Jay Crossler Senior Software Engineer Serious Games & Game Design Lecture 2 : Course Book Review -  Theory of Fun, Player ...
The Theory of Fun  Why is  work  usually not fun?* *at least, for most people
 
Consider tic-tac-toe <ul><li>Kids will play it continuously… and always lose </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Victory seems just bare...
The Problem <ul><li>Games are very multidimensional </li></ul><ul><li>Game Development has mostly been an art, not a scien...
Why are games not fun? <ul><li>People quit when it’s too hard to win </li></ul>
Why are games not fun? <ul><li>People quit when it’s too  easy  to win </li></ul>
How do we think? <ul><li>Humans take in vast amounts of information and  chunk  it into smaller pieces </li></ul><ul><ul><...
 
MIPS/Megabytes program growth
“ The best programmer is a lazy programmer” <ul><li>To fight this huge onslaught of data, we chunk and create “icons” </li...
Chunking isn’t always good
Discovering patterns is fun <ul><li>People dislike chaos, they prefer ordered,  chunk able patterns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>...
Grokking <ul><li>“ Grok” – from R. A. Heinlien’s  Stranger in a Strange Land </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When you understand som...
 
Practice is building a library of chunked skills and decisions
What is fun?
What are games? <ul><li>Games are real </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They’re just abstracted pictures of reality </li></ul></ul><u...
Play vs. Game vs. Sport <ul><li>Iconified representations of human experience that we can practice with and learn patterns...
Is fun just learning? <ul><li>Play, Games, Sports </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All about recognizing goals and patterns, just usu...
How can a game be fun? <ul><li>Games are exercise for our brains </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As we learn the patterns, more nove...
 
Is this fun?
 
The theory of fun <ul><li>Fun is about our brain feeling good </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brains release endorphins into our sys...
What is the opposite?
What is boredom, then? <ul><li>When a game stops teaching us, we feel bored </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Boredom is the brain loo...
 
The Theory of Fun in Games <ul><li>Games must navigate between boredom and overload </li></ul><ul><li>Watch out for: </li>...
For more… buy the course book  “ Theory of Fun ”, by Raph Koster
Are grokers experts? <ul><li>1. Experts notice features and meaningful patterns of information that are not noticed by nov...
Player Archetypes  Why do people play games so differently? also An introduction to Massively Multiplayer Games
How people choose games
Bartle Personality Types <ul><li>♦  Achiever </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Players give themselves game-related goals, then vigoro...
Bartle Personality Types <ul><li>♦  Achievers Say: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;I'm busy.&quot; &quot;Sure, I'll help you. ...
Massively Multiplayer Online Games (MMOs) <ul><li>Are MMOs:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Games? Like chess, tennis, D&D?  Yes - ...
People play what is familiar
MMO Demographics Source:  The Daedelus project   <ul><li>In MMOs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Average age is 26 </li></ul></ul><...
Time spent “in game” <ul><li>Given a hypothetical pool of 1000 players: </li></ul><ul><li>840 would be male  </li></ul><ul...
Occupational Status
Profession Types, Life Lessons
Activity Matrix <ul><li>People’s interests can be broken down into 12 main categories </li></ul>
Activity Matrix <ul><li>These types-of interests correspond highly to categories of game-player </li></ul>
What do players want? <ul><li>Players want a Challenge </li></ul><ul><li>Players want to Socialize </li></ul><ul><li>Playe...
What do players expect? <ul><li>Players expect: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A consistent world (one that they can chunk and grok...
How do you satisfy people? <ul><li>Use Interface conventions </li></ul><ul><li>Let them rely on their existing knowledge <...
“ Subgames” can meet the needs of different personalities <ul><li>In Sid Meyer’s  Pirates , you have subgames for: </li></...
Classic arcade game traits <ul><li>Single Screen Play  .. Easy for old graphics cards </li></ul><ul><li>Infinite Play  .. ...
Classic arcade games <ul><li>Input </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How responsive do you want to be to the users inputs? </li></ul><...
 
The point? <ul><li>Game designers now either build a game completely targeted to one or two personality type </li></ul><ul...
 
