Motivation is the processes that account for an individual’s intensity, direction,
and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal. The word “Motivation” has
been derived from a Latin word “movere” meaning “to move”. According to
Fred Luthans “ motivation is a process that starts with physiological and
psychological deficiency or need that activates a behavior or a drive that is
aimed at a goal or incentive.”
Needs : are created where there is physiological or psychological imbalance.
Drives : or motives are set up to alleviate needs
Incentives : are anything that will alleviate a need & reduce the drive.
Motivation is defined as the internal and external factors that stimulate desire
and energy in people. It involves the biological, emotional, social and cognitive
forces that activate behaviour. Motivation results from the interactions among
conscious and unconscious factors. These factors are (a) intensity of desire or
need, (b) incentive or reward and (c) expectations of an individual
Features of motivation:
1. Motivation is an art
2. Motivation is goal oriented
3. Motivation is an act of managers
4. Motivation is a continuous process : human wants keep changing &
5. Motivation can be positive or negative: positive motivation means use of
incentives - financial or non-financial. Eg. of positive motivation:
confirmation, pay rise, praise etc. Negative motivation means emphasizing
penalties. It is based on force of fear. Eg. demotion, termination.
6. Motivation is complex in nature
7. Motivation is system-oriented
8. A psychological concept: deals with the human mind.
9. Motivation may be financial or non-financial: Financial includes increasing
wages, allowance, bonus, perquisites etc.
10. Motivation & job satisfaction are different. Motivation is goal-oriented
behaviour. Job satisfaction is the outcome of job performance
Classification of motivation:
Extrinsic motivation It comes from outside the person &is available only after
completion of the job. Eg. increase in wages, rest periods, holidays etc
Intrinsic motivation A person’s internal desire to do something & is available
at the time of performance of a job. Eg. praise, recognition, delegation of
authority & responsibility
Techniques of motivation:
(1) Need based approach
The approach should be need based so that it could satisfy five categories of
need by knowing the level of motivation and patterns of motivation among
The five categories of needs are
(i) physiological need,
(ii) desire for security,
(iii) desire for recognition,
(iv) desire for new experiences and
(v) organic needs.
Classification of Needs:
1. Physiological need: These are necessary to sustain life. They include
food, water, clothing, shelter. These needs have the highest potency for
motivation. A person who lacks these will be motivated by these.
2. The desire for security: Economic, social, psychological and spiritual
security. Man wants protection for his physical being food, clothing and
shelter. It may also mean an adequate reserve of wealth to secure more
material things in the future. The wish for security may also be satisfied
by spiritual beliefs. In fact, in history whole cultures have put emphasis
on security. The Great Wall of China, the Maginet Line, the Tower of
Babel, the innumerable forts and fortresses in several countries are
3. The desire for affection or response: Companionship gregariousness,
and social mindedness, the need for a feeling of belonging.
4. The desire for recognition: status, prestige, achievement and being
looked upto. Each individual feels the need to be considered important by
5. The desire for new experience: adventure, new interests, new ideas,
new friends and new ways of doing things. Some people primarily want
the thrill of something new, something different.
6. Organic needs: Organic needs like sex, hunger and thirstiness are also
very important for human beings
(2) Training to set a realistic level of aspirations
Any attempt to revise the expectations of farmer's should be done with full
understanding of their socio-economic status
Eg Creating an aspiration in a farmer who doesn’t have any land of his own to
possess one or two acres.
The involvement of farmers in the programmes of agricultural change acts as
booster of motivation not only for the immediate participants but also for others.
(4) Use of audio visuals
The proper selection, combination and use of various audio visuals for the
appropriate purpose will act as lubricants of motivation.
Theories of Motivation
1. CONTENT THEORIES OF MOTIVATION
MASLOW’s Hierarchy of Needs.
ALDERFER’s ERG Theory
HERZBERG’s Motivator- Hygiene Theory
MClelland’s Learned Needs Theory
2. PROCESS THEORIES OF MOTIVATION
GOAL SETTING Theory
CONTENT THEORIES OF MOTIVATION: Views motivation a result if
INTERNAL DRIVES that force an individual to take ACTION.
Maslow's theory of need hierarchy: Abraham Maslow, an American
psychologist, viewed the motivation of human beings as arising from levels of
hierarchy of needs.
According to him, each one of us is a ‘wanting’ being.
Individuals needs live within a hierarchy of physiological
Physiological needs are necessity factors for SURVIVAL.
Lower level needs like security and physiological needs
required to be met before upper level needs.
HERZBERG’s Motivator- Hygiene Theory
According to Herzberg, motivational factors are responsible for job satisfaction;
and Hygiene or Maintenance factors are responsible for job dissatisfaction.
• Quality of supervision
• Rate of pay
• Company policies
• Working conditions
• Relations with others
• Job security
• Career Advancement
• Personal growth
ALDERFER’s ERG Theory
ERG theory has three categories: existence needs, relatedness needs, and
SAFETY AND SECURITY NEEDS
MClelland’s Learned Needs Theory
PROCESS THEORIES OF MOTIVATION
EXPECTANCY Theory ( By Vroom)
Individuals choose work behaviour that they believe would lead to an
OUTCOME which they VALUE.
Expectancy: Belief that effort leads to a specific level of performance
Instrumentality: A performance outcome perception.
Valence: The Value of a reward or outcome
Equity theory refers to an individual's subjective judgments about the
fairness of the reward she or he got, relative to the inputs in comparison with
the rewards of others.
