring and management.
Explain the role of computers in project monitoring.
Resource monitoring and control involve the resource aggregation,
resource scheduling and resource leveling. Explain.
Explain factors to be considered in choosing project management
232. LESSON – 14
To know the nature and significance of project review
To study the modus of conducting project review
To highlight the project review process adopted by World Bank
Project review is an important aspect in the process of planning. Every
socio-economic programmes needs to be assessed for its results. One can say that
the need for and importance of review of planned programmes was realized and
stressed along with the initiation of the planning exercise itself.
Review is an important tool to identify the shortcomings during the entire
implementation period and to develop or initiate corrective actions to improve the
delivery and administrative purposes. Such studies answer question like: whether
the project is implemented in the ways specified; whether the methods, process,
procedures etc. adopted are appropriate to achieve the set goal; whether the
personnel are sufficiently motivated, trained and adequate for the success of the
project. Similarly, the project evaluation studies are conducted for assessing the
impact of the project and also to examine the project efficiency.
Thus the role, function, objective and purpose and of Project Review is not
only to help, guide, direct and aid the planners, project sponsors, policy
formulators but also help the administrators, executives, scholars and
academicians. In review, the most fundamental task is the formulation of criteria
of review and also determination of the time for the study. On the basis of these
criteria of Review and also determination of the time for the study. On the basis of
these criteria the results or outcome of the projects are assessed.
Review/Evaluation process essentially involves some important steps viz.
Data collection, estimation of cost benefits and profitability of the project and
comparing it with the required rate of return to decide acceptance or non
acceptance of the project. Data collection may be made both from secondary
sources or published documents viz. company balance sheets, government
publications, publications of independent research bodies or industrial association
as well as from primary sources like the industry and market.
Once the data is collected, it is necessary to shift the same for eliminating
the irrelevant and retain only the significant information. On the basis of the data
collected and collated an estimate may be prepared of the cost of the project
233. starting from cost of the land and building and going through elements like cost of
plant going through elements like cost of plant and machinery, duties, and taxes,
working capital needs, estimated pre-operative expenses and contingencies to
arrive at an estimate of total cost of the project.
Once the cost of the project is estimated, it is necessary to make certain
assumption as regards the schedule of implementation, capacity build-up of
production, cost of raw material, other related costs, realizable selling prices etc.
in order to arrive at the returns and the profitability of the project.
A comparison of the estimated and required profitability will form the
basis of selection or rejection of the project. What constitutes estimate/required
profit ability? It really depend on the nature and focus of project evaluation.
Project review is the final phase of Project Management. The various
facets of project review are
Behavioural issues in project abandonment
Administrative aspects of capital budgeting
Evaluating the capital budgeting system of an organization.
It is the first stage in the project review process. The initial review of a
project is of two types.
Control of project in progress
Control of Project in Progress
The expenditure authorization for a project generally specifies how much
can be spent by whom and when. To ensure that the actual expenditure does nto
deviate significantly from the authorized expenditure, periodical control is
exercised during project implementation.
An audit of a project after it has been commissioned is referred to as post
audit or post completion audit. Most firms do a post audit for almost every project
above some threshold limit. Such an audit compares actual performance vis-à-vis
planned performance when the operations of the project stabilize.
234. Performance Evaluation
While the post audit is typically a one-time exercise, performance
evaluation is done periodically. It seeks to measure the performance of the project
on an ongoing basis.
Performance evaluation may be done in terms of economic rate of return
or book return on investment.
