Creating a Complete Street Active Transportation Network - Mark Goode III
HOW STREET CORRIDOR DESIGN DECISIONS IMPACT SPEED OF VEHICLES AND BIKE LANE SAFETY Appropriate speed is the critical factor that allows the bicyclist, pedestrian and other users of the street corridor to be comfortable sharing the same space with the automobile. Mark G. Goode, III, P.E. Senior Project Manager Kimley-‐Horn and Associates, Inc.
TTAT LEARNING OBJECTIVES 1. Participants will gain signi>icant understanding of the range of complex issues involved in integrating an active transportation network within an established neighborhood. 2. Participants will understand why reducing the speed of vehicles is essential to a safer experience for bicyclists, pedestrians and all users on the street corridor. 3. Participants will understand how to establish a more inclusive and successful stakeholder experience which is essential to the transportation planning process. 4. Participants will become advocates for speed management considerations when an existing street corridor is being re-‐imagined by the community.
THE VOCABULARY WE USE: New Urbanism advocates the restructuring of public policy and development practices to support the following principles: § Neighborhoods should be diverse in use and population; § Communities should be designed for the pedestrian and transit as well as the car; § Cities and towns should be shaped by physically de>ined and universally accessible public spaces and community institutions; § Urban places should be framed by architecture and landscape design that celebrate local history, climate, ecology, and building practice -‐Congress for New Urbanism Impact: Regions and communities
THE VOCABULARY WE USE: Context Sensitive Solutions (CSS) process promotes a collaboration & involves all stakeholders in planning & designing transportation facilities that: § Are compatible with their setting and preserve scenic, aesthetic, historic a nd environments resources; § Respect design objectives of safety, ef>iciency, multimodal mobility, capacity and maintenance; and § Integrate community objectives and values relating to compatibility, livability, sense of place urban design, cost and environmental impacts. Impact: Communities and corridors
THE VOCABULARY WE USE: “Complete Streets” is a collection of guidelines used for designing a roadway within a designated area. § A street is “complete” when pedestrians, bicyclists, motorists and public transportation users are accommodated to comfortably and safely move along and across the full length and width (i.e., the “complete”) street. § Complete Streets also create a sense of place and improve social interaction, while generally improving property adjacent land values. Impact: Speci>ic street design guidelines adopted by cities.
COMPLETE STREETS: SUITABLE OR TARGET SPEED § The crucial factor we are searching for is the suitable speed that the planning and design team should target for a particular section of roadway. § DOTs are looking closely at ways t o reduce the severity and frequency of accidents. The goal is to reduce the speed differential among automobiles, pedestrians, bicyclists, transit and trucks. § The appropriate (ideal) speed sets the stage for the corridor to reach its potential for a good user experience.
COMPLETE STREETS: DEFINE WALKABLE COMMUNITIES § A mix of land uses in close proximity to one another § A mix of density, including relatively compact developments (both residential and commercial) § Building entries that front directly o nto the sidewalk (w/o parking between the buildings and the public ROW) § Building, landscape & thoroughfare design is pedestrian-‐scale § Thoroughfares designed to serve the activities generated by the adjacent context in terms of the mobility, safety, access and place-‐making functions of the public ROW
COMPLETE STREETS: DEFINE WALKABLE COMMUNITIES Accommodate pedestrians, bicycles, transit, freight and motor-‐vehicles within a >ine-‐ grained urban circulation network
COMPLETE STREETS: DEFINE WALKABLE COMMUNITIES Provide a compact and mixed-‐use environment of urban buildings, public spaces and landscapes that support walking directly through the built environment
CONTEXT SENSITIVE SOLUTIONS VS. COMPLETE STREETS § CSS involve stakeholders in considering a transportation facility in its entire social, environmental and aesthetic context § Complete Streets adds a layer of basic accommodations for bicyclists, pedestrians, transit users and disabled travelers as necessities rather than optional items. Complete Streets ordinances provide standards for accommodation.
THE PROCESS FOR COMPLETE STREETS § Create Vision and Goals § De>ine Needs § Develop Alternatives § Evaluate Alternatives § Develop Transportation Plan § Develop Transportation Improvement Plan § Create Development and Implementation Timeline § Develop Operation and Maintenance Plan & Cost
COMMUNITY INVOLVEMENT IS KEY Involve Public and Other Stakeholders § Adjacent Property Owners § Developers & Architects § The Neighborhoods & HOAs § City Departments (e.g., Traf>ic, Planning, Public Works, Storm Water Management, Law Enforcement, EMS, Economic Development) § Bicyclists § Transit and transit users § Others with special needs § Utilities
BASIC AASHTO DESIGN CONTROLS (TRADITIONAL) § Design vehicle (Bus, WB50, WB67) § Vehicle performance § Driver performance § Traf>ic characteristics § Capacity and vehicular level of service (LOS) § Access controls and management § Pedestrians and bicycles § Safety
ADD TO AASHTO: CSS DESIGN CONTROLS § Target Speed (Design encourages posted speed) § Location (Urban Context Zones) § Suburban § General Urban § Urban Center § Urban Core § Design Vehicle and Control Vehicle 31
ADDITIONAL CSS DESIGN CONTROLS § Functional Classi>ication § Principal Arterial § Minor Arterial § Collector § Local § Thoroughfare Types § Boulevard § Avenue § Street
FUNCTIONAL CLASSIFICATION BY THOROUGHFARE TYPE Walkable
TARGET SPEED IS THE ENFORCEABLE SPEED § 85th percentile speed § Based on reasonable driver expectations § Setting signal timing for moderate progressive speeds § Using narrower lanes that cause motorists to naturally slow their speeds § Using physical measures such as curb extensions and medians to narrow the traveled way
TARGET SPEED IS THE ENFORCEABLE SPEED § Using design elements such as on-‐street parking to create side friction § Minimal or no horizontal offset between the inside travel lane and median curbs § Eliminating super elevation § Eliminating shoulders in urban applications, except bicycle lanes § Smaller curb-‐return radii at intersections and elimination of high speed channelized right-‐turns
TARGET SPEED IS THE ENFORCEABLE SPEED § Paving materials with texture detectable by drivers as noti>ication of possible presence of pedestrians § Proper use of speed limit, warning, advisory signs and other appropriate devices to gradually transition speeds when approaching and traveling through a walkable area
CONCLUSION, PART 1 § The evolution of street design guidelines, especially as they promote walkable communities, serves to support sustainable initiatives on many fronts. § The most recent concept, Complete Streets, aims more directly at street functionality. § The result can be greater reductions in traf>ic congestion, which impacts air pollution and fuel consumption; a more livable community through multi-‐modal accommodation and more enjoyable outdoor spaces; and enhanced safety, health and welfare of the travelling public.
CONCLUSION, PART 2 § The crucial factor in creating the Complete Street is the determining the suitable speed that the planning and design team should target for a particular section of roadway. § The goal is to reduce the speed differential among automobiles, pedestrians, bicyclists, transit and trucks. § By bringing the traf>ic /transportation planner to the table early in the project cycle, developers and designers can maximize the synergy, aesthetics and sustainable features inherent in streetscape and access/egress elements of the project.
SOURCES § How Street Corridor Design Decisions Impact Livable Communities & Campus Settings, An AIA Continuing Education Webinar (3 Versions); Mark G. Goode, III, Dunaway Associates Inc., 2011 § Designing Walkable Urban Thoroughfares: A Context Sensitive Approach, RP-‐036A, (ITE 2010) § A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets (AASHTO 2004a) § Guide for the Planning, Design and Operation of Pedestrian Facilities (AASHTO 1999) § Guide for the Development of Bicycle Facilities (AASHTO 1999) § Highway Safety Design and Operations Guide (AASHTO 1997) § Roadside Design Guide (AASHTO 2002) § Designing Walkable Urban Thoroughfares: A Context Sensitive Approach, Web Brie>ing; John Daisa & John Norquist; 5/24/2010