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Game Design 2 - Theory of Fun

10,893 views
10,639 views

Published on

Game Design Course: Excerpts from Course Book - Theory of Fun by Raph Koster

3 Comments
88 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Fioricet is often prescribed for tension headaches caused by contractions of the muscles in the neck and shoulder area. Buy now from http://www.fioricetsupply.com and make a deal for you.
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • IT Certainly is a very good presentation...please send it to...abhilashsrinivas@yahoo.com
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • great , might I ask for this ppt ? very appreciate , plase send to : faustcare@gmail.com, it`s a great tution
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
No Downloads
Views
Total views
10,893
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1,950
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
1
Comments
3
Likes
88
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Game Design 2 - Theory of Fun

  1. 1. Jay Crossler Senior Software Engineer Serious Games & Game Design Lecture 2 : Course Book Review - Theory of Fun, Player Archetypes
  2. 2. The Theory of Fun Why is work usually not fun?* *at least, for most people
  3. 4. Consider tic-tac-toe <ul><li>Kids will play it continuously… and always lose </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Victory seems just barely outside their grasp </li></ul></ul><ul><li>And then… one day, all games become draws </li></ul><ul><ul><li>At this point, they don’t enjoy playing it anymore </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Did mastery and understanding come so suddenly? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do they understand it’s a limited game with an optimal strategy? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Or, do they just see a pattern, and not really understand it? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To us, does it matter if it’s a O(n) problem, O(n 2 ), or O(n!)? Then, do we really understand it? </li></ul></ul>
  4. 5. The Problem <ul><li>Games are very multidimensional </li></ul><ul><li>Game Development has mostly been an art, not a science </li></ul><ul><li>Not many teachers understand them </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Even fewer agree that it’s a valid area of study </li></ul></ul><ul><li>No one really understands what makes something fun </li></ul><ul><li>And, in the US, video game fun is a $10B/year industry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Even more important, games teach values and problem solving skills, both to children and adults </li></ul></ul>
  5. 6. Why are games not fun? <ul><li>People quit when it’s too hard to win </li></ul>
  6. 7. Why are games not fun? <ul><li>People quit when it’s too easy to win </li></ul>
  7. 8. How do we think? <ul><li>Humans take in vast amounts of information and chunk it into smaller pieces </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Humans can see up to 72 frames per second (60 is adequate) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Humans can distinguish millions of colors (women 30% more) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can recognize image (afterblurs) even at 1/220 th of a second </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>100M neurons in the retina </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The eye processes 10 Million point images/sec </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brain holds about 100M Megabytes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Yet, we are always taking mental shortcuts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Brain only notices √ of what we see (estimated at 2000bits/frame) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 10. MIPS/Megabytes program growth
  9. 11. “ The best programmer is a lazy programmer” <ul><li>To fight this huge onslaught of data, we chunk and create “icons” </li></ul><ul><li>Interface standard – Only give 3-7 options </li></ul><ul><li>Most people can only make judgments about 4 things at once </li></ul>
  10. 12. Chunking isn’t always good
  11. 13. Discovering patterns is fun <ul><li>People dislike chaos, they prefer ordered, chunk able patterns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>But there is a thrill of delight when you get it , and discover the pattern </li></ul></ul>
  12. 14. Grokking <ul><li>“ Grok” – from R. A. Heinlien’s Stranger in a Strange Land </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When you understand something so deeply that you become one with it… even love it. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grokking something is understanding it beyond intuition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Very similar to muscle memory </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Brain has three levels of thought </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 – Conscious thought – logical, mathematical, list-based </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 – Intuitive, associative, integrative – chunking, no words </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 – Autonomic nervous system – whole sets of decisions </li></ul></ul>
  13. 16. Practice is building a library of chunked skills and decisions
  14. 17. What is fun?
  15. 18. What are games? <ul><li>Games are real </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They’re just abstracted pictures of reality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A “Magic Circle” of disconnection… a formal system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Their pattern may or may not exist in reality </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Games are puzzles to solve </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We learn underlying patterns, grok them fully, then file them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Very similar to learning the piano, or learning to drive, or fight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only real difference is that stakes are usually much lower </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Games are concentrated chunks of reality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abstracted and iconic, already prepared for our brains to use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They are formal systems, and don’t have messy details </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Games are very powerful learning tools </li></ul>
  16. 19. Play vs. Game vs. Sport <ul><li>Iconified representations of human experience that we can practice with and learn patterns from </li></ul><ul><li>What’s the difference between a game and a book? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Books offer patterns to the highest level of your brain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Games offer patterns to one level lower </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In a book, you can read “weather is important to armies” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In a game, you can get your army beaten and really feel it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You can not practice a pattern or run permutations with a book </li></ul></ul>