GOAL SETTING Theory
Specific Difficult Goals Lead to Higher
Performance for Simple Rather Than
Feedback Enhances The Effect of Specific,
Participative Goals, Assigned Goals, and Self-
Set Goals Are Equally Effective.
Goal Commitment and Monetary Incentives
Affect Goal-Setting Outcomes.
– Provide challenging projects
– Give them autonomy in follow interests and structure work.
– Reward with educational opportunities.
– Recognize their contributions
Motivating Contingent Workers
• Greatest motivating factor is the opportunity to gain permanent
• Motivation is also increased if the employee sees that the job he or she is
doing for the firm can develop salable skills.
Motivating Public Sector Employees
• Special challenge
– Much work is service-oriented, harder to measure productivity
– Goal setting helps
• Goal difficulty and goal specificity help improve motivation
Motivating Low-Skilled Service Workers
– Employees want more respect
– Make jobs more appealing
– Raise pay levels
– Find unusual ways to motivate:
• Flexible work schedules
• Broader responsibility for inventory, scheduling, and hiring
• Creation of a “family” atmosphere among employees
Behaviour skills are observable and measurable behaviours, knowledge,
skills, abilities, and other characteristics that contribute to individual
success in the organization (e.g., teamwork and cooperation,
communication). Behavioural skills can apply to all (or most) jobs in an
organization or be specific to a job family, position, or career level. These
describe what is required to be successful in an organization outside of a
specific job. As such, behavioural skills are specific to a person rather
than to a job. Behavioural skills describe how we do something, such as
manage our jobs, our homes or our lives generally, and the behaviours we
use, for example decision making, information gathering and wider
thinking. This helps people understand what is expected of them and
gives them greater clarity about their team, and individual roles within it.
Understanding the behaviour that other areas of the organization see as
essential to effective performance also helps us to improve how we work
Types of Behavioural skills can be classified as follows:
1. Individual skills – your personal attributes: Flexibility
(personality),decisiveness, tenacity, independence, risk taking, personal integrity.
2.Managerial skills – Taking charge of other people: Leadership,
Empowerment, Strategic planning, corporate sensitivity, Project
Management and Management control.
3.Analytical skills – The elements of the decision making, Innovation, Analytical
skills ,numerical problem solving, practical learning, detail consciousness.
4.Interpersonal skills – Dealing with other people, communication, impact
persuasiveness, personnel awareness, teamwork and openness.
5.Motivational skills – The things that drive you. Resilience (organizational),
energy, motivation, achievement orientation, initiative, Quality Focus.
Key Behavioural Skills
The 12 essential behavioural skills are
Communication and Consultation: Interacting with people about ideas,
thoughts, facts, emotions, challenges, successes, etc. alongside hard facts
such as project progress. Having the ability to convey complex ideas
easily; clearly articulate what must be accomplished; keep the team
moving toward a common goal; and to foster an environment that allows
team members to communicate openly and honestly.
Conflict and Crisis Management: Listening and responding to the
needs and views of all team members to anticipate any potential areas of
conflict. The ability to diff use situations where conflict has risen
maintains a healthy project environment.
Flexibility and Creativity: Thinking in original and imaginative ways to
widen the scope of problem solving when issues arise. Encourage project
teams to find the best solution and outcomes without slavishly following
generic delivery methods or solutions. Adapting a project’s different
components, templates, tools, and techniques.
Leadership: Understanding the vision and direction of the project and
aligning the team to work towards it. Skills include delegating, coaching,
motivating and leading by example.
Learning and Development: Continual improvement of both your own
skills and those of your team. Assessment of skills and capabilities,
encouraging participation in learning activities and evaluating how the
learning is applied in the project environment.
Negotiation: Analysis of information, decision making, establishing the
desired outcome and developing a strategy for the negotiation alongside
understanding the optimal outcome from several options. Gaining
agreement through consensus of positions from both parties.
Organisational Effectiveness: Understanding and applying people
management processes and policies. Understanding the corporate culture,
the organisational dynamics, and the individuals that work within it lead
to getting the best from your team.
Problem Solving and Decision-Making: Resolving issues and solving
problems that are a normal part of every project.
Professionalism and ethics: Demonstrated through knowledge, skills
and behaviour alongside appropriate conduct and moral principles for
both the organisation’s and project’s environments.
Trustworthiness: Do what you say you’re going to do. Build trust with
stakeholders involved and convey they can be trusted day-today to do
what is right at the right time to keep the project successful and the
Self-control: Self-control and self-management to ensure day to day
stresses are addressed and a work / life balance maintained.
Teamwork: Creating a team atmosphere where the team believes that ‘we
are all in this together’ is a critical component to project success.
Importance of Motivation and Behavioural skills in Extension
Motivation is necessary for mobilising the village people. Most of the
development programmes could not bring the desired results because there was
no motivation. Both the extension workers and rural people are to be motivated
to achieve the results.
Motivation brings need based approach. It is possible for the extension workers
to motivate the people to satisfy the five categories of needs. If there is a desire
for security, the farmers can be motivated to adopt new practices by convincing
them that the new practice will increase their income and enhance their security.
If they have a desire for new experience, the extension teaching is oriented
towards impairing new skills. Motivation helps for the better involvement of
farmers in development programmes. The role of audio-visuals in motivating
farmers needs no emphasis.
Behavioural skills are the skills that give the ability to work with people, and
the ability to motivate people involved in the task. Behavioural skills are also
known as people. Behavioural or people skills, it’s the ability to build
cooperation between the team, the public and the organisation. These skills
involve communication, team building, leadership, influencing, understanding
perceptions and attitudes, which help improve the morale of individuals and