Chocolate
Chocolate
• The Aztecs first discovered chocolate, 3100
years ago. They used it to make a beverage by
pounding cocoa beans...
Chocolate –How it is made; Bean to Bar
1. Chocolate pods are
harvested and the beans
and pulp is removed.
2. This are ferm...
Bean to bar
4. They are shipped off to the chocolate
makers
5. The beans are mixed per
the chocolatier recipe
6. Crushed a...
Bean to Bar
7.Roasting-this
develops aroma
8. Grinding -this makes the beans
into a fine cocoa paste (cocoa mass).
The hea...
Bean to Bar
9. Kneading- cocoa mass cocoa butter, sugar
and flavoring are kneaded together to evenly
distribute the ingred...
Bean to Bar
11. Conching- the paste is warmed to 80 degrees by internal fiction
brought about by intensive movement and st...
Types of Chocolate
• Couvertures -translated from French means “chocolate coating”.
This is made up of cocoa mass, cocoa b...
Types of Chocolate
• Milk chocolate is medium colored chocolate that contains cocoa
mass, high quantity of sugar, emulsifi...
Types of Chocolate
• Chocolate coating, glazes, confectionery or summer coatings this
product may contain cocoa mass, suga...
What does the number mean?
• On the chocolate you will see a number. This represents
the percentage of cocoa mass in the c...
Chocolate Tasting
• Dark Chocolate
It should snap when bitten into. It should melt on your
mouth .The chocolate taste shou...
Chocolate Facts
• Chocolate can only be called chocolate if it contains cocoa
mass or chocolate liquor(same thing , differ...
Blooming Chocolate!
• When couverture leaves the plant it is in temper. This means the
cocoa butter is stable and evenly d...
Blooming Chocolate!
• Speckled chocolate. This is called sugar
bloom. This happens when the chocolate is
stored in the ref...
Chocolate Tempering
• When we receive chocolate from the manufacture bit
is in temper. The cocoa butter crystals are prope...
Chocolate Tempering
Method Procedure Best Use
EZ Melt chocolate to 125 degrees. Place bowl on
ice and stir to 82 degrees. ...
Procedure for EZ Tempering
• Melt pistols or chopped chocolate over simmering water. It is important
that water does not c...
Procedure for EZ Tempering
• Immediately warm to 89-91 degrees. This, is only a few degrees and
this means a few seconds i...
Test, Test ,Test
• Testing your chocolate during the tempering process is
key
• Test to see is you have melted hot enough ...
Chocolate Truffles and Chocolate Pralines
• Chocolate truffles are a rich, elegant, two-bite, highly, treasured confection...
Ganache Formulas
Butter Ganache
Used in Europe, it is often made with liquors. Butter having less water content then
cream...
Ganache Formulas
Fruit and Vegetable Puree Ganaches
• Fruit and Vegetable puree ganaches can be substituted for all or par...
Two main types of truffles
• Piped & Hand Rolled- ganache is cooled to a pipeable
consistency. This is piped into a small ...
Chocolate Pralines
• The contemporary chocolatier uses this term to refer
to any molded, filled chocolate candy, Think Rus...
Summary
• List the 11 steps of chocolate manufacturing-
bean to bar, in order
• Describe the types of chocolate
• Define w...
Summary
• Define the term tempering
• Describe the 4 ways to temper chocolate
• Define the term chocolate truffle
• Define...
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Chocolate

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Chocolate

  1. 1. Chocolate
  2. 2. Chocolate • The Aztecs first discovered chocolate, 3100 years ago. They used it to make a beverage by pounding cocoa beans and adding spices and liquids. • Montezuma believed it was an aphrodisiac and drank up to 50 goblets a day of this bitter concoction.
