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Basic guide to using PASW v18 SPSS v18

Basic guide to using PASW v18 SPSS v18
statistical software for social sciences

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    Pas wv18 spssv18-slides Pas wv18 spssv18-slides Presentation Transcript

    • An introduction to Statistical Analysis – Using PASW Statistics v18 (SPSS) Your trainer is: Dr.
    • Introduction By the end of the session participants should be able to: -Understand the need to be trained in research design and statistical analysis -Understand the role of PASW Statistics v18 (SPSS) in the process of analysing raw data -Be aware of basic principles of using PASW
    • Agenda
      • Understand broadly what quantitative research is
      • Understand the need to undertake training in designing research and statistically analysing raw data.
      • Understand what PASW can do as PART of the data analysis process
      • Hands-on demonstration of the PASW user interface
      • Setting up variables
      • Inputting raw data
      • Analyzing raw data
      • Where to find PASW user guides and courses
    • What is quantitative research?
      • Quantitative research involves collecting numerical raw data. The nature of the data depends on the nature of your research;
      • E.g. from responses from questionnaires, information collected from interviews, measurements taken during experiments.
      • Raw data in the form of numbers , or non-numeric data that has been re-coded into numbers e.g. Yes=1 No=0
      • Raw data is subjected to statistical summary and analysis
      • Graphs, Tables, tests of statistical significance e.g. difference between 2 conditions, difference between observed scores and a population average, tests for correlation.
    • .....Research design & statistics.....
      • Quantitative research involves designing a research method, collecting appropriate numerical raw data, and analysing that raw data, a highly technical process.
      • PASW statistics v18 (SPSS) acts as a glorified calculator! –it won’t design your research for you! It is a labour saving device for complex statistical calculations.
      • You need to understand research design and statistical analysis first.
      • Therefore, you need to undertake training in quantitative research design and statistical analysis to get the most out of PASW statistics v18 (SPSS).
      • This session only introduces/demonstrates the software!
    • What is PASW Statistics v18 (SPSS)
      • PASW v18 (SPSS) provides a wide range of capabilities that will help you to analyse numerical data.
      • PASW Statistics (SPSS) is a statistical software package which runs under windows or Apple Macintosh.
      • During the 1960s SPSS initially stood for ‘Statistical Package for the Social Sciences’.
      • In 2009 it was re-branded as PASW.
      • It is designed for managing and analyzing quantitative data.
      • Results are interpreted by the researcher to bring out their meaning, typically in terms of choosing between predictive statements, Hypotheses.
    • A typical quantitative questionnaire
      • The questionnaire includes both multiple choice and free text responses. Multiple choice questions can be coded numerically. Other questions ask for answers in units of measurement (cm, metres or kilometres).
    • The PASW interface
      • PASW v18 comprises three windows, each of which we will look at in turn…
      • Data Editor
      • Variable editor
      • Output viewer
    • Starting PASW Statistics v18
      • From a computer in a cluster on campus, click on the Start button at the bottom left of the screen
      • If you have a PASW Statistics 18 icon on the desktop, you can double click on it. Otherwise…
      • Select Programs, [ITS Applications], SPSS Inc, PASW Statistics 18, PASW Statistics 18.
      • Click on the Start button, select Programs, SPSS Inc, PASW Statistics 18.
      • The PASW Statistics 18 dialogue box appears:…………
    • The PASW dialogue box:
      • Under ‘ What would you like to do?’ You can choose from six options by clicking on one of the radio buttons to select the required option.
      • You can run the tutorial, type in data, open an existing data source or open another type of file from different software (e.g. Excel).
      • By default the ‘ Open an existing data source’ is selected
      • To create a new data file, select Type in data and click on the ‘OK’ button at the bottom of the PASW Statistics 18 dialogue box.
      • This automatically opens the PASW Statistics Data Editor window.
    • PASW Data Editor window.
      • The PASW Data Editor window looks like a spreadsheet. However, it does not work like one ; you cannot enter formulas into the cells. It is for creating and editing PASW Statistics data files.
