Noun, Adjective, and Adverb Clauses: Also Known as Dependent Clauses! Grammar Eleventh Grade American Literature Ms. Pennell
Noun Clauses … A noun clause is a subordinate clause that acts as a noun. Usually start with a relative pronoun Relative Pronouns: that, which, who, whom, whose Acts like a noun or an adjective
Functions in ExamplesSentencesSubject Whoever travels the Chattahoochee River follows the yellow rafts gently floating down a peaceful track.Direct Object You must pack whatever you will need.Indirect Object You should give whoever waits at the camp a copy of your route.Object of a Robert Campbell settled tradingPreposition camps in whatever regions the Hudson’s Bay Company sent him.Predicate At 40, Campbell’s most notableNominative achievement was that he(is a noun or pronoun that established Fort Selkirk.appears with a linking verband renames, identifies, orexplains the subject)
Adjective Clauses An adjective clause is a subordinate clause that modifies a noun or pronoun by telling what kind or which one. Adjective clauses act like adjectives. Usually connected to the word it modifies by one of the relative pronouns (that which, who, whom, or whose). Sometimes, it is connected by a relative adverb (after, before, since, when, where, or why).
Examples of AdjectiveClauses Arctic winters, which are long and cold, are severe. The arctic is a region where life is difficult. She likes the guy who sits in front of her.
Essential and NonessentialAdjective Clauses An adjective clause that is nonessential to the basic meaning of a sentence is set off by commas. The ship, which was a nuclear submarine, became the first vessel to pass beneath the North Pole.
Example of an EssentialAdjective Clause Essential adjective clauses are not set off by commas. The first vessel that passed beneath the North Pole was a nuclear submarine.
Practical Use of AdjectiveClauses By using either a nonessential or an essential adjective clause, you can often combine the ideas from two sentences into one. The Arktika was the first surface ship to crack through the Arctic icepack. It was a Soviet ice breaker. Combine the above two sentences using an essential or nonessential adjective clause.
Solution … The Arktika, which was a Soviet icebreaker, was the first surface ship to crack the Arctic ice pack.
Adjective Clauses Continued Relative pronouns and relative adverbs not only introduce adjective clauses, but also function within the subordinate clause.
Adjective Clauses Continued A relative pronoun or relative adverb: Connects the adjective clause to the modified word Acts within the clause as a subject, direct object, or other sentence part.
The Uses of RelativePronouns Within the ClauseAs a Subject: The part of Alaska that isthat is within the Arctic Circle within the Arctic Circle is cold most of the year.As a Direct Object: The explorer whom I met last(Reworded) I met whom last year has never been to theyear North Pole.As the Object of a The climate is one in whichPreposition: little foliage can grow.(Reworded) little foliage cangrow in which – obj of prepAs an Adjective: I saw a dog whose sled leftwhose sled left without him without him.Adj.
Adverb Clauses Adverb clauses modify verbs, adjectives, adverbs, or verbals by telling where, when, in what way, to what extent, under what condition, or why. An example of an adverb clause is as follows: The Yukon entered Canada’s confederation after a gold rush brought 100,000 people to the territory.
Adverb Clauses Continued … The Yukon entered Canada’s confederation after a gold rush brought 100,000 people to the territory. Here the subordinate clause after a gold rush brought 100,000 people to the territory is modifying or describing the verb entered.
More on Adverb Clauses and how theseclauses function in sentences …Remember that adverb clauses modify verbs, adjectives, adverbs, orverbals (gerund, participial, and infinitive phrases) by telling where,when, in what way, to what extent, under what condition, or why. Modified Examples Words Verb: The Yukon entered Canada’s confederation after a gold rush brought 100,000 people to the territory. Adjective: The miner’s children were nervous whenever he entered a tunnel. Adverb: Today’s dig lasted longer than the one yesterday. Participle: The miners, cheering whenever someone made a strike, were excited. Gerund: Digging wherever miners thought there was gold has left the Yukon full of old miners. Infinitive: The tired miners wanted to relax after the workday ended.
Elliptical Adverb Clauses In an elliptical adverb clause, especially those beginning with as or than, the verb or both the subject and the verb are not stated but are understood. Verb Understood: I am taller than he (is). The Yukon has as many rural inhabitants as (it has) urban inhabitants.