Economic rate of return for a given year =
Cash flow + Changes in present value
Present value at the beginning of the year
Book return rate of return for a given year =
Cash flow + Changes in book value
Book value at the beginning of the year
Ordinarily a project is analyzed on ht assumption that the firm will operate
it for a given period. Often, however, it may be possible to abandon the project
before this period. This possibility of abandonment, when considered explicitly in
project analysis, may change the decision itself. A detailed discussion about this
analysis is given in the project control techniques paper. (Please refer)
A basic rule of capital budgeting says that investment decisions should be
guided by the net present value criterion. Applied to a project ‘continuation versus
abandonment’ decision, this rule says the project must be abandoned if the net
present value associated with abandonment is greater than the net present value
associated with continuation is greater than the net present value associated with
Administrative aspects of capital budgeting
The discussion of administrative aspects of capital budgeting has been
organized as follows:
identification of promising investment opportunities
classification of investments
submission of proposals
preparation of capital budget and appropriation
235. The relationship between the firm and its environment should be regularly
analyzed, corporate plans and perspectives must be widely shared, and the
creativity and imagination of the employees must be tapped. To generate ideas,
suggestion schemes are usually recommended.
The classification of project proposals refers to the grouping of similar
proposals into separate categories. Classification helps in decision making,
budgeting, and control.
Submission of proposals
To ensure that all relevant information for proposals is gathered
systematically, a standardized proposal form may be used by all the sponsors of
The proposal form before it reaches the capital budgeting committed
should normally be routed through persons who can comment on the estimates
furnished by the sponsor. The routing channel, however, cannot be standardized.
It will vary from one organization to another and, perhaps, from one proposal to
Routing a proposal through several persons provides a mechanism for
obtaining the views and judgments of others. This also facilitates coordination of
inter-related activities. Obviously this system would yield benefits only when the
persons through whom the proposal is routed give thought to it rather than merely
forward it in a routine manner.
The optimal capital budget for the firm as a whole can be drawn up only
when capital investment decisions are completely centralized. In most cases,
decentralization is required to facilitate quick decisions, develop executives, and
conserve top management time for important natters. That is why most of the
companies empower executives at different levels to take investment decisions
involving outlays up to certain limits.
Preparation of Capital Budget and Appropriation
Smaller projects which can be approved at lower levels may be covered by
a blanket appropriation so that they can be undertaken expeditiously. Projects of
larger magnitude may be included after approval in the tentative capital budget.
The final capital budget, which serves as the basis of budgetary appropriations,
should be drawn up after the availability of funds is ensured. Often careful
planning of funds is required before budgetary appropriations are made.
Delays in implementation and consequent increases in project cost are
very common. In many cases over-runs have been between 30 per cent and 100
per cent. These facts emphasize the need for expeditious implementation at a
reasonable cost. For this the following points are helpful:
Adequate formulation of projects
Use of the principle of responsibility accounting
Use of network techniques
Exercise of proper control
Performance review is meant for evaluating actual performance vis-à-vis
projected performance. It is concerned with the verification of assumptions
regarding both revenues and costs.
Project can be reviewed in different dimensions. Essentially it has to be
evaluated from the marking technical, financial and commercial (Profitability)
dimensions. Let us discuss briefly all these dimensions of project review.
The financial reviews seek to determine the:
1) Reasonableness of the estimate of capital cost.
2) Reasonableness of the estimate of working results
3) Adequacy of the rate of return.
4) Appropriateness of the financing pattern
Reasonableness of the estimate of capital cost.
While assessing the capital cost estimates efforts are made to ensure that:
Padding or under-estimation of costs is avoided.
Specification of machinery is proper.
Proper quotations are obtained fro potential suppliers
Contingencies are provided and
Inflation factors are considered.
Reasonableness of the Estimate of working results: the estimate of
working results is sought to be based on:
A realistic market demand forecast
Price computations for inputs and outputs that are based on current
quotations and inflationary factors.
An appropriate time schedule for capacity utilization and
Cost projections that distinguish between fixed and variable costs.
Adequacy of Rate of Return: The general norms for financial desirability are as
Internal rate of returns
15 per cent
Return on investment
20-25 per cent
Debt-service coverate ratio
1.5 to 2.0
In applying these norms, however a certain degree of flexibility is shown
on the basis of the nature of the project, the risks inherent in the project and the
status of the promoter. Appropriateness of the Financing Patterns:The institution consider the following in assessing the financial pattern:
A general debt, equity ratio norm of 2:1
A requirement that promoter should contribute 15% to 20% of the project cost.