      • At the top of the window are the following items:
      • Title bar
      • Menu bar
      • Toolbar
      • At the bottom of the window are:
      • The Data View tab
      • The Variable View tab
      • The Status bar
    • The Main menu and Toolbar
      • PASW Statistics functions are accessed through 11 drop-down menus at the top of the interface.
      • The ‘ Analyze ’ menu covers statistical procedures, e.g. Descriptive Statistics such as frequencies, crosstabs.
      • The ‘ Graphs ’ menu covers e.g. bar chart, pie charts, boxplots, histograms, scatterplots and others.
      • Inputting Data
      • Below the menu are two ‘views’ :
      • Variable view - when you enter data for the first time, you must use this view to define the ‘variable names’.
      • Data view – for entering, editing and displaying data, after you have defined the variable names.
    • Defining variables in Variable View
      • Click on the Variable view tab
      • Each variable ‘name’ should be short and meaningful.
      • click cell below the ‘ Type’ heading, click grey button with three dots acticate ‘ Variable Type dialogue box ’: The default is Numeric.
      • ‘ Label’ enter a meaningful name for the data.
      • ‘ Measure ’ click the arrowhead to display a drop-down list, select L.O.M appropriate to your data.
    • Working in Data View
      • ‘ Data view’ is used to enter data after you define variable names in ‘Variable View’. Each row represents a ‘case’.
      • A case might be e.g. a single individual’s response to a questionnaire with a variable for each question
      • A case might be responses from an individual in a ‘before and after’ experiment, with 2 variables, one for each condition
      • To insert cases (rows) place the cursor where you want to insert the case(s), Click on the ‘ Edit’ select ‘Insert Cases,’ (or click the ‘Insert Cases’ button on the toolbar).
      • To delete cases (rows) click the row number to the left of the case you want to delete. Click the ‘ Edit menu ’, select ‘ Clear ’ to delete the entire row.
    • Running an Analysis on raw data…
      • The ‘ Analyze menu ’ features analysis functions. We will focus on some descriptive statistics, e.g. Frequencies and Crosstabs.
      • To create a frequency table: Click the ‘ Analyze menu’, select ‘Descriptive Statistics’, then ‘Frequencies’… The Frequencies dialogue box appears:
      • Select variable(s) to use to create groups from the ‘ source list’ -double-click on it to move it into the ‘Variable(s) list’ on the right (alternatively, click on the arrow)
      • Click the ‘ OK’ button to run the procedure..……..
    • See results in PASW Statistics Viewer
      • The results are displayed in the PASW Statistics Viewer window.
      • This is the third part of the PASW interface. It is where the results of any analysis is displayed.
      • You can save this output, or copy and paste files, graphs and tables into a word processor file
    • Creating graphs and charts
      • Click on the Graph menu, select Legacy Dialogs.
      • The ‘ Pie Charts dialogue box’ appears, select ‘Summaries of Groups and Cases’, click the ‘Define’ button.
      • The ‘ Define Pie: Summaries for Groups and Cases dialogue box’ appears:
      • Enter the required variable(s) in the text box on the right.
      • Add a title to the chart- click the ‘ Titles…’ button at the top right of the ‘ Define Pie: Summaries for Groups of Cases dialogue box’.
      • Click the ‘ OK’ button to generate the pie chart in the Output Viewer window.
    • Selecting a subset of cases for analysis
      • Sometimes, it is useful to ‘drill down’ for a finer analysis….
      • Cases ’ enables analysis of a subset of cases, e.g., “ Most common eye colour of female respondents”.
      • Click the ‘ Data menu’ and choose ‘Select Cases’…
      • Under ‘ Select’ at the top right of the Select Cases dialogue box, All cases is the default.
      • Click the radio button to select ‘ If condition is satisfied’ option. Click the ‘If’ button to display ‘Select Cases: If’ dialogue box:
      • Enter the condition in the text box on the right e.g. Gender = 2 If the data set female was coded as 2. Click on ‘ OK’
      • Some row numbers on the data set now have lines through them; these cases have been deselected.
    • Where can I get help?
        • Face-to-face course bookings http://www.skills.bham.ac.uk/courses/PGpresentation.shtml#PD0701
        • Download user guides for PASW www.skills.bham.ac.uk/resources/documentation.shtml
        • IT Skills Training (Online self-paced courses) www.weblearn.bham.ac.uk
        • Computer Helpdesk: Ext 47171 or log a call www.ehelpdesk.bham.ac.uk
        • Other Training queries, email: [email_address]
      • Trainer: Dr. (Ext:)
      • Email: @bham.ac.uk
      • Training and Skills Development: www.istraining.bham.ac.uk