  3. 3. Chocolate –How it is made; Bean to Bar 1. Chocolate pods are harvested and the beans and pulp is removed. 2. This are fermented under the open air. The sugars are broken down and the astringent flavor become less prominent and the desired flavors come forward. 3. Then are dried, the beans become deep brown and the flavors become more pronounced
  4. 4. Bean to bar 4. They are shipped off to the chocolate makers 5. The beans are mixed per the chocolatier recipe 6. Crushed and shelled. This removes the beans from the husk. Husks are used in other industries
  5. 5. Bean to Bar 7.Roasting-this develops aroma 8. Grinding -this makes the beans into a fine cocoa paste (cocoa mass). The heat produced by this grinding liquefies the cocoa butter approximately. 50% of the bean. This cocoa butter separated out
  6. 6. Bean to Bar 9. Kneading- cocoa mass cocoa butter, sugar and flavoring are kneaded together to evenly distribute the ingredients and round the flavor. This mixture is still gritty 10.Rolling- the paste is broken down to 10-20 microns
  7. 7. Bean to Bar 11. Conching- the paste is warmed to 80 degrees by internal fiction brought about by intensive movement and strong shearing force and the mass liquefies. This process can last from 12 - 72 hours. • The longer the conching the smoother the taste. This allows the bitter smells and flavors to subside and the desired aromas to full develop. At the same time the cocoa mass becomes completely homogenized and a fine film of cocoa butter surrounds each of the microscopic particles. Now the chocolate will melt on your tongue
  8. 8. Types of Chocolate • Couvertures -translated from French means “chocolate coating”. This is made up of cocoa mass, cocoa butter, sugar and emulsifiers. This is a high quality chocolate, high in cocoa butter. • All couvertures are chocolate but not all chocolates are couuvertures. This is used primarily for candy making and fine quality decorations for dessert items • Semi-sweet chocolate is a dark colored chocolate that is made up of cocoa mass, cocoa butter, sugar and emulsifiers. Used primarily in baking, candy making, decorations • Bittersweet chocolate is a dark colored chocolate that is made up of cocoa mass, cocoa butter, sugar and emulsifiers. It contains less sugar than semi-sweet chocolate in various degrees depending on the brand. It is used for mousses, candy making and some baking.
  9. 9. Types of Chocolate • Milk chocolate is medium colored chocolate that contains cocoa mass, high quantity of sugar, emulsifiers and milk product. It contains cocoa butter and a minimum of cocoa mass. This chocolate requires more attention when melting because the milk products and sugar can scorch and the will not melt correctly, stir often. It is used for mousse, and extensively in candy making in this country. • White chocolate is also high in sugar and milk product. It contains cocoa butter, a high quantity of sugar, vanilla, milk product & emulsifiers. In this country chocolate must have cocoa mass to be legally called chocolate. . This chocolate requires more attention when melting because the milk products and sugar can scorch and the will not melt correctly, stir often. It's used primarily in mousse, candy production and display work
  10. 10. Types of Chocolate • Chocolate coating, glazes, confectionery or summer coatings this product may contain cocoa mass, sugar, emulsifiers, waxes, etc. The cocoa butter is often removed and replaced with vegetable oil or fats. This is a convenience product. These are used in poor quality candy making, dipping fruits or cookies. Any chocolate that doesn't contain cocoa liquor (cocoa mass)will fall into this category. Read your label carefully. • Unsweetened chocolate is chocolate mass that contains no sugar. Its intense flavor is used for baking such things as cookies and brownies • Baking chocolate/ chocolate chips contains chocolate liquor and some cocoa butter depending on the brand. It is typically high in sugar and generally low in cocoa butter content. The idea is for it to holds its shape after baking. • Cocoa powder is the ground form of cocoa mass. Dutch process cocoa is a richer, darker cocoa powder and is treated with alkali to help neutralize its natural acidity and aid in blending.
  11. 11. What does the number mean? • On the chocolate you will see a number. This represents the percentage of cocoa mass in the chocolate. Think of cocoa mass as being the essence of chocolate. This is the major flavor component. • Unfortunately this is not strictly regulated. This number is not pure cocoa mass. It is s combination of mass, cocoa butter and sugar. So the higher the number does not mean the more bitter the chocolate • The only way to judge is to taste and melt the chocolate.
  12. 12. Chocolate Tasting • Dark Chocolate It should snap when bitten into. It should melt on your mouth .The chocolate taste should be forward in the mouth. As it melts on your tongue other nuances will come out. It should have a clean finish in the mouth. • Milk Chocolate It should snap when bitten into. It should melt on your mouth. The chocolate taste should be forward in the mouth, followed closely by milk and then sugar in that order.. It should have a clean finish in the mouth. • White Chocolate It should snap when bitten into. It should melt on your mouth. It should have a pronounced milk flavored followed by sugar It should have a clean finish in the mouth. • Chocolate Coatings This should have a pleasant chocolate flavor. They should not be overly sweet or taste artificial. These will not snap in your mouth and won’t easily melt on your tongue.
  13. 13. Chocolate Facts • Chocolate can only be called chocolate if it contains cocoa mass or chocolate liquor(same thing , different names) • Chocolate needs to be chopped, if in blocks into small pieces or use the pistole form before melting. The best way to melt chocolate is in a bowl over simmering water. Be careful not to burn the chocolate! • Water is the natural enemy of chocolate. Chocolates are essentially made up of fat (cocoa butter) and dry (cocoa powder). The dry element in the chocolate is always seeking some kind of liquid. • If water or steam gets into the chocolate, it will seize up and not melt correctly. If this happens this chocolate needs to be used in baking or a ganache. • Keep chocolate in temperate heat 60 - 70 degrees, away from direct heat sources, direct sunlight or strong odors. Keep well wrapped.
