HOW	  STREET	  CORRIDOR	  DESIGN	                DECISIONS	  IMPACT	  SPEED	  OF	              VEHICLES	  AND	  BIKE	  LAN...
TTAT	  LEARNING	  OBJECTIVES	        1.    Participants	  will	  gain	  signi>icant	  understanding	  of	  the	           ...
STREET	  ENVELOPE	  EXPANDS	  	                                      	  	  
 THE	  VOCABULARY	  WE	  USE:	     New	  Urbanism	  advocates	  the	  restructuring	  of	  public	  policy	  and	         ...
THE	  VOCABULARY	  WE	  USE:	         Context	  Sensitive	  Solutions	  (CSS)	  process	  promotes	             a	  collab...
THE	  VOCABULARY	  WE	  USE:	  “Complete	  Streets”	  	  is	  a	  collection	  of	  guidelines	  used	  	  for	  designing...
2ND	  STREET	  DISTRICT,	  AUSTIN	                                             	  	  
ARE	  THESE	  ROADS	  WALKABLE	  ?	                                           	  	  
ARE	  THESE	  ROADS	  WALKABLE	  ?	                                           	  	  
 COMPLETE	  STREETS:	  	  SUITABLE	  OR	  TARGET	  SPEED	    §    The	  crucial	  factor	  we	  are	  searching	  for	  i...
 COMPLETE	  STREETS:	  	  SUITABLE	  OR	  TARGET	  SPEED	                                             	  	  
COMPLETE	  STREETS:	  DEFINE	  WALKABLE	  COMMUNITIES	  	  	  §    A	  mix	  of	  land	  uses	  in	  close	  proximity	  ...
COMPLETE	  STREETS:	  DEFINE	  WALKABLE	  COMMUNITIES	  	  	                                                     Accommoda...
COMPLETE	  STREETS:	  DEFINE	  WALKABLE	  COMMUNITIES	  	  	                                    	  	  
COMPLETE	  STREETS:	  DEFINE	  WALKABLE	  COMMUNITIES	  	  	                                                       Provide...
COMPLETE	  STREETS:	  DEFINE	  WALKABLE	  COMMUNITIES	  	  	                                    	  	  
WALKABLE	  COMMUNITIES:	  WEST	  VILLAGE,	  DALLAS	                                      	  	  
CONTEXT	  SENSITIVITY	                                          §    A	  highly	                                         ...
TRADEOFFS:	  	  WALKABILITY	  VS.	  DRIVEABILITY	                                      	  	  
PEDESTRIAN	  PLACE	  –	  VEHICLE	  INTOLERANT	  ?	                                           	  	  
PEDESTRIAN	  SUPPORTIVE–VEHICLE	  TOLERANT?	                                  	  	  
PEDESTRIAN	  SUPPORTIVE–VEHICLE	  TOLERANT?	                                  	  	  
PEDESTRIAN	  SUPPORTIVE–VEHICLE	  TOLERANT?	                                  	  	  
PEDESTRIAN	  TOLERANT-­‐	  VEHICLE	  SUPPORTIVE?	                                      	  	  
PEDESTRIAN	  INTOLERANT-­‐	  VEHICLE	  PLACE?	                                        	  	  
PEDESTRIAN	  INTOLERANT-­‐	  VEHICLE	  PLACE?	                                        	  	  
CONTEXT	  SENSITIVE	  SOLUTIONS	  VS.	  COMPLETE	  STREETS	      §    CSS	  involve	  stakeholders	  in	  considering	  a...
THE	  PROCESS	  FOR	  COMPLETE	  STREETS	     §    Create	  Vision	  and	  Goals	  	     §    De>ine	  Needs	     §    ...
 COMMUNITY	  INVOLVEMENT	  IS	  KEY	  	  Involve	  Public	  and	  Other	  Stakeholders	        §    Adjacent	  Property	 ...
BASIC	  	  AASHTO	  	  DESIGN	  	  CONTROLS	  (TRADITIONAL)	   §    Design	  vehicle	  (Bus,	  WB50,	  WB67)	   §    Veh...
ADD	  TO	  AASHTO:	  	  CSS	  DESIGN	  CONTROLS	    §    Target	  Speed	  (Design	  encourages	  posted	  speed)	    §  ...
ADDITIONAL	  CSS	  DESIGN	  CONTROLS	      §    Functional	  Classi>ication	             §  Principal	  Arterial	       ...
