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Dental Materials



Una breve descripción de los cementos odontológicos más usados

Una breve descripción de los cementos odontológicos más usados



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Dental Materials Dental Materials Presentation Transcript

  • Chemistry in Dental Materials
    • Definition of Chemistry:
    • A science that deals with the composition of matter and the changes in composition which the matter may undergo.
    • Base - main or supporting ingredient in material.
    • Catalyst - substance that
    • initiates a chemical reaction.
    Chemistry in Dental Materials
    • Composition of Matter
      • Mixture-two or more not chemically combined
      • Solution - a homogenous mixture
      • Solubility-how well something dissolves.
    Chemistry in Dental Materials
  • Bases and Dentin Bonding Agents.
      • Function and purpose
        • Placed in tooth after cavity prep and just before placement of restorative material.
        • Function to reduce microscopic gap between surface of dentin and restorative material.
  • Function and Purpose Cont’d
    • Reducing the microscopic gap can
      • Reduce “micro leakage.”
      • Reduce sensitivity of restoration.
      • Help living tissue inside the tooth recover from stress of preparation and restoration.
    • Reducing the microscopic gap can
      • Serve to bond or tie restoration to tooth chemically and micro-mechanically.
      • Assists retention of restoration.
    Function and Purpose Cont’d
  • Bases
    • Glass Ionomer (GI)
      • Mix liquid with powder IAW
      • manufacturers instructions.
      • Mix material and hand applicator to dentist.
      • Hold material on small mixing pad
      • near patient’s mouth.
      • Dentist will place material in cavity preparation with instrument.
      • You or dentist will light cure base for 30-60 seconds.
    Glass Ionomer cont’d
      • GI bonds somewhat to tooth structure, has good strength, resists decay.
      • Usually best choice of base material, if no pulp exposure.
      • Cavity prep needs to be relatively dry before place of GI or Calcium hydroxide.
    Glass Ionomer cont’d
  • Calcium Hydroxide (Dycal)
    • Light cured and self-curing.
    • Uses and characteristics.
      • Pulp protector. Used when pulp exposure expected.
      • Used under any restorative material.
    • Dentist will apply dycal only to relatively dry cavity preparation.
      • Once dycal mixed, you may need to dry cavity preparation before dentist place the dycal.
    Calcium Hydroxide (Dycal)
    • Preparation
      • Dispense equal amounts of base and catalyst.
      • Mix with dycal instrument until uniform in color.
      • Mixing time is 10 seconds.
    Calcium Hydroxide (Dycal)
  • Calcium Hydroxide (Dycal) Base Catalyst
  • Dentin Bonding Agents (DBA)
    • DBA dentist uses may require multiple steps and complex technique using several substances, acid etching steps, drying steps, and light curing.
    • You must become familiar with material to be used prior to use on patient.
  • Temporary Sedative Filling Material and Cements
    • Intermediate Restorative Material (IRM)
      • A reinforced eugenol composition.
  • IRM
    • Uses and Characteristics
      • Temporary restoration up to 1 year
      • Base or a temporary cement
      • Not used under composite restorations
  • IRM Preparation
    • Measurement
      • Dispense 1:1 ratio powder to liquid onto a parchment pad
      • Fluff powder prior to measuring
      • Dispense liquid by holding dropper vertically
  • IRM NOTE: 1 drop liquid, regular eye dropper. 2 drops liquid, long eye dropper. 1/2 1/4 1/4 Powder (1 scoop) Liquid
  • IRM Preparation
    • Mixing
      • Combine half the powder with liquid.
      • Combine remaining powder in two or three increments
      • Use all the powder.
      • Mix will have consistency of play dough.
      • Mixing time will not exceed 1 min.
  • Zinc Phosphate Cement
    • (Zinc oxide and phosphoric acid)
    • Uses and characteristics
      • Cementing agent for crowns and FPDs.
      • Temporary restorations.
      • Insulating base.
      • Produces heat when mixed.
  • Zinc Phosphate Cement
  • Zinc Phosphate Cement Preparation
    • Measurement.
      • Dispense 7 drops of liquid on a cool, clean, dry glass slab.
      • Fill powder cap to shoulder and dispense on glass slab.
      • Divide powder into segments.
  • Zinc Phosphate Cement 1/4 1/4 1/4 1/8 1/16 Liquid (7 drops) Powder (1 cap) 1/16
  • Zinc Phosphate Cement Preparation
    • Mixing
      • Start with smallest increment and graduate to largest
      • Mix each segment approximately 15 seconds over a large area to dissipate heat
      • Mix time is 1 1/2 - 2 minutes
  • Zinc Phosphate Cement Preparation
    • Precautions - Mix over a LARGE area to dissipate the generated heat as this heat will accelerate setting time.
  • Glass Ionomer Cement
    • Uses and Characteristics.
      • Cementing crowns and FPDs.
      • Temporary filling.
      • Base material.
      • Releases fluoride ions which helps GI resist recurrent decay.
    • Preparation IAW manufacturers instructions.
  • Impression Materials
    • Alginate impression material.
      • Uses and Characteristics.
        • Preliminary impressions for study casts (seldom used for final impressions).
      • Irreversible hydrocolloid.
    • CAUTION - Do NOT inhale powder.
    • Types.
      • Regular set - working time, 2 minutes; set time, 4 1/2 minutes.
      • Fast set - working time 1 minute; set time, 1 to 2 minutes.
    • Setting time is reduced by warmer water.
    Alginate Impression Materials
    • Preparation.
      • Measure water and place in rubber mixing bowl.
      • Tumble alginate container.
      • Measure powder and add to water.
      • Stir in middle of bowl; then, spatulate against sides of bowl.
    Alginate Impression Materials
      • Mix must have a smooth, creamy texture.
      • Complete mix within 60 seconds.