Stock exchange listing requirements
The means of the promoter and his capacity to contribution reasonable share of
the project finance.
Financial review: Two aspects in our discussions of financial review, two
questions need to be answered:
How financial institutions define the cash flow stream?
How financial institutions calculate the debt service coverage ratio?
Cash flow stream
238. Among the three methods of assessing cash flow stream. The total funds point of
view method from which a project may be evaluated and defined the measures of
cash flow stream applicable to these points of view.
Financial institutions view a project from the total funds point of view: Let us see
how the cash flow stream defined by them compares with the cash flow stream
applicable to the total funds points of view.
Cash flow stream defined Cash flow stream (total
by financial institutions
funds of view method)
1. Initial flow
Outlay on fixed asses Outlay on fixed assets
assets plus current assets
2. Operating flow
Earning before interest Profit
Depreciation + interest on
short term borrowings (1tax rate) + interest on
term loan (1 – tax rate)
3. Terminal flow
Residual value of assets + Net salvage value of
of fixed assets + net salvage
value of current assets.
Comparing the cash flow streams given above, we find that:
The initial flow is defined identically in both the cases
The operating flow is defined in pre-tax terms by the
The terminal flow is defined in both the cases as the
1. the residual value of fixed assets and
2. the realizable value of current assets
However the procedures of estimation seem to be different financial
institutions, typically define the residual value of fixed assets as equal to 5 percent
of the initial cost for non-depreciable assets. Clearly no explicitly effort is made to
estimate the likely salvage value at the end of the economic life and the tax
liability thereon as part of an exercise to establish the net salvage value. Likewise,
the realizable value of current assets is typically put as equal to its par value. This
procedure x is simple and obviates the need to consider the effect of tax factor.
239. Debt Service Coverage Ratio: The debt service coverage ratio (DSCR) has been
The calculation done by the financial institutions is however slightly
different. In their calculation the DSCR of each year is determined separately and
then the arithmetic average of these yearly DSCR is taken. In symbols, the overall
DSCR as calculated by the financial institutions is as follows:
It may be noted that the DSCR, as calculated by the financial institutions
is either to or greater than the DSCR as calculated by Eq. A given above.
Refinements in Financial Evaluation:
The financial evaluation that is presently done may be strengthened by a
systematic analysis of risk and inflation.
Risk analysis: The ten year projection and subsequent analysis based on them is
done under a single set of assumptions. In view of the risks characterizing
investment projects it is advisable to look at the possible variations in the key
factors and examine their impact on profitability. For this purpose, the techniques
of sensitivity analysis and scenario analysis should be employed routinely. In
addition, the technique of montre earlo simulation may be employed for projects
involving substantial commitments and considerable risks.
Inflation analysis: Typically, financial projections are based are based on current
prices/costs. Implicit in this procedure is the assumption to move in random.
Where different inflation rates are applicable to various items of revenues and
costs, the same should be explicitly incorporated in financial evaluation.
Better monitoring: While Project Monitoring and control is done reasonably
during the implementation stage, it is done less effectively during the operational
stages. This may be because of lack of adequate personnel and should monitor the
needs of a large number of projection and continuing basis. Given the importance
of monitoring and control during the operational stage it may be necessary to
augment the manpower engaged in the task
computerize the monitoring routines
design check lists which focus sharply on critical areas
develop sound remedial measures to cope with sickness right in
the incipient stage and
review the monitoring procedures periodically to strengthen
The technical review done by the financial institution focuses mainly on the
Process of manufacture
Engineering know-how and technical collaboration
Raw materials and consumables
Location and site
Plant and equipments
The technical review is done by qualified and experienced personnel available in
the institutions and/or outside experts (particularly where large and
technologically sophisticated projects are involved).
