Being Motivated To write Getting Ideas together Planning and outlining Making notes Making a first draft Revising Planning redrafting Editing and getting ready for publication <ul><li>The process of writing has a series of stages that can be represented as: </li></ul>
<ul><li>Frank Smith (1982) represents the process of writing in terms of the ways in which the text is moved around, modified, cut, or expanded: </li></ul>
THE PREWRITING STAGE <ul><li>GENERATING IDEAS </li></ul><ul><li>A .- FREEWRITING : is continuous writing done within a specific but brief period of time. </li></ul><ul><li>B.- BRAINSTORMING : generating ideas through free association </li></ul><ul><li>C.- CHARTING : helps you focus on specific life experiences in order to generate writing ideas. </li></ul>
2.- EXPLORING SUBJECTS : A.- QUESTIONS: informational, personal, creative, analytical 3.- FOCUSING ON A TOPIC 4.- FORMING AN IDEA : A.- Thinking about purpose B.- Becoming aware of an audience C.- Stating main idea 5.- DEVELOPING THE MAIN IDEA
REVISING 1.- Revising for PURPOSE and AUDIENCE 2.- Revising the TOPIC SENTENCE 3.- Revising SUPPORT, DEVELOPMENT and ORGANIZATION 4.- Revising for COHERENCE 5.- Revising for WORD CHOICE 6.- EDITING, PROOFREADING and PUBLISHING
TOPIC SENTENCE The TOPIC SENTENCE states the main idea of a paragraph and points the direction for the other sentences to follow. <ul><li>QUESTION </li></ul><ul><li>TWO SENTENCES </li></ul><ul><li>QUESTION AND ANSWER </li></ul><ul><li>COMMAND </li></ul>The T. S. Can be placed at the BEGINNING, MIDDLE or the END of a paragraph.
We can develop the T. S. Into a paragraph with: <ul><li>Details </li></ul><ul><li>Examples or Incidents </li></ul><ul><li>Facts or Statistics </li></ul><ul><li>Reasons </li></ul><ul><li>Mixed Support </li></ul>
THE MODES OF WRITING <ul><li>DESCRIPTIVE WRITING : it creates a clear vivid impression of a person, place or thing. </li></ul>SENSORY DETAILS : details are concrete specific features of a person, object, place or experience. Sensory details are details that appeal to the senses of sight, hearing, smell, taste and touch. MOOD : is the emotional quality or atmosphere created by the details in a description. CHARACTER SKETCH : is a description that portrays and individual’s psychological traits and physical appearance
THE MODES OF WRITING <ul><li>EXPOSITORY WRITING : is meant to inform the reader by presenting facts and explaining ideas. </li></ul>EXPLAINING A PROCESS : showing how something works or how a person accomplishes a particular task EXPLAINING CAUSE AND EFFECT RELATIONSHIP : ‘CAUSE’ is an event or condition that produces a result, which is known as an ‘EFFECT’. DIVIDING AND CLASSIFYING : division breaks an item into parts. Classification groups items together into categories.
DEFINING : a definition explains the meaning of a term COMPARING AND CONTRASTING : when you compare, you point out the similarities. When you contrast ites, you point out their differences MAKING AN ANALOGY : when you make an analogy between two events, situations, or actions, you use the more familiar term of the two to help explain the less familiar of the two.
CRITICAL THINKING AND PERSUASIVE WRITING CRITICAL THINKING refers to analyzing and evaluating information presented to you or information you plan to present to others to support an opinion or position PERSUASIVE WRITING is writing that tries to influence a reader to accept an idea, adopt a certain position or point of view, or perform a certain action.
PERSUASIVE WRITING: PREWRITING STAGE 1.- SUPPORT : evidence refers to the reasons that directly support your opinion. Usually the most effective reasons are facts that you can back up with an objective primary or secondary source. <ul><li>A FACT is something that is known to be true. </li></ul><ul><li>An OPINION is a personal judgement on what one person believes or feels to be true </li></ul>
WRITING STAGE: <ul><li>WRITING AN ARGUMENT is an ordered presentation of support for a position that you want others to accept. </li></ul><ul><li>The idea is to convince others. </li></ul><ul><li>In this stage, try to avoid faulty methods of persuasion, such as FALLACIES. </li></ul>
FALLACY FALLACIES are errors in reasoning: <ul><li>A STEREOTYPE is an overgeneralization about someone or something that does not take exceptions into account. It usually refers to a belief held by many people who have not thoroughly examined the facts </li></ul><ul><li>BANDWAGON fallacy is an argument that attempts to persuade someone to do something because “everybody else is doing it” </li></ul>
<ul><li>NAME-CALLING is a method of attacking the character of a person rather than addressing the person’s views, position, and argument </li></ul><ul><li>TESTIMONIAL is an attempt at persuasion based on the advice or testimony of a famous person. </li></ul><ul><li>RED-HERRING is a second issue thrown in to distract attention from the first issue </li></ul>
<ul><li>EITHER-OR Fallacy is an oversimplification that takes only two choices into account </li></ul><ul><li>Faulty CAUSE-EFFECT thinking refers to establishing a false connection between a cause and an effect </li></ul>