2Web Browser Market SharePublic cloud buyerscan achievesignificant savingsby optimizing usageKey Findings• Instances are underutilized with averageutilization rates between 8-9%• 52% of customers use reserved instances, butonly 26% of all instances are reserved and 24%of instance reservations are unused• Amazon Glacier, which was introduced inAugust of 2012, now accounts for 15% ofstorage usage• Non-EC2 accounts for 38% of costBuyers continue to underutilize reserved and spot instances. Nearly a quarterof instance reservations are unused. Signiﬁcant opportunity for cost-savingsexists across reserved instances, underutilized instances, and shadow versionstorage consumption.
3Web Browser Market ShareStudy Goals• Benchmark industry public cloudcosts• Enable buyers to improveoperational efﬁciency based onproven ROI model• Expand on Public Cloud Cost Q32012 Benchmark Study to provideadditional market insights
4Web Browser Market ShareStudy Data• 165,000 Amazon EC2 instances• 6,700,000 instance hours• 5.5 PB of storage• Measured Mar 1, 2013 - Mar 31, 2013
5Web Browser Market ShareCustomers who spend less than $50K per year make up the largest group of AWSusers, yet account for only 4% of total spend. Just 4% of customers spend morethan $1M per year, yet account for some 52% of total spend.Just 4% of customersspend more than $1Mannually, but accountfor more than half oftotal spendCustomer Distribution by Spend< $50K $100K - $500K > $1M4%2%22%11%61%Percent of Customers by GroupFirst Quarter 2013< $50K $100K - $500K > $1M52%10%29%5%4%Percent of Spend by GroupFirst Quarter 2013
6Web Browser Market ShareWhile EC2 accounts for 62% of total public cloud spend, storage services such asEBS, RDS, and S3, along with other services, account for more than a third of totalspend.Public cloud spendisn’t just on EC2--non-computeservices account for38% of total spendTotal Spend by Service TypeEC262%Other services17%S36%RDS7%EBS8%Other services: I/O,API calls, and bandwidth
7Web Browser Market ShareSimple Storage Service (S3) standard remains the most popular and expensivestorage type. Glacier is gaining in popularity, likely due to data lifecyclemanagement that can move old S3 objects to Glacier automatically.S3 remains the mostpopular andexpensive storagetypeStorage Usage by TypeGlacier15%RR12%Standard S373% $0.01$0.08$0.10StandardS3ReducedRedundancyGlacierCost per GB (First 1 TB per Month)April 2013Storage Usage by TypeFirst Quarter 2013RR: Reduced Redundancy
8Web Browser Market ShareShadow versions of ﬁles account for some 8.6% of versioned S3 storage. Shadowversions refer to multiple versions of objects stored in S3 that are difﬁcult to seebecause the original named versions have been deleted, while the other versionsstill exist.Public cloud usersmay be consumingnearly 10% extrastorage withoutknowing itStorageVisibilityVisible91.4%Hidden8.6%ShadowVersionsFirst Quarter 2013
9Web Browser Market ShareThe m1.Large and m2.4xlarge instance types account for the most spend, followedby c1.Xlarge, m1.Xlarge, and c1.Medium.The m1.Largeinstance typeaccounts for thebiggest spendInstance Types by Spendm1.Largem2.4xlargec1.Xlargem1.Xlargec1.Medum7.6%10.0%11.6%18.0%18.7%7.7%9.9%7.7%17.5%27.5%Top 5 Instance Types by SpendQ4 2012 and Q1 2013*According to Cloudyn benchmarking, two m1.Medium instancesdeliver 30% more performance than a single m1.Large instance.Q4 2012Q1 2013
10Web Browser Market ShareThe m1.Small and m1.Large instances are the most popular instance sizes,followed by t1.Micro, c1.Medium, and m1. Medium.Small and Large arethe most usedinstance typesInstance Usage by TypeTop 5 Runtime Instance TypesFirst Quarter 2013m1.Small m1.Large t1.Micro c1.Medium m1.Medium11.0%11.4%11.8%19.3%24.8%
11Web Browser Market ShareCustomers are actively moving from m1.Large to m1.Medium instances.Twom1.Medium instances cost the same as one m1.Large, but can produce 30% moreoutput.*Customers areactively moving fromLarge to MediuminstancesUsage Trends by Instance Typem1.Smallm1.Larget1.Microc1.Mediumm1.Medium11.0%11.4%11.8%19.3%24.8%6.9%10.5%14.2%24.1%25.3%Top 5 Runtime Instance TypesQ4 2012 and Q1 2013*According to Cloudyn benchmarking, two m1.Medium instancesdeliver 30% more performance than a single m1.Large instance.Q4 2012Q1 2013