The importance of potential market and the need to develop a suitable marketing
strategy cannot be over-emphasized. Hence efforts are made to:
Examine the reasonableness of demand projections by utilizing the
findings of available surveys, industry association projections,
planning commission/DGTD projections and independent market
surveys (which may sometimes be commissioned).
Assess the adequacy of marketing arrangements in terms of
promotional effort, distribution, network, transport, facilities, stock
Judge the knowledge, experience and competence of key marketing
Marketing Review: In order to judge the managerial capability of the promoters,
the following questions are raised.
How resourceful are the promoters?
How sound is the understanding of the project by the promoters?
How committed are the promoters?
Resourcefulness: This is judged in terms of the prior experience of the promoters
the progress achieved in organizing various aspects of the project and the skill
with which the project is presented.
Understanding: This is assessed in terms of the credibility of the project plan
(this includes, inter alia, the organization structure, the estimated costs, the
financing patterns, the assessment of various inputs and the marketing
programme) and the details furnished to the financial institutions.
241. Commitment: This is gauged by the resources (financial, managerial, material
and other) applied to the project and zeal with which the objectives of the project.
Short-term as well as long-term and pursued.
Managerial review also involves an assessment of the caliber of the key technical
and managerial personnel working on the project, the schedule for training them
and the remuneration structure for rewarding and motivating them.
The economic review looks at the project from the large social point of view. The
methodology adopted by the financial institutions for the purpose of economic
evaluation is lebelled as “Partial little Mirrless” approach. In addition to the
calculation of economic rate of return as per this approach, they also look into two
other economic indicators viz.
Effective rate of protection and Domestic resource cost
The economic review done by the financial institutions is not very rigorous and
sophisticated. Also the emphasis place on this review is rather limited. So, it is
essential to give increased emphasis and improved methodology for vital aspect
of project review.
Project Review by World Bank
The World Bank evaluation of project includes all the above factors. Additional
special features which are covered by the World Bank in evaluation of the project
are given below.
World Bank places considerable emphasis, particularly in the world
countries, about the availability of infrastructure in the supporting
facilities. While evaluating the projects they generally insist on
complete arrangement of infrastructure facilities and commitments in
this regard from the concerned.
Project management capabilities of the team in charge of the project is
also one of the important considerations reviewed by the appraisal
terms. They in fact go into the bio-data and the other details of the key
persons and sometimes put conditions for a suitable persons to look
after the aspects of the project where they feel that the management
aspect is weak
Besides the technical feasibility of the project, the World Bank put
some emphasis of the marketing arrangement and the marketing
feasibility of the project. This is a fact that normally the project which
is technically feasible would come up and start function ship but the
marketing arrangements are major cause of failure of the projection
case either there is no demand or the project is unable to compare with
its competitors in market. The World Bank reviews the production
capacities available in the marketing area. The marketing network
proposed by the projects as well as marketing set-up is thoroughly
reviews to ascertain the adequacy of marketing arrangements even at
the stage of project appraisal.
The world Bank also reviews the working capital arrangement of the
project in detail to ensure that the project has adequate arrangement of
working capital for operation and does not lack working capital.
Other important aspects which the World Bank reviews is the
economic analysis of the project. The project is not supported by the
World Bank, if it does not have a proper economic rate of return, The
economic analysis considers the benefits of the project not to the
project corporation but to the nation as a whole. The project taken up
by the World Bank for financing only in case the economic rate of
return is favourable.
Requirements of Proper Review:
There are varied opinions about the requirements for adequate evaluation.
So, the project can be evaluated under the following conditions.:
Clear statement of the goals and objectives
Agreed upon criteria for assessing objectives
Project targets are explicit and measurable
Intervention or treatment is explicit
The soundness of the project management system of an organization may
be evaluated in terms of the following criteria:
Are the results of the capital budgeting system
consistent with the goals of the organization?