  17. 20. Is fun just learning? <ul><li>Play, Games, Sports </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All about recognizing goals and patterns, just usually have different risks and rewards </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why, then, do some people not think learning is fun? </li></ul>
  18. 21. How can a game be fun? <ul><li>Games are exercise for our brains </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As we learn the patterns, more novelty is needed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Practice can keep a game fresh, but soon we’ll grok it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Games are thus disposable, and boredom is inevitable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Formal games are very susceptible to this </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They usually don’t have enough variables to be interesting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The pattern is too easily figured out </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The more formally constructed a game is, the more limiting it will be </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adding physics, psychology, multiplayer all add variables </li></ul></ul>
  19. 23. Is this fun?
  20. 25. The theory of fun <ul><li>Fun is about our brain feeling good </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brains release endorphins into our system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Our brains are on drugs all the time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>There’s a chemical release when we master a task </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Our “moment of triumph” is rewarded by the brain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Notice someone always smiles when they “get it” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Needed for survival of the species </li></ul></ul><ul><li>It is the act of solving puzzles that makes a game fun </li></ul>
  21. 26. What is the opposite?
  22. 27. What is boredom, then? <ul><li>When a game stops teaching us, we feel bored </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Boredom is the brain looking for new information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It happens when there are no new patterns to absorb </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When a book is dull, it’s failing to show a captivating pattern </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Don’t underestimate the brains desire to learn </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The brain craves stimuli </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not necessarily new experiences , just new data to make patterns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Experiences force new chunking, and the brain doesn’t like to do more work that it has to (That’s why it chunks in the first place!) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 29. The Theory of Fun in Games <ul><li>Games must navigate between boredom and overload </li></ul><ul><li>Watch out for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tic-tac-toe – “Too easy” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Baseball RBI scores for 20 years – “Fun but not worth my time” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t see any patterns – “Too hard” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Patterns shown too slowly – “It’s too repetitive” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Patterns shown too quickly – “It got too hard too fast” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Players mastered the pattern – “I beat it” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fun is just another word for learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A successful game is one that teaches everything it has to offer before the player gets bored and stops playing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is this the same for XML classes, then? </li></ul></ul>
  24. 30. For more… buy the course book “ Theory of Fun ”, by Raph Koster
  25. 31. Are grokers experts? <ul><li>1. Experts notice features and meaningful patterns of information that are not noticed by novices. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Experts have acquired a great deal of content knowledge that is organized in ways that reflect a deep understanding of their subject matter. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Experts' knowledge cannot be reduced to sets of isolated facts or propositions but, instead, reflects contexts of applicability: that is, the knowledge is &quot;conditionalized&quot; on a set of circumstances. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Experts are able to flexibly retrieve important aspects of their knowledge with little attentional effort. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Though experts know their disciplines thoroughly, this does not guarantee that they are able to teach others. </li></ul><ul><li>6. Experts have varying levels of flexibility in their approach to new situations. </li></ul>
  26. 32. Player Archetypes Why do people play games so differently? also An introduction to Massively Multiplayer Games
  27. 33. How people choose games
  28. 34. Bartle Personality Types <ul><li>♦ Achiever </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Players give themselves game-related goals, then vigorously set out to achieve them. Build cities, accumulate treasure. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>♥ Socializer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use communication facilities for role-playing or to converse and interact with others. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>♠ Explorer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Try to find out as much as possible about the game. Search areas and mechanics, fight every monster, do every quest. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>♣ Imposer (Killer) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide game tools to cause distress on others. Usually involves applying a powerful sword to another players head. </li></ul></ul>
  29. 35. Bartle Personality Types <ul><li>♦ Achievers Say: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;I'm busy.&quot; &quot;Sure, I'll help you. What do I get?&quot; &quot;So how do YOU kill the dragon, then?&quot; &quot;Only 4211 points to go!&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>♥ Socializers Say: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;Hi!&quot; &quot;Yeah, well, I'm having trouble with my boyfriend.&quot; &quot;What happened? I missed it, I was talking.&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>♠ Explorers Say: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;Hmm...&quot; &quot;You mean you don't know the shortest route from <obscure room 1> to <2>?&quot; &quot;I haven't tried that, what's it do?&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>♣ Killers Say: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;Ha!&quot; &quot;Coward!&quot; &quot;Die!&quot; &quot;Die! Die! Die!&quot; &quot;N00b!&quot; </li></ul></ul>
  30. 36. Massively Multiplayer Online Games (MMOs) <ul><li>Are MMOs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Games? Like chess, tennis, D&D? Yes - to achievers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pastimes? Like reading, gardening, cooking? Yes - to explorers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sports? Like huntin', shooting, fishin'? Yes - to killers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Entertainments? Like nightclubs, TV, concerts? Yes - to socialisers. </li></ul></ul>