  14. 14. Blooming Chocolate! • When couverture leaves the plant it is in temper. This means the cocoa butter is stable and evenly distributed through out the chocolate. • Pistoles will rub up against each other and may have a gray appearance. There is nothing wrong with the chocolate. But is chocolate bars come to you with a gray or whitish coating on the out side this means a t some point the chocolate became to warm and the cocoa butter crystals came out of stability. • This is referred to fat bloom This means that the chocolate was not stored properly. In handmade chocolate this means the chocolate was not tempered correctly • Can you use it? Absolutely, taste the chocolate to see if it has picked up odd flavors during this mishandling.
  15. 15. Blooming Chocolate! • Speckled chocolate. This is called sugar bloom. This happens when the chocolate is stored in the refrigerator. • The sugar in the chocolate melts and liquefies, rises to top and the top of the chocolate and then the liquid evaporates leaving a water mark or speckle on the chocolate • Can you use it? Absolutely, taste the chocolate to see if it has picked up odd flavors during this mishandling
  16. 16. Chocolate Tempering • When we receive chocolate from the manufacture bit is in temper. The cocoa butter crystals are proper alignment. As soon as we melt the chocolate it comes out of temper. We will need to put back in temper is we want those same physical characteristics we started with. This would be if we are making candy, using a mold or a showpiece • If you are baking, cooking or making mousse you do not temper chocolate. • Chocolate that is melted and not re-tempered will be soft, streaky in appearance and gritty in mouth-feel. This can always be melted down again and tempered or used for something else, such as baking.
  17. 17. Chocolate Tempering Method Procedure Best Use EZ Melt chocolate to 125 degrees. Place bowl on ice and stir to 82 degrees. Test. Warm to 89-91 degrees working temperature. Test again Small quantities 1-2 lbs. Seeding Melt 2/3 of desired amount of chocolate to 125 ̥degrees. Add 1/3 of remaining chocolate, cool and heat to the above temperatures-Test Med. quantities Lumps of un- melted chocolate Tabling Melt 2/3 of desired amount of chocolate to 125 ̥degrees. Reserve other chocolate. Pour onto marble slab. Spread chocolate out and scrape into a mound, repeat to temp. is 82 degrees. Mix into reserved warm chocolate-Test Large quantities. Need a large marble slab, experience and timing Beta 6 Crystals Melt measured amount of chocolate to 125 degrees. Cool to 95 degrees add 1% beta crystals, stir let sit for 10 minutes. Test Med. quantities. Takes a while to crystalize. Beta 6 crystals $$$
  18. 18. Procedure for EZ Tempering • Melt pistols or chopped chocolate over simmering water. It is important that water does not come into the chocolate or direct flame from the gas burner comes into direct contact with the chocolate. Heat to very warm, (125 DEGREES). This will melt all the cocoa butter crystals. Cocoa butter is made up of a variety of different crystals and they melt at different temperatures. Do not go higher than 125 degrees. (Note if you are going to be doing a lot of tempering work invest in an inferred chocolate thermometer. The hand held varieties are easily thrown off during typical wear and tear. A degree or two off is all you need to throw off and entire batch of chocolate) • Take the chocolate off the water and place over and ice bath and stir. Remember no water in the chocolate. This cooling and stirring will allow the cocoa butter crystals to reset. Cool to 82 degrees, this will be the consistency of batter. Do a test now. Take a spoon or other clean metal implement and dip into the chocolate. Set it aside. It should dry like paint in less than 5 minutes. If it does you are tempered!! During this time keep an eye on your chocolate that it doesn’t set up on you. If the chocolate sets up than we will need to melt again to 125 degrees
  19. 19. Procedure for EZ Tempering • Immediately warm to 89-91 degrees. This, is only a few degrees and this means a few seconds is all it takes to get it to this temperature. We have set the cooling ball in motion if we don’t warm immediately the chocolate will set up (harden). This is the working temperature. This allows the chocolate to be fluid and still in temper so we can dip candy or make molds and showpieces. • Do a test now. Take a spoon or other clean metal implement and dip into the chocolate. Set it aside. It should dry like paint in about 5 minutes. Refrigeration will speed this up to a minute. If it does you are still tempered!! During this time keep an eye on your chocolate that it doesn’t set up on you. If the chocolate sets up than we will need to melt again to 125 degrees. • If you keep the chocolate in this range you can work with it for hours. Remember stay close to your heat source to heat it up. The chocolate wants to set back up or harden again, keep an eye on it