Are efficient techniques being employed for purposes of
capital expenditure planning, decision making and
Are the premises underlying capital budgeting
communicated to those who participate in this process?
Is there meaningful delegation and decentralization
which permits decision making at appropriate levels?
Are the policies, methods of analysis, and procedures
243. understood by different segments of the orginisation
which are involved in capital budgeting?
Does the system have sufficient flexibility respond to
the dynamic changes in the environment and to permit
variations in approaches for projects with differing
Are adequate control being exercised in the simple
mentation phases to ensure that slippages are mitigated?
Is there a systematic review of capital investments
which permits meaningful feedback for improving the
system and its effectiveness?
PERFORMANCE AND IMPROVEMENT
Ideally, a project will be considered totally successful, if it gets completed
on time, within the budget and performs exactly to the designer’s specifications.
But this is tall order and many projects would not meet thee requirements.
A project is considered to be a total failure if it is abandoned half-way; if it
is not producing expected qualify of product and if it becomes sick soon after
going into commercial production.
In real life, a project cannot be considered either a total success or a total
failure – it would fit somewhere in-between. Here, the project manager or investor
must keenly watch how the project is being managed when it is in progress.
Time and cost overruns are the most commonly used indicators of project
performance. Well managed project could be completed with minimum of time
and cost overruns.
The ratio of output to the cost incurred is achieving project objectives is
also an indicator of project performance.
Productivity is also an indicator of performance which states that how
resources have been utilized either for production of goods and services or for
creation of facilities for the same.
Consideration of value is essential for improving project management
performance. Value, which can be expressed as performance, improves only when
performance is achieved as at to extra cost or when cost can be reduced for the
desired level performance.
244. Do-it-yourself Trap
Cost is the prime factor relating the project management performance.
Many people would feel to do everything themselves to bring down cost. This sort
of thinking often results in the owner trying to do a project all on his own. Owners
use to engage a team to manage his project, engage labour contractors for
construction and supervise the design, procurement and construction work all by
himself. This policy maximizes the time and cost overrun. It imposes a heavy land
of co-ordination on a working group. The cost of having enough experience
outweighs any apparent advantage in one’s handling the project all on one’s own.
Those who don’t have adequate expertise, often decide to use the turn-key
approach for efficient execution of a project. The owner expects that, the turn-key
contractor can take care of all the troubles of project execution and hand over the
key to the owner, when the plant is ready of operation. Some people believe that,
this is the surest way to complete the project not only in the shortest possible time
but also at least cost. But, the lessons fro turn-key contract say that, if the owner
does not select the right contractor, there will be no end of trouble for him.
The CM and DM companies
The owner, when he is not doing things himself, needs someone who is
not working for profit. These are the CM (Construction Management) and DM
(Design Management) companies. These companies work as the owner’s agents
for a fee and have the owner’s interest uppermost in mind. They do not gain any
profit from the sale of hardware; they earn a fee from the sale of their services and
their fee represents a small precent of the project cost. As owner’s interest is,
therefore, likely to be best sewed and the project cost is likely to be the lowest,
when the project is handled by a competent CM or DM company.
Thus, the responsibility of the review authority lies in balancing
judiciously different consideration for arriving at a proper decision. There can be
readymade formulae, by using which a term loan proposal can be pronounced as
acceptable or otherwise. Decision making in this area calls for full appreciation of
all relevant factors and sound judgment based on experience.
SELF ASSESSMENT QUESTIONS
What are the special features of Project Review by World Bank?
Describe the review process of an industrial project.
How the financial review can be made successfully?
Why project review should be made?
Explain the process of evaluation of project management system of an
How will improve the performance of project management.
Give an overview of project management environment in a developing
country like India.
246. LESSON – 15
Professional management of project needs a methodology tp carry out a regular
check as to whether the project is progressing as scheduled, in scope and in time.
In other words, a good system of project audit will go a long way in facilitating
prompt and effective project implementation.
