Pas wv18 spssv18-slides

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Basic guide to using PASW v18 SPSS v18
statistical software for social sciences

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Pas wv18 spssv18-slides

  1. 1. An introduction to Statistical Analysis – Using PASW Statistics v18 (SPSS) Your trainer is: Dr.
  2. 2. Introduction By the end of the session participants should be able to: -Understand the need to be trained in research design and statistical analysis -Understand the role of PASW Statistics v18 (SPSS) in the process of analysing raw data -Be aware of basic principles of using PASW
  3. 3. Agenda <ul><li>Understand broadly what quantitative research is </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the need to undertake training in designing research and statistically analysing raw data. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand what PASW can do as PART of the data analysis process </li></ul><ul><li>Hands-on demonstration of the PASW user interface </li></ul><ul><li>Setting up variables </li></ul><ul><li>Inputting raw data </li></ul><ul><li>Analyzing raw data </li></ul><ul><li>Where to find PASW user guides and courses </li></ul>
  4. 4. What is quantitative research? <ul><li>Quantitative research involves collecting numerical raw data. The nature of the data depends on the nature of your research; </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. from responses from questionnaires, information collected from interviews, measurements taken during experiments. </li></ul><ul><li>Raw data in the form of numbers , or non-numeric data that has been re-coded into numbers e.g. Yes=1 No=0 </li></ul><ul><li>Raw data is subjected to statistical summary and analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Graphs, Tables, tests of statistical significance e.g. difference between 2 conditions, difference between observed scores and a population average, tests for correlation. </li></ul>
  5. 5. .....Research design & statistics..... <ul><li>Quantitative research involves designing a research method, collecting appropriate numerical raw data, and analysing that raw data, a highly technical process. </li></ul><ul><li>PASW statistics v18 (SPSS) acts as a glorified calculator! –it won’t design your research for you! It is a labour saving device for complex statistical calculations. </li></ul><ul><li>You need to understand research design and statistical analysis first. </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, you need to undertake training in quantitative research design and statistical analysis to get the most out of PASW statistics v18 (SPSS). </li></ul><ul><li>This session only introduces/demonstrates the software! </li></ul>
  6. 6. What is PASW Statistics v18 (SPSS) <ul><li>PASW v18 (SPSS) provides a wide range of capabilities that will help you to analyse numerical data. </li></ul><ul><li>PASW Statistics (SPSS) is a statistical software package which runs under windows or Apple Macintosh. </li></ul><ul><li>During the 1960s SPSS initially stood for ‘Statistical Package for the Social Sciences’. </li></ul><ul><li>In 2009 it was re-branded as PASW. </li></ul><ul><li>It is designed for managing and analyzing quantitative data. </li></ul><ul><li>Results are interpreted by the researcher to bring out their meaning, typically in terms of choosing between predictive statements, Hypotheses. </li></ul>
  7. 7. A typical quantitative questionnaire <ul><li>The questionnaire includes both multiple choice and free text responses. Multiple choice questions can be coded numerically. Other questions ask for answers in units of measurement (cm, metres or kilometres). </li></ul>
  8. 8. The PASW interface <ul><li>PASW v18 comprises three windows, each of which we will look at in turn… </li></ul><ul><li>Data Editor </li></ul><ul><li>Variable editor </li></ul><ul><li>Output viewer </li></ul>
  9. 9. Starting PASW Statistics v18 <ul><li>From a computer in a cluster on campus, click on the Start button at the bottom left of the screen </li></ul><ul><li>If you have a PASW Statistics 18 icon on the desktop, you can double click on it. Otherwise… </li></ul><ul><li>Select Programs, [ITS Applications], SPSS Inc, PASW Statistics 18, PASW Statistics 18. </li></ul><ul><li>Click on the Start button, select Programs, SPSS Inc, PASW Statistics 18. </li></ul><ul><li>The PASW Statistics 18 dialogue box appears:………… </li></ul>
  10. 10. The PASW dialogue box: <ul><li>Under ‘ What would you like to do?’ You can choose from six options by clicking on one of the radio buttons to select the required option. </li></ul><ul><li>You can run the tutorial, type in data, open an existing data source or open another type of file from different software (e.g. Excel). </li></ul><ul><li>By default the ‘ Open an existing data source’ is selected </li></ul><ul><li>To create a new data file, select Type in data and click on the ‘OK’ button at the bottom of the PASW Statistics 18 dialogue box. </li></ul><ul><li>This automatically opens the PASW Statistics Data Editor window. </li></ul>
  11. 11. PASW Data Editor window. <ul><li>The PASW Data Editor window looks like a spreadsheet. However, it does not work like one ; you cannot enter formulas into the cells. It is for creating and editing PASW Statistics data files. </li></ul><ul><li>At the top of the window are the following items: </li></ul><ul><li>Title bar </li></ul><ul><li>Menu bar </li></ul><ul><li>Toolbar </li></ul><ul><li>At the bottom of the window are: </li></ul><ul><li>The Data View tab </li></ul><ul><li>The Variable View tab </li></ul><ul><li>The Status bar </li></ul>