  20. 20. Test, Test ,Test • Testing your chocolate during the tempering process is key • Test to see is you have melted hot enough originally. The last cocoa butter crystal in tempering melts at 123 degrees. When test, note the look and touch it, Tactile memories are more indelible • Test to see if it is cooled enough, When test, note the look and touch it, Tactile memories are more indelible • When you warm chocolate to the working temperature test again. One degree can ruin everything. This will save a whole batch of chocolate from the trash
  21. 21. Chocolate Truffles and Chocolate Pralines • Chocolate truffles are a rich, elegant, two-bite, highly, treasured confection. They are considered the ultimate chocolate candy. There centers are composed of ganache (a mixture of heavy cream & melted chocolate) Cream Ganache Formula Product/Use Chocolate Ratio Chocolate to Cream Chocolate Cream Firm Ganache for slab pralines Dark 2:1 1000g 500g Milk 2.5:1 1000g 400g White 2.5:1 1000g 400g Medium Ganache for piped pralines Dark 1.5:1 1000g 667g Milk 2:1 1000g 500g White 2:1 1000g 500g Soft Ganache for molded pralines Dark 1:1 1000g 1000g Milk 1.5:1 1000g 667g White 1.5:1 1000g 667g
  22. 22. Ganache Formulas Butter Ganache Used in Europe, it is often made with liquors. Butter having less water content then cream it is more shelf stable. Butter ganache is made by combining tempered chocolate with soften butter. The result is a quick setting ganache that increases the risk of separation if the chocolate and butter are not of similar temperatures. Butter needs to be between 85-90 degrees and can be whipped with a paddle to soften and aerate. Product/Use Chocolate Ratio Chocolate to butter Chocolate Soft Butter Firm Ganache for slab pralines Dark 2:1 1000g 500g Milk 2.5:1 1000g 400g White 2.5:1 1000g 400g Medium Ganache for piped pralines Dark 1.5:1 1000g 667g Milk 2:1 1000g 500g White 2:1 1000g 500g Soft Ganache for molded pralines Dark 1:1 1000g 1000g Milk 1.5:1 1000g 667g White 1.5:1 1000g 667g
  23. 23. Ganache Formulas Fruit and Vegetable Puree Ganaches • Fruit and Vegetable puree ganaches can be substituted for all or part of the cream. Since they do not contain fats, butter needs to be added to the tempered chocolate when puree is used. Follow butter ganache method to make ganache, after butter is incorporated add 85-90 degree puree, mix to combine Product/Use Chocolate Ratio Chocolate to puree and butter Chocolate Puree Soft Butter Firm Ganache for slabbed pralines Dark 2:1 1000g 250g 250g Milk 2.5:1 1000g 200g 200g White 2.5:1 1000g 200g 200g Medium Ganache for piped pralines Dark 1.5:1 1000g 334g 333g Milk 2:1 1000g 250g 250g White 2:1 1000g 250g 250g Soft Ganache for molded pralines Dark 1:1 1000g 500g 500g Milk 1.5:1 1000g 334g 333g White 1.5:1 1000g 334g 333g
  24. 24. Two main types of truffles • Piped & Hand Rolled- ganache is cooled to a pipeable consistency. This is piped into a small ball chilled and hand rolled to a round ball. This is accomplished by rolling several times and refrigerating after each rolling. This is then can be enrobed in tempered chocolate. This ganache tend to be a little stiffer and is difficult to flavor extensively. The flavoring tends to make the ganache to soft to then roll by hand. • Filled- A liquid ganache ( room temperature) is piped into a pre-made chocolate truffle shell. They are filled to the rim with ganache. Gently shake shell, to remove air bubbles and set aside. These can be left overnight ( this is preferable) or chilled slightly to be used sooner. They are sealed with tempered chocolate. This is allowed to set up and then they are enrobed in tempered chocolate. This style of truffle lend itself well to a flavored ganache because you don’t need to handle the ganache directly.
  25. 25. Chocolate Pralines • The contemporary chocolatier uses this term to refer to any molded, filled chocolate candy, Think Russell Stover only with superior chocolate and fillings.
  26. 26. Summary • List the 11 steps of chocolate manufacturing- bean to bar, in order • Describe the types of chocolate • Define what the number on the chocolate means • Compare and contrast fat bloom and sugar bloom
  27. 27. Summary • Define the term tempering • Describe the 4 ways to temper chocolate • Define the term chocolate truffle • Define the term chocolate praline • Define and describe ganache • Define and describe the two types of truffles
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