Project audit as a formal and systematic examination of the performance of an
ongoing project as compared to its requirements. It involves measurement against
predefined and relevant standards. It also constitute and independent and
authentic source of information and critique on the project and might often call
for the auditor’s personal judgment. Without impinging on enterprise
management’s prerogative and responsibility, it supports management in
diagnosis and decision-making.
OBJECTIVES OF PROJECT AUDIT
The objectives of project auditing can be viewed in terms of the help it renders to
the enterprise management in:
♦ Creating awareness among the project staff of the types and
magnitude of the problems that are likely to be encountered in
completing the project and producing quality products, in planned
volume and at competitive costs.
♦ Providing a clean picture, from time to time, of the actual status of
♦ prompt identification of the factors that might cause product
quality problems or lead to time and/or cost overruns
♦ timely spotting of a variety of generic problems that are associated
with execution of projects.
♦ Enabling the creation of a good information base for a proper
estimation and costing of the project.
♦ Assisting in the establishment of appropriate standards and system
and recommending suitable work techniques;
♦ Identifying the specific training needs with references to the
project tasks; and
♦ Formalizing the experience and expertise in project management in
order to be able to provide consultancy services to other
The project auditor has to investigate the underlying records. Ascertain the
tangible results of work done, look at the process and caliber of project
management, examine the projecxt methodology and techniques and et a clear
247. picture of rthe project organization and controls. Having gone through the above
aspects, he has to express his comments deliberately one the following lines:
Comment on current status;
forecast the future status;
Highlight critical management issues;
Point out exposure to risk and potential losses.
The project audit report on current status covers aspects of project cost
performance, project’s performance in relation to schedule, progress performance
quality performance compliance with work commitments and compliance with
Statement on progress performance compares the work done with related costs
and highlights deviations from the financial assumptions made at the time of
planning the project. A separate report focuses on the quality of performance of
the project to enable revisions or modification of methods or work or control
In the light of the progress to date, the forecast of the project status for future time
periods or milestones has to be made and compared with contract or work
commitments and management expectations. These reflect the project auditor’s
considered conclusions assuming the observed trends persist, except to the extent
that some observable trends of improvements are reckoned.
Aspects of particular significance that require management attention should be
identified and reported. Observed and existing weakness or deficiencies that are
bound to undermine the progress and outcome of the project, unless prompt and
effective managerial actions are taken, come for special mention.
Some of the possible occurrences or events, that have some probability of
occurrence, have to be interpreted in terms of adverse effects on the contractor or
customers or other interested parties. The management can then consider possible
actions to protect the interests of those likely to be affected. Mounting project
costs may lead to pricing decisions that will impair the financial results of the
If the management has special expectations from the project audit these have to be
listed out. The contractual documents and agreements have to be studies and their
adequacy assessed. The commitments of the owner or management in respect of
providing infrastructure or other facilities also have to be studies and the impact
of inadequacy, if any, in this regard on project’s success has to be assessed. The
project’s organization, administration, record keeping and controls also come for
248. FUNCTIONS OF PROJECT AUDITOR
The project auditor is an expert in measuring, confirming, investigating and
reporting the status of a project with a view to reducing the uncertainties that
He should not arrogate to himself the role of a consultant or technical expert. He
should not fill his report with recommendations or suggested action plans should
confine himself to interpretation of studied facts.
The project auditor is required to give advice to make recommendations. Solicited
action plans should be the outcome of the conviction of the enterprise
management that the auditor is competent to prepare action plans and hs the
requisite time and information for verification.
Unsolicited action plans should come up only if the project auditor feels strongly
the items covered in his recommendations are very important in the context of the
findings of project unit.
The auditor will have to evaluate the contract base lines and give his judgment on
their adequacy or otherwise for achieving the objectives of the project. Contract
baseline comprises the set of documents that establish what the project should do,
when and how. It is the baseline with reference to which the auditor should
measure the present and future state of the project. The current documents relating
to commandments and agreements relevant to the project constitute the formal
contract baseline. There can be informal baselines also in the form of verbal
agreements or document not signed by authorized persons. The contract baselines
also relate to contractor’s agreements with subcontractors, suppliers, etc., and
these will also come under project auditor’s purview.