  31. 37. People play what is familiar
  32. 38. MMO Demographics Source: The Daedelus project <ul><li>In MMOs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Average age is 26 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>50% work full time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>25% are teenagers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>36% are married </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>22% have children </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>60% have played more than 10 hours continuously </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>20% play with a romantic partner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>28% play with a family member </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MMO players spend an average of 22 hours/week playing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Americans spend an average of 24 hours/week watching TV </li></ul></ul>
  33. 39. Time spent “in game” <ul><li>Given a hypothetical pool of 1000 players: </li></ul><ul><li>840 would be male </li></ul><ul><li>160 would be female </li></ul><ul><li>Of the 840 male players: </li></ul><ul><li>193 would be playing a female </li></ul><ul><li>647 would be playing a male </li></ul><ul><li>Of the 160 female players: </li></ul><ul><li>5 would be playing a male </li></ul><ul><li>155 would be playing a female </li></ul><ul><li>In other words: </li></ul><ul><li>About 1 out of every 2 female characters is played by a man </li></ul><ul><li>About 1 out of every 100 male characters is played by a woman </li></ul>
  34. 40. Occupational Status
  35. 41. Profession Types, Life Lessons
  36. 42. Activity Matrix <ul><li>People’s interests can be broken down into 12 main categories </li></ul>
  37. 43. Activity Matrix <ul><li>These types-of interests correspond highly to categories of game-player </li></ul>
  38. 44. What do players want? <ul><li>Players want a Challenge </li></ul><ul><li>Players want to Socialize </li></ul><ul><li>Players want a dynamic Solitaire experience </li></ul><ul><li>Players want bragging rights </li></ul><ul><li>Players want an emotional experience </li></ul><ul><li>Players want to fantasize </li></ul>
  39. 45. What do players expect? <ul><li>Players expect: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A consistent world (one that they can chunk and grok) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A world with understandable bounds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reasonable solutions should work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Direction towards success… goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accomplishment of tasks incrementally… subgoals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Immersion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>… to fail </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>… a fair chance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>… not to need to repeat themselves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>… never to be hopelessly stuck </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>… to do, not to watch </li></ul></ul>
  40. 46. How do you satisfy people? <ul><li>Use Interface conventions </li></ul><ul><li>Let them rely on their existing knowledge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A familiar topic helps people get right into the game </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Give a lot of positive feedback early in the game </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Give them the idea they’re on the right track </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Everything they do, the computer acknowledges it, recognizes it, and thinks it’s really cool </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prototype! </li></ul><ul><li>In 2 years of development, 1.25 of it is for playing/testing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Balance so that it’s not boring/too hard is crucial </li></ul></ul>
  41. 47. “ Subgames” can meet the needs of different personalities <ul><li>In Sid Meyer’s Pirates , you have subgames for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sword-fights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Navigating your ship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Raiding a town </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In Sid Meier’s Civilization , subgames are integrated : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Military system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic Stock Market system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Production systems ..all of these are intertwined </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Do I invent a new chariot, or give the people that stadium?” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Scale: Starting small with one settler, building an empire </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Started with Will Wright’s Sim City </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Notice that in some games, there are no goals – you infer what they should be from real life </li></ul></ul>
  42. 48. Classic arcade game traits <ul><li>Single Screen Play .. Easy for old graphics cards </li></ul><ul><li>Infinite Play .. Keep putting in quarters </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple Lives .. Make you think you have a chance </li></ul><ul><li>Scoring/High scores .. Players want bragging rights </li></ul><ul><li>Easy-to-learn gameplay </li></ul><ul><li>No Story </li></ul>
  43. 49. Classic arcade games <ul><li>Input </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How responsive do you want to be to the users inputs? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interconnectedness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep everything in theme with related metaphors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Escalating Tension </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Building speed, with temporary periods of relief </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Player Focus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep their attention concentrated on one spot </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimize the superfluous distractions </li></ul></ul>
  44. 51. The point? <ul><li>Game designers now either build a game completely targeted to one or two personality type </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mortal Kombat (Killer) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Doom (Explorer, Killer) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Sims (Socializer, Achiever) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Or, they build games aimed at balancing across each </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Star Wars Galaxies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Professions for: Dancer, Chef, Image Designer, Architect, Droid Engineer, Pistoleer, Bounty Hunter, Commando, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>World of Warcraft </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Each class has parts which satisfy desires of each personality archetype </li></ul></ul></ul>

×