12Web Browser Market ShareMore than half of all customers make some use of Reserved Instances (RIs).Customers canachieve cost-savingsby putting unusedreservations to workReserved Instance UsageCustomer Usage of Reserved Instances in Deployment MixFirst Quarter 2013Don’t Use RIs48%Use RIs52%
13Web Browser Market ShareReserved Instances account for only 26% and spot instances for only 3% of totalinstance runtime usage. Despite their potential cost-saving beneﬁts, customersremain hesitant to adopt these pricing models.On-demandinstances remain thechoice of mostcustomersUsage by Instance Pricing ModelRuntime InstancesFirst Quarter 2013Spot3%Reserved26%On-demand71%
14Web Browser Market ShareSome 24% of instance reservations are unused. Customers that are purchasingreserved instances aren’t making use of nearly a quarter of them.Customers canachieve cost-savingsby putting unusedreservations to workReserved Instance UsageInstance ReservationsFirst Quarter 2013Used76%Unused24%
15Web Browser Market ShareThe most common instance types are largely underutilized, with averageutilization rates at just 8-9%.Most instances arelargely underutilized,presenting significantopportunity for cost-savingsUtilization of Most Common Instance Typesm1.Small m1.Medium m1.Large91.0%92.0%91.0%9.0%8.0%9.0%UtilizedUnutilized
16Web Browser Market ShareLess than half of all m1.Medium and m1.Large instances in the study exceeded50% CPU usage, making them potential candidates for smaller instances. Morethan half of t1.Micro instances had 75% utilization or greater and more than halfof m1.Small and c1.Medium instances had 50% or greater CPU usage, makingthem potential candidates for larger instances.Spiky usage may beone reason buyers oflarger instances arereticent to move tosmaller instancesInstance Types by Maximum Utilizationt1.Microm1.Smallm1.Mediumc1.Mediumm1.Large 9%13%15%22%45%9%26%10%21%8%25%23%19%20%16%24%17%35%18%19%18%12%12%11%10%15%9%9%8%2%< 10% 10%-24% 25%-49% 50%-74% 75%-89% > 90%
17Web Browser Market ShareEmerging Trends• Despite their potential cost-saving beneﬁts, reservedinstances remain underused• As the range of AWS services continues to expand,hidden costs, such as those associated with storage inthe form of shadow versions, can add up to bigdollars• Amazon Glacier has achieved signiﬁcant traction in ashort amount of time, likely due to its integrated datalifecycle management
18Web Browser Market ShareCustomers canachieve significantcost savings throughproper public cloudmanagementRecommendations For Buyers• Evaluate• Instance types relative to utilization• Unused instance reservations• Unreserved instances• Consider• Switching from Large to Medium instances• Migrating infrequently-used data to Glacier• Retiring unattached storage• Ensure total response time stays withinacceptable range (1.5 - 2.5 seconds)
19Web Browser Market ShareFor More InformationDavid Feinleibdave@thebigdatagroup.comThe Big Data Group consults with technology vendors andbuyers on marketing strategy and market research.The Big Data Group produces The Big Data Landscape, BigData Trends, Big Data TV, and The Big Data 100.Cloudyn’s set of power tools helps companies optimize theircloud deployments. Organizations using Cloudyn havecomprehensive insight and control over their cloud costsand usage.www.cloudyn.com@cloudyn_buzz
21Web Browser Market ShareCustomers who spend less than $50K per year make up the largest group of AWSusers, yet account for only 4% of total spend. Just 4% of customers spend morethan $1M per year, yet account for some 52% of total spend.Customer Distribution by Spend< $50K $50K - $100K $100K - $500K $500K - $1M > $1M52%10%29%5%4% 4%2%22%11%61%Customers by Spend CategoryFirst Quarter 2013% Customers % Spend
22Web Browser Market ShareThe most common instance types are largely underutilized, with averageutilization rates at just 8-9%.Most instances arelargely underutilized,presenting significantopportunity for cost-savingsUtilization of Most Common Instance Typesm1.Small m1.Medium m1.Large9.0%8.0%9.0%
23Web Browser Market ShareInstance DeﬁnitionsType InstancesMicro t1.microSmall m1.smallMedium c1.medium, m1.mediumLarge m1.largeXLarge *.*xlargeFor the purposes of this study, instances were grouped into Micro, Small, Medium,Large, and XLarge types.The instances included in each type are shown below.
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