PROJECT AUDIT PROGRAMME
After getting a clear understanding of the scope as expected by the owner
or audit requester, the next step is to define the project baseline in more detail, in
consultation with the project team and with the help of visits to the project sites.
This will involve the identification and analysis of the set of contractual
documents which collectively define the extent and details of the project’s
obligations, determination of additional management’s resource allocation,
pricing and costing assumption and the development of the detailed audit
The phase of audit programme execution will have the following steps:
♦ Preliminary examination of the project’s organization, administration
record keeping, controls and planning and working methods and
249. techniques performed in order to establish the extent to which they are an
adequate basis for building up the statements of project status, current and
♦ Preparing the statements of project status, current and future, giving a
detailed list of completed work as compared with the project’s
performance baseline, recording the costs expended by the project team to
carry out the work to date, comparing the fulfillment of contractual
obligations against commitments, establishing the quality of work done by
the project team, and recording observed facts on project planning, project
organization and staffing, project administration and record keeping,
working methods and techniques, communications, project facilities and
environment, contract administration and controls, and controls over
suppliers and subcontractors etc.
Then will follow the preliminary analysis and presentation of results accompanied
by audit report preparation and transmittal.
DIFFICULTIES IN ESTABLISHING AUDIT PURPOSE AND SCOPE
The purpose of project audit is to clarify the state of the project in certain
key areas for the enterprise management. It is part of a quality control effort. The
auditor could often be misled by wrong information or out of date or incorrect
documentation. He should have a system of cross verification and checks so as
not to be led astray. It might sometimes be found that persons who are to be
working on the project are not there and those who are not supposed to be in the
project are there. The auditor will have to report these aberrations indicating their
implications for the project. Difficulties might arise in identifying the baseline
contract or work statement set. Work could be carried out on the basis of verbal
agreements without proper contract documentation. Absence of deliverable
specifications in the contract baseline and inadequacies in delivery procedure or
acceptance criteria are often problems requiring special attention. The auditor will
have to resolve such ambiguities.
Thus, this chapter vividly narrate the significance of Project Audit, steps
involved in Project Audit Programme, Auditor’s role and Problems encountered
in Project Audit. Having identified and analyzed a variety of problems pertaining
to the formulation and implementation of the project audited by him, the project
auditor can evolve guidelines that can be useful for other projects, present or
future, of the enterprise.
250. SELF ASSESSMENT QUESTIONS
What is Project Audit? Explain its importance.
State the objectives of Project Audit.
Explain the steps in Project Audit Programme.
Explain the functions of Project Auditor.
State the difficulties in Project Audit.
How the project audit differs from financial audit?
251. Model Question Paper
Paper 2.5 : Project management
Time: 3 Hours
Max : 100 Marks
(5 x 8) = 40
PART – A
Answer any Five questions
1. Define Project management. Explain the steps involved in project
2. What are the functions of Project planning?
3. What is Matrix organization? Explain its significance.
4. Explain the basic principles of Propject controlling
5. What is Project Negotiation? Explain its objectives.
6. Explain the significance of Project Scheduling.
7. State the objectives of Project Audit.
8. Explain different types of Project contracting.
(4 x 15 = 60)
PART – B
Answer any Four questions
Question No. 15 is Compulsory
9. Briefly describe the merits and demerits of different forms of project
10. Describe the process of project time monitoring and cost monitoring.
11. Explain the prerequisites for successful project implementation.
12. Describe the nature and causes of cost and time overruns. How does the
overrun problem could be controlled.
13. Explain the process of evaluation of project management system of an
14. Explain the different stages in Project life cycle.
15. Attend the following Case and Answer the questions.