FUNCTIONAL	  CLASSIFICATION	  BY	  THOROUGHFARE	  TYPE	                                      Walkable	                    ...
PRINCIPAL	  ARTERIAL	  &	  BOULEVARD	  ?	                                     	  	  
PRINCIPAL	  ARTERIAL	  &	  BOULEVARD	  ?	                                     	  	                        35	             ...
PRINCIPAL	  ARTERIAL	  &	  BOULEVARD	  ?	                                     	  	  
PRINCIPAL	  ARTERIAL	  &	  BOULEVARD	  ?	                                        	  	           11,000	  vpd	             ...
PRINCIPAL	  ARTERIAL	  &	  BOULEVARD	  ?	                                     	  	  
PRINCIPAL	  ARTERIAL	  &	  AVENUE	  ?	                                       	  	  
PRINCIPAL	  ARTERIAL	  &	  AVENUE	  ?	                                       	  	                       30	  mph	         ...
MINOR	  ARTERIAL	  &	  AVENUE	  ?	                                        	  	  
MINOR	  ARTERIAL	  &	  AVENUE	  ?	                                        	  	  
MINOR	  ARTERIAL	  &	  AVENUE	  ?	                                        	  	                       30	  mph	            ...
MINOR	  ARTERIAL	  &	  AVENUE	  ?	                                        	  	  
COLLECTOR	  &	  STREET	  ?	                                      	  	  
COLLECTOR	  &	  STREET	  ?	                          30	  mph	                                          	  	              ...
COLLECTOR	  &	  STREET	  ?	                                      	  	  
CSS	  VS.	  TRADITIONAL	  DESIGN	  FACTORS	  §    Appropriate	  Speed	  (25-­‐30	  mph)	  vs.	  Higher	  Speeds	  §    N...
SPEED	  MANAGEMENT	  TECHNIQUES	  §    Active	  Measures	         §  Roundabouts	         §  Road	  diets	         §  ...
SPEED	  MANAGEMENT	  TECHNIQUES	                               	  	  
SPEED	  MANAGEMENT	  TECHNIQUES	                               	  	  
SPEED	  MANAGEMENT	  TECHNIQUES	                                  	  	  
SPEED	  MANAGEMENT	  TECHNIQUES	                                  	  	  
SPEED	  MANAGEMENT	  TECHNIQUES	                                  	  	  
SPEED	  MANAGEMENT	  TECHNIQUES	                                  	  	  
SPEED	  MANAGEMENT	  TECHNIQUES	                                  	  	  
SPEED	  MANAGEMENT	  TECHNIQUES	   Passive	  Measures	      §  Synchronized	  signals	      §  Radar	  trailers/speed	  ...
SPEED	  MANAGEMENT	  TECHNIQUES	                                  	  	  
SPEED	  MANAGEMENT	  TECHNIQUES	                                  	  	  
SPEED	  MANAGEMENT	  TECHNIQUES	                                  	  	  
SPEED	  MANAGEMENT	  TECHNIQUES	                                  	  	  
HOW	  DO	  YOU	  HANDLE	  TRANSITIONS	  ?	                                           	  	  
HOW	  DO	  YOU	  HANDLE	  TRANSITIONS	  ?	                                           	  	  
TARGET	  SPEED	  IS	  THE	  ENFORCEABLE	  SPEED	       §    85th	  percentile	  speed	       §    Based	  on	  reasonabl...
TARGET	  SPEED	  IS	  THE	  ENFORCEABLE	  SPEED	        §    Using	  design	  elements	  such	  as	  on-­‐street	  parkin...
TARGET	  SPEED	  IS	  THE	  ENFORCEABLE	  SPEED	       §    Paving	  materials	  with	  texture	  detectable	  by	       ...
CONCLUSION,	  PART	  1	    §    The	  evolution	  of	  street	  design	  guidelines,	  especially	  as	          they	  p...
CONCLUSION,	  PART	  2	     §    The	  crucial	  factor	  in	  creating	  the	  Complete	  Street	  is	           the	  d...
2ND	  STREET	  DISTRICT,	  AUSTIN,	  TX	                                                	  	  
SOURCES	  §    How	  Street	  Corridor	  Design	  Decisions	  Impact	  Livable	  Communities	  &	        Campus	  Setting...