      • Place mix into impression tray.
    Alginate Impression Materials
  • Vinyl-polysiloxane Impression Material
    • (Reprosil)
    • Uses and Characteristics
      • Extremely accurate impression material.
      • Crown and bridge impressions.
      • Precise duplication of models (diagnostic casts) in the dental laboratory.
  • Vinyl-polysiloxane Impression Material
    • Four Types
      • Light Body (low viscosity) - used in syringe or tray.
      • Regular Body (medium viscosity) - used in syringe or tray.
      • Heavy Body (high viscosity) - used in tray.
      • Putty-Used in tray.
  • Preparation
    • Dispense equal lengths (4 “) of materials from each tube on to a parchment pad.
    • Dispense in middle of pad close together, but not touching.
    • Use two tongue blades to incorporate the two materials.
  • Vinyl-polysiloxane 4”
    • Use first tongue blade to begin the mix, at 30 seconds, turn the mix with the second tongue blade and complete the mix.
    • Mix must be complete within 60 seconds.
    • Mix must be uniform in color, no streaks.
  • Infection Control
    • Sterilize instruments used in treatment (material syringe, impression trays, etc.).
    • Disinfect impression material prior to sending to lab.
      • Rinse thoroughly.
      • Spray with disinfectant solution.
      • Place in sealed plastic bag and give to the lab.
    Infection Control
  • Restorative Resin Materials
    • Acid Etch (35 - 50% solution of Phosphoric Acid).
      • Purpose.
        • Increases bond between enamel & resin.
        • Provides added source of retention and marginal seal.
  • Restorative Resin Materials
  • Acid Etch
    • Procedure
      • Dry cavity prep thoroughly.
      • Apply etch to enamel wall and leave on IAW manufacturer’s instructions.
      • Rinse and dry thoroughly.
  • Acid Etch
    • Procedure
      • Treated tooth will appear chalky.
      • If prep becomes contaminated with saliva, repeat procedure.
  • Acid Etch
    • Precautions.
      • Avoid contact with soft tissues, rinse thoroughly if contaminated.
      • Protect pulp.
  • Bonding Agent
    • Purpose - chemically bonds composite filling material to tooth structure.
    • Light cured - no mixing required.
  • Bonding Agent
    • Procedure
      • Apply bond to etched tooth surface (use of a dentin primer to bond is optional).
      • Light cure IAW manufacturer’s instructions (20 - 30 seconds).
  • Bonding Agent
      • Precaution
      • Proper use of the protective shield when curing bonding agent eliminates potential eye hazards to provider and patient.
  • Light Cured Composite Resins
    • Uses and Characteristics.
      • Restorative material for anterior teeth.
      • Matches tooth color.
    • Procedure.
      • Apply Base.
      • Etch tooth.
      • Apply bonding agent, light cure.
      • Place resin filling material and light-cure (20-40 sec).
      • Finish/polish restoration.
    Light Cured Composite Resins C
  • Light Cured Composite Resins
    • Precautions
      • Ensure proper use of the protective shield.
      • Dispense materials prior to use.
  • Amalgam
    • An alloy containing a mixture of silver, tin, copper, mercury, and zinc.
    • Supplied in pre-capsulated form; mixing of amalgam is also called amalgamation or trituation.
    • Physical Characteristics of Mercury
      • Liquid at room temperature.
      • Vaporizes with increased heat.
      • Provides plasticity to amalgam restorations.
      • Highly Poisonous - symptoms of poisoning are nausea, headache, swollen glands.
  • Amalgam
    • Mercury absorption - absorbed directly through skin contact or from inhalation of mercury vapors.
    • Personal Hygiene.
      • Avoid touching hair or face after handling.
      • Wash hands thoroughly.
    • Personal Hygiene.
      • NEVER wear jewelry (mercury combines readily with silver and gold).
      • Store scrap in unbreakable, tightly-sealed container.
      • Notify NCOIC in the event of mercury spill.
  • Amalgam
    • Advantages.
      • Best restorative material for posterior teeth, restore all surfaces.
      • “User Friendly” can be readily mixed, placed, and carved in a short time.
      • High compression strength upon setting - withstands biting forces.
      • Resists recurrent decay better than composite resin. Can last a very long time.
  • Amalgam
    • Disadvantages.
      • Non esthetic - silver color does not match natural tooth color.
      • Contains mercury.
  • Amalgam
    • Preparation
      • Triturate.
        • Place capsule in amalgamator.
        • Set timer IAW manufacturer’s Inst.
        • Use over rimmed tray.
        • Dispose of scrap amalgam properly.
  • Material Safety
    • Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) contain information on the chemical and physical hazards in the workplace.
    • MSDs should be centrally located within the clinic, this allows easy access for all personnel.
  • Material Safety
    • Misuse of chemicals can cause injury to you or a patient.
    • Storage of hazardous/flammable materials.
      • Utilized in patient treatment.
        • DTR - 1-2 week supply (clinic policy).
        • Bulk - centrally located supply area.
      • Bulk flammable material must be stored in a centrally located flame proof cabinet.
    Material Safety
  • Precious Metals Recovery Program
    • Designed to save money and conserve natural resources. Comply with local SOPs.
    • Silver bearing scraps.
      • Scrap amalgam.
      • Scrap dental x-ray film.
      • Used X-ray fixer solution.
      • Chemistry relating to dental materials.
      • Bases and dentin bonding agents.
      • Temporary sedative materials and cements.
      • Glass Ionomer products.
    • Identied the basic facts and principles of:
      • Impression materials.
      • Restorative resin materials.
      • Amalgam.
      • Material safety relating to dental materials and mercury.
      • Precious metals recovery program.
    • Identied the basic facts and principles of: