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Leadership
 

Leadership

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    Leadership Leadership Presentation Transcript

    • o r g a n i z a t i o n a l b e h a v i o r e l e v e n t h e d i t i o n
    • Chapter 11 Basic Approaches to Leadership
    • What Is Leadership? © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 11– Leadership The ability to influence a group toward the achievement of goals. Management Use of authority inherent in designated formal rank to obtain compliance from organizational members.
    • Trait Theories © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 11–
      • Leadership Traits :
      • Ambition and energy
      • The desire to lead
      • Honest and integrity
      • Self-confidence
      • Intelligence
      • High self-monitoring
      • Job-relevant knowledge
      Traits Theories of Leadership Theories that consider personality, social, physical, or intellectual traits to differentiate leaders from nonleaders.
    • Trait Theories © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 11–
      • Limitations :
      • No universal traits found that predict leadership in all situations.
      • Traits predict behavior better in “weak” than “strong” situations.
      • Unclear evidence of the cause and effect of relationship of leadership and traits.
      • Better predictor of the appearance of leadership than distinguishing effective and ineffective leaders.
    • Behavioral Theories © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 11–
      • Trait theory: Leaders are born, not made.
      • Behavioral theory: Leadership traits can be taught.
      Behavioral Theories of Leadership Theories proposing that specific behaviors differentiate leaders from nonleaders.
    • Ohio State Studies © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 11– Initiating Structure The extent to which a leader is likely to define and structure his or her role and those of sub-ordinates in the search for goal attainment. Consideration The extent to which a leader is likely to have job relationships characterized by mutual trust, respect for subordinate’s ideas, and regard for their feelings.
    • University of Michigan Studies © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 11– Employee-Oriented Leader Emphasizing interpersonal relations; taking a personal interest in the needs of employees and accepting individual differences among members. Production-Oriented Leader One who emphasizes technical or task aspects of the job.
    • The Managerial Grid (Blake and Mouton) © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 11– E X H I B I T 11 –1
    • Scandinavian Studies © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 11– Development-Oriented Leader One who values experimentation, seeking new ideas, and generating and implementing change. Researchers in Finland and Sweden question whether there are only two dimensions (production-orientation and employee-orientation) that capture the essence of leadership behavior. Their premise is that in a changing world, effective leaders would exhibit development-oriented behavior.
    • Contingency Theories © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 11– Fiedler’s Contingency Model The theory that effective groups depend on a proper match between a leader’s style of interacting with subordinates and the degree to which the situation gives control and influence to the leader. Least Preferred Co-Worker (LPC) Questionnaire An instrument that purports to measure whether a person is task- or relationship-oriented.
    • Fiedler’s Model: Defining the Situation © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 11– Leader-Member Relations The degree of confidence, trust, and respect subordinates have in their leader. Position Power Influence derived from one’s formal structural position in the organization; includes power to hire, fire, discipline, promote, and give salary increases. Task Structure The degree to which the job assignments are procedurized.
    • Findings from Fiedler Model © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 11– E X H I B I T 11 –2
    • Cognitive Resource Theory © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 11–
      • Research Support :
      • Less intelligent individuals perform better in leadership roles under high stress than do more intelligent individuals.
      • Less experienced people perform better in leadership roles under low stress than do more experienced people.
      Cognitive Resource Theory A theory of leadership that states that stress can unfavorably affect a situation and that intelligence and experience can lessen the influence of stress on the leader.
    • Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Theory © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 11– Situational Leadership Theory (SLT) A contingency theory that focuses on followers’ readiness. Leader: decreasing need for support and supervision Follower readiness: ability and willingness Unable and Unwilling Unable but Willing Able and Willing Directive High Task and Relationship Orientations Supportive Participative Able and Unwilling Monitoring
    • Path-Goal Theory © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 11– Path-Goal Theory The theory that it is the leader’s job to assist followers in attaining their goals and to provide them the necessary direction and/or support to ensure that their goals are compatible with the overall objectives of the group or organization.
    • The Path-Goal Theory © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 11– E X H I B I T 11 –4
    • Beyond Charismatic Leadership
      • Level 5 Leaders
        • Possess a fifth dimension—a paradoxical blend of personal humility and professional will—in addition to the four basic leadership qualities of individual capability, team skills, managerial competence, and the ability to stimulate others to high performance.
        • Channel their ego needs away from themselves and into the goal of building a great company.
      © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 12–
    • Transactional and Transformational Leadership © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 12–
      • Contingent Reward
      • Management by Exception (active)
      • Management by Exception (passive)
      • Laissez-Faire
      • Charisma
      • Inspiration
      • Intellectual Stimulation
      • Individual Consideration
      Transactional Leaders Leaders who guide or motivate their followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying role and task requirements. Transformational Leaders Leaders who provide individualized consideration and intellectual stimulation, and who possess charisma.
    • Characteristics of Transactional Leaders © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 12– E X H I B I T 12 –4 Contingent Reward: Contracts exchange of rewards for effort, promises rewards for good performance, recognizes accomplishments. Management by Exception (active): Watches and searches for deviations from rules and standards, takes corrective action. Management by Exception (passive): Intervenes only if standards are not met. Laissez-Faire: Abdicates responsibilities, avoids making decisions. Source: B. M. Bass, “From Transactional to Transformational Leadership: Learning to Share the Vision,” Organizational Dynamics , Winter 1990, p. 22. Reprinted by permission of the publisher. American Management Association, New York. All rights reserved.
    • Characteristics of Transformational Leaders © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 12– E X H I B I T 12 –4 (cont’d) Charisma: Provides vision and sense of mission, instills pride, gains respect and trust. Inspiration: Communicates high expectations, uses symbols to focus efforts, expresses important purposes in simple ways. Intellectual Stimulation: Promotes intelligence, rationality, and careful problem solving. Individualized Consideration: Gives personal attention, treats each employee individually, coaches, advises.