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Creating a Complete Street Active Transportation Network - Mark Goode III

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Creating a Complete Street Active Transportation Network - Mark Goode III

  1. 1. HOW  STREET  CORRIDOR  DESIGN   DECISIONS  IMPACT  SPEED  OF   VEHICLES  AND  BIKE  LANE  SAFETY         Appropriate  speed  is  the  critical  factor  that  allows  the   bicyclist,  pedestrian  and  other  users  of  the  street  corridor  to   be  comfortable  sharing  the  same  space  with  the  automobile.   Mark  G.  Goode,  III,  P.E.     Senior  Project  Manager   Kimley-­‐Horn  and  Associates,  Inc.      
  2. 2. TTAT  LEARNING  OBJECTIVES   1.  Participants  will  gain  signi>icant  understanding  of  the   range  of  complex  issues  involved  in  integrating  an   active  transportation  network  within  an  established   neighborhood.   2.  Participants  will  understand  why  reducing  the  speed  of       vehicles  is  essential  to  a  safer  experience  for  bicyclists,   pedestrians  and  all  users  on  the  street  corridor.   3.  Participants  will  understand  how  to  establish  a  more   inclusive  and  successful  stakeholder  experience  which   is  essential  to  the  transportation  planning  process.   4.  Participants  will  become  advocates  for  speed   management  considerations  when  an  existing  street   corridor  is  being  re-­‐imagined  by  the  community.  
  3. 3. STREET  ENVELOPE  EXPANDS        
  4. 4.  THE  VOCABULARY  WE  USE:   New  Urbanism  advocates  the  restructuring  of  public  policy  and   development  practices  to  support  the  following  principles:     §  Neighborhoods  should  be  diverse  in  use  and  population;   §  Communities  should  be  designed  for  the  pedestrian  and  transit       as  well  as  the  car;     §  Cities  and  towns  should  be  shaped  by  physically  de>ined  and   universally  accessible  public  spaces  and  community  institutions;     §  Urban  places  should  be  framed  by  architecture  and  landscape   design  that  celebrate  local  history,  climate,  ecology,  and  building   practice   -­‐Congress  for  New  Urbanism   Impact:  Regions  and  communities      
  5. 5. THE  VOCABULARY  WE  USE:   Context  Sensitive  Solutions  (CSS)  process  promotes   a  collaboration  &  involves  all  stakeholders  in   planning  &  designing  transportation  facilities  that:   §  Are  compatible  with  their  setting  and  preserve   scenic,  aesthetic,  historic  a  nd  environments     resources;   §  Respect  design  objectives  of  safety,  ef>iciency,   multimodal  mobility,  capacity  and  maintenance;   and   §  Integrate  community  objectives  and  values  relating   to  compatibility,  livability,  sense  of  place  urban   design,  cost  and  environmental  impacts.       Impact:    Communities  and  corridors  
  6. 6. THE  VOCABULARY  WE  USE:  “Complete  Streets”    is  a  collection  of  guidelines  used    for  designing  a   roadway  within  a  designated  area.    §  A    street  is  “complete”  when  pedestrians,  bicyclists,  motorists  and       public  transportation  users  are  accommodated  to  comfortably  and   safely  move  along  and  across  the  full  length  and  width  (i.e.,  the   “complete”)  street.  §  Complete  Streets  also  create  a  sense  of  place  and  improve  social   interaction,  while  generally  improving  property  adjacent  land  values.    Impact:  Speci>ic  street  design  guidelines  adopted  by  cities.  
  7. 7. 2ND  STREET  DISTRICT,  AUSTIN      
  8. 8. ARE  THESE  ROADS  WALKABLE  ?      
  9. 9. ARE  THESE  ROADS  WALKABLE  ?      
  10. 10.  COMPLETE  STREETS:    SUITABLE  OR  TARGET  SPEED   §  The  crucial  factor  we  are  searching  for  is  the  suitable  speed  that   the  planning  and  design  team  should  target  for  a  particular  section   of  roadway.   §  DOTs  are  looking  closely  at  ways  t  o  reduce  the  severity  and     frequency  of  accidents.  The  goal  is  to  reduce  the  speed  differential   among  automobiles,  pedestrians,  bicyclists,  transit  and  trucks.   §  The  appropriate  (ideal)  speed  sets  the  stage  for  the  corridor  to   reach  its  potential  for  a  good  user  experience.  
  11. 11.  COMPLETE  STREETS:    SUITABLE  OR  TARGET  SPEED      
  12. 12. COMPLETE  STREETS:  DEFINE  WALKABLE  COMMUNITIES      §  A  mix  of  land  uses  in  close  proximity  to  one  another  §  A  mix  of  density,  including  relatively  compact  developments  (both   residential  and  commercial)  §  Building  entries  that  front  directly  o  nto  the  sidewalk  (w/o  parking     between  the  buildings  and  the  public  ROW)    §  Building,  landscape  &  thoroughfare  design  is  pedestrian-­‐scale  §  Thoroughfares  designed  to  serve  the  activities  generated  by  the  adjacent   context  in  terms  of  the  mobility,  safety,  access  and  place-­‐making  functions   of  the  public  ROW  
  13. 13. COMPLETE  STREETS:  DEFINE  WALKABLE  COMMUNITIES       Accommodate   pedestrians,   bicycles,  transit,   freight  and       motor-­‐vehicles   within  a  >ine-­‐ grained  urban   circulation   network  
  14. 14. COMPLETE  STREETS:  DEFINE  WALKABLE  COMMUNITIES          
  15. 15. COMPLETE  STREETS:  DEFINE  WALKABLE  COMMUNITIES       Provide  a   compact  and   mixed-­‐use       environment   of  urban   buildings,   public  spaces   and  landscapes   that  support   walking   directly   through  the   built   environment  
  16. 16. COMPLETE  STREETS:  DEFINE  WALKABLE  COMMUNITIES          
  17. 17. WALKABLE  COMMUNITIES:  WEST  VILLAGE,  DALLAS      
  18. 18. CONTEXT  SENSITIVITY   §  A  highly   connected,   multimodal   circulation       network,     providing  safe,   continuous  and   balanced   multimodal   facilities  
  19. 19. TRADEOFFS:    WALKABILITY  VS.  DRIVEABILITY      
  20. 20. PEDESTRIAN  PLACE  –  VEHICLE  INTOLERANT  ?      
  21. 21. PEDESTRIAN  SUPPORTIVE–VEHICLE  TOLERANT?      
  22. 22. PEDESTRIAN  SUPPORTIVE–VEHICLE  TOLERANT?      
  23. 23. PEDESTRIAN  SUPPORTIVE–VEHICLE  TOLERANT?      
  24. 24. PEDESTRIAN  TOLERANT-­‐  VEHICLE  SUPPORTIVE?      
  25. 25. PEDESTRIAN  INTOLERANT-­‐  VEHICLE  PLACE?      
  26. 26. PEDESTRIAN  INTOLERANT-­‐  VEHICLE  PLACE?      
  27. 27. CONTEXT  SENSITIVE  SOLUTIONS  VS.  COMPLETE  STREETS   §  CSS  involve  stakeholders  in  considering  a  transportation   facility  in  its  entire  social,  environmental  and  aesthetic   context   §  Complete  Streets  adds  a  layer  of    basic  accommodations  for     bicyclists,  pedestrians,  transit  users  and  disabled  travelers   as  necessities  rather  than  optional  items.  Complete  Streets   ordinances  provide  standards  for  accommodation.  
  28. 28. THE  PROCESS  FOR  COMPLETE  STREETS   §  Create  Vision  and  Goals     §  De>ine  Needs   §  Develop  Alternatives       §  Evaluate  Alternatives   §  Develop  Transportation  Plan   §  Develop  Transportation  Improvement  Plan   §  Create  Development  and  Implementation   Timeline   §  Develop  Operation  and  Maintenance  Plan  &   Cost  
  29. 29.  COMMUNITY  INVOLVEMENT  IS  KEY    Involve  Public  and  Other  Stakeholders   §  Adjacent  Property  Owners   §  Developers  &  Architects   §  The  Neighborhoods  &  HOAs       §  City  Departments  (e.g.,  Traf>ic,  Planning,  Public  Works,  Storm   Water  Management,  Law  Enforcement,  EMS,  Economic   Development)   §  Bicyclists   §  Transit  and  transit  users   §  Others  with  special  needs   §  Utilities  
  30. 30. BASIC    AASHTO    DESIGN    CONTROLS  (TRADITIONAL)   §  Design  vehicle  (Bus,  WB50,  WB67)   §  Vehicle  performance   §  Driver  performance       §  Traf>ic  characteristics   §  Capacity  and  vehicular  level  of  service  (LOS)   §  Access  controls  and  management   §  Pedestrians  and  bicycles   §  Safety  
  31. 31. ADD  TO  AASHTO:    CSS  DESIGN  CONTROLS   §  Target  Speed  (Design  encourages  posted  speed)   §  Location  (Urban  Context  Zones)   §  Suburban       §  General  Urban   §  Urban  Center   §  Urban  Core   §  Design  Vehicle  and  Control  Vehicle   31  
  32. 32. ADDITIONAL  CSS  DESIGN  CONTROLS   §  Functional  Classi>ication   §  Principal  Arterial   §  Minor  Arterial       §  Collector   §  Local   §  Thoroughfare  Types   §  Boulevard   §  Avenue   §  Street  
  33. 33. FUNCTIONAL  CLASSIFICATION  BY  THOROUGHFARE  TYPE   Walkable      
  34. 34. PRINCIPAL  ARTERIAL  &  BOULEVARD  ?      