  12. 12. The Main menu and Toolbar <ul><li>PASW Statistics functions are accessed through 11 drop-down menus at the top of the interface. </li></ul><ul><li>The ‘ Analyze ’ menu covers statistical procedures, e.g. Descriptive Statistics such as frequencies, crosstabs. </li></ul><ul><li>The ‘ Graphs ’ menu covers e.g. bar chart, pie charts, boxplots, histograms, scatterplots and others. </li></ul><ul><li>Inputting Data </li></ul><ul><li>Below the menu are two ‘views’ : </li></ul><ul><li>Variable view - when you enter data for the first time, you must use this view to define the ‘variable names’. </li></ul><ul><li>Data view – for entering, editing and displaying data, after you have defined the variable names. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Defining variables in Variable View <ul><li>Click on the Variable view tab </li></ul><ul><li>Each variable ‘name’ should be short and meaningful. </li></ul><ul><li>click cell below the ‘ Type’ heading, click grey button with three dots acticate ‘ Variable Type dialogue box ’: The default is Numeric. </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Label’ enter a meaningful name for the data. </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Measure ’ click the arrowhead to display a drop-down list, select L.O.M appropriate to your data. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Working in Data View <ul><li>‘ Data view’ is used to enter data after you define variable names in ‘Variable View’. Each row represents a ‘case’. </li></ul><ul><li>A case might be e.g. a single individual’s response to a questionnaire with a variable for each question </li></ul><ul><li>A case might be responses from an individual in a ‘before and after’ experiment, with 2 variables, one for each condition </li></ul><ul><li>To insert cases (rows) place the cursor where you want to insert the case(s), Click on the ‘ Edit’ select ‘Insert Cases,’ (or click the ‘Insert Cases’ button on the toolbar). </li></ul><ul><li>To delete cases (rows) click the row number to the left of the case you want to delete. Click the ‘ Edit menu ’, select ‘ Clear ’ to delete the entire row. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Running an Analysis on raw data… <ul><li>The ‘ Analyze menu ’ features analysis functions. We will focus on some descriptive statistics, e.g. Frequencies and Crosstabs. </li></ul><ul><li>To create a frequency table: Click the ‘ Analyze menu’, select ‘Descriptive Statistics’, then ‘Frequencies’… The Frequencies dialogue box appears: </li></ul><ul><li>Select variable(s) to use to create groups from the ‘ source list’ -double-click on it to move it into the ‘Variable(s) list’ on the right (alternatively, click on the arrow) </li></ul><ul><li>Click the ‘ OK’ button to run the procedure..…….. </li></ul>
  16. 16. See results in PASW Statistics Viewer <ul><li>The results are displayed in the PASW Statistics Viewer window. </li></ul><ul><li>This is the third part of the PASW interface. It is where the results of any analysis is displayed. </li></ul><ul><li>You can save this output, or copy and paste files, graphs and tables into a word processor file </li></ul>
  17. 17. Creating graphs and charts <ul><li>Click on the Graph menu, select Legacy Dialogs. </li></ul><ul><li>The ‘ Pie Charts dialogue box’ appears, select ‘Summaries of Groups and Cases’, click the ‘Define’ button. </li></ul><ul><li>The ‘ Define Pie: Summaries for Groups and Cases dialogue box’ appears: </li></ul><ul><li>Enter the required variable(s) in the text box on the right. </li></ul><ul><li>Add a title to the chart- click the ‘ Titles…’ button at the top right of the ‘ Define Pie: Summaries for Groups of Cases dialogue box’. </li></ul><ul><li>Click the ‘ OK’ button to generate the pie chart in the Output Viewer window. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Selecting a subset of cases for analysis <ul><li>Sometimes, it is useful to ‘drill down’ for a finer analysis…. </li></ul><ul><li>Cases ’ enables analysis of a subset of cases, e.g., “ Most common eye colour of female respondents”. </li></ul><ul><li>Click the ‘ Data menu’ and choose ‘Select Cases’… </li></ul><ul><li>Under ‘ Select’ at the top right of the Select Cases dialogue box, All cases is the default. </li></ul><ul><li>Click the radio button to select ‘ If condition is satisfied’ option. Click the ‘If’ button to display ‘Select Cases: If’ dialogue box: </li></ul><ul><li>Enter the condition in the text box on the right e.g. Gender = 2 If the data set female was coded as 2. Click on ‘ OK’ </li></ul><ul><li>Some row numbers on the data set now have lines through them; these cases have been deselected. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Where can I get help? <ul><ul><li>Face-to-face course bookings http://www.skills.bham.ac.uk/courses/PGpresentation.shtml#PD0701 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Download user guides for PASW www.skills.bham.ac.uk/resources/documentation.shtml </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IT Skills Training (Online self-paced courses) www.weblearn.bham.ac.uk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer Helpdesk: Ext 47171 or log a call www.ehelpdesk.bham.ac.uk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other Training queries, email: [email_address] </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Trainer: Dr. (Ext:) </li></ul><ul><li>Email: @bham.ac.uk </li></ul><ul><li>Training and Skills Development: www.istraining.bham.ac.uk </li></ul>

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