  35. 35. PRINCIPAL  ARTERIAL  &  BOULEVARD  ?       35   17,800  vpd   mph  
  36. 36. PRINCIPAL  ARTERIAL  &  BOULEVARD  ?      
  37. 37. PRINCIPAL  ARTERIAL  &  BOULEVARD  ?       11,000  vpd   2,500  vpd   35  mph   17,800  vpd  
  38. 38. PRINCIPAL  ARTERIAL  &  BOULEVARD  ?      
  39. 39. PRINCIPAL  ARTERIAL  &  AVENUE  ?      
  40. 40. PRINCIPAL  ARTERIAL  &  AVENUE  ?       30  mph   13,000    vpd  
  41. 41. MINOR  ARTERIAL  &  AVENUE  ?      
  42. 42. MINOR  ARTERIAL  &  AVENUE  ?      
  43. 43. MINOR  ARTERIAL  &  AVENUE  ?       30  mph   11,300  vpd   16,000  vpd  
  44. 44. MINOR  ARTERIAL  &  AVENUE  ?      
  45. 45. COLLECTOR  &  STREET  ?      
  46. 46. COLLECTOR  &  STREET  ?   30  mph       27,500  vpd   19,500  vpd   8,600  vpd  
  47. 47. COLLECTOR  &  STREET  ?      
  48. 48. CSS  VS.  TRADITIONAL  DESIGN  FACTORS  §  Appropriate  Speed  (25-­‐30  mph)  vs.  Higher  Speeds  §  Narrower  lanes  (10’)  vs.  wider  lanes  §  Capacity  &  LOS  balanced  against  all  users  §  Minimal  curb  offsets  0’vs.  2’-­‐3’      §  On-­‐street  parking  (parallel  or  angle)  §  Bike  lanes  (5’)  §  Speed  Management  Techniques  
  49. 49. SPEED  MANAGEMENT  TECHNIQUES  §  Active  Measures   §  Roundabouts   §  Road  diets   §  Lateral  shifts  or  narrowing       §  Smaller  curb-­‐return  radii   §  On-­‐street  parking   §  Speed  humps,  speed  tables,  speed  platforms   §  Narrowed  travel  lanes   §  Raised  crosswalks   §  Speed  actuated  traf>ic  signals  
  50. 50. SPEED  MANAGEMENT  TECHNIQUES      
  51. 51. SPEED  MANAGEMENT  TECHNIQUES      
  52. 52. SPEED  MANAGEMENT  TECHNIQUES      
  53. 53. SPEED  MANAGEMENT  TECHNIQUES      
  54. 54. SPEED  MANAGEMENT  TECHNIQUES      
  55. 55. SPEED  MANAGEMENT  TECHNIQUES      
  56. 56. SPEED  MANAGEMENT  TECHNIQUES      
  57. 57. SPEED  MANAGEMENT  TECHNIQUES   Passive  Measures   §  Synchronized  signals   §  Radar  trailers/speed  feedback  signs   §  Visually  narrowing  road  using  pavement  markers       §  Visually  enclosing  street  with  buildings,  landscaping  and  street   trees   §  Speed  enforcement  corridors   §  Flashing  beacons  on  intersection  approaches   §  Speed  limit  markings  on  pavement   §  Mountable  cobblestone  medians  or  >lush  concrete  bands   §  Shared  lanes  (bicycle)  using  signs  and  pavement  markings  
  58. 58. SPEED  MANAGEMENT  TECHNIQUES      
  59. 59. SPEED  MANAGEMENT  TECHNIQUES      
  60. 60. SPEED  MANAGEMENT  TECHNIQUES      
  61. 61. SPEED  MANAGEMENT  TECHNIQUES      
  62. 62. HOW  DO  YOU  HANDLE  TRANSITIONS  ?      
  63. 63. HOW  DO  YOU  HANDLE  TRANSITIONS  ?      
  64. 64. TARGET  SPEED  IS  THE  ENFORCEABLE  SPEED   §  85th  percentile  speed   §  Based  on  reasonable  driver  expectations   §  Setting  signal  timing  for  moderate  progressive  speeds   §      Using  narrower  lanes  that  cause  motorists  to  naturally  slow   their  speeds   §  Using  physical  measures  such  as  curb  extensions  and   medians  to  narrow  the  traveled  way  
  65. 65. TARGET  SPEED  IS  THE  ENFORCEABLE  SPEED   §  Using  design  elements  such  as  on-­‐street  parking  to   create  side  friction   §  Minimal  or  no  horizontal  offset  between  the  inside       travel  lane  and  median  curbs   §  Eliminating  super  elevation   §  Eliminating  shoulders  in  urban  applications,   except  bicycle  lanes   §  Smaller  curb-­‐return  radii  at  intersections  and   elimination  of  high  speed  channelized  right-­‐turns  
  66. 66. TARGET  SPEED  IS  THE  ENFORCEABLE  SPEED   §  Paving  materials  with  texture  detectable  by   drivers  as  noti>ication  of  possible  presence  of   pedestrians   §  Proper  use  of  speed  limit,  warning,  advisory  signs       and  other  appropriate  devices  to  gradually   transition  speeds  when  approaching  and  traveling   through  a  walkable  area  
  67. 67. CONCLUSION,  PART  1   §  The  evolution  of  street  design  guidelines,  especially  as   they  promote  walkable  communities,  serves  to   support  sustainable  initiatives  on  many  fronts.       §  The  most  recent  concept,  Complete  Streets,  aims  more       directly  at  street  functionality.     §  The  result  can  be  greater  reductions  in  traf>ic   congestion,  which  impacts  air  pollution  and  fuel   consumption;    a  more  livable  community  through   multi-­‐modal  accommodation  and  more  enjoyable   outdoor  spaces;  and  enhanced  safety,  health  and   welfare  of  the  travelling  public.        
  68. 68. CONCLUSION,  PART  2   §  The  crucial  factor  in  creating  the  Complete  Street  is   the  determining  the  suitable  speed  that  the  planning   and  design  team  should  target  for  a  particular   section  of  roadway.       §   The  goal  is  to  reduce  the  speed  differential  among   automobiles,  pedestrians,  bicyclists,  transit  and   trucks.     §  By  bringing  the  traf>ic  /transportation  planner  to  the   table  early  in  the  project  cycle,  developers  and   designers  can  maximize  the  synergy,  aesthetics  and   sustainable  features  inherent  in  streetscape  and   access/egress  elements  of  the  project.  
  69. 69. 2ND  STREET  DISTRICT,  AUSTIN,  TX      
  70. 70. SOURCES  §  How  Street  Corridor  Design  Decisions  Impact  Livable  Communities  &   Campus  Settings,  An  AIA  Continuing  Education  Webinar  (3  Versions);   Mark  G.  Goode,  III,  Dunaway  Associates  Inc.,  2011  §  Designing  Walkable  Urban  Thoroughfares:  A  Context  Sensitive  Approach,   RP-­‐036A,  (ITE  2010)      §  A  Policy  on  Geometric  Design  of  Highways  and  Streets  (AASHTO  2004a)  §  Guide  for  the  Planning,  Design  and  Operation  of  Pedestrian  Facilities   (AASHTO  1999)  §  Guide  for  the  Development  of  Bicycle  Facilities  (AASHTO  1999)  §  Highway  Safety  Design  and  Operations  Guide  (AASHTO  1997)  §  Roadside  Design  Guide  (AASHTO  2002)  §  Designing  Walkable  Urban  Thoroughfares:  A  Context  Sensitive  Approach,   Web  Brie>ing;  John  Daisa  &  John  Norquist;  5/24/2010  

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