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Behaviorism presentation

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  • 1. Behaviorism BRITTANY I. JENNIFER S. BRANDON S.
  • 2. Behaviorism “Behaviorism is the prediction and control of human behavior in which introspection and/or independent thinking play no essential part of its teaching methods” (Shelley 258) The student is “essentially passive” and acts in response to stimuli (Learning Theories Knowledgebase Behaviorism includes operant and classical conditioning, as well as positive and negative reinforcement.
  • 3. Ivan Pavlov Ivan Pavlov (1849 – 1936) was a Russian scientist that won the Nobel Prize in Physiology in 1904. Pavlov was most known for his use of classical conditioning to train dogs to salivate at the ring of a bell.  Classical conditioning: “refers to the natural reflex that occurs in response to stimulus” (Shelley 258)
  • 4. B.F. Skinner B.F. Skinner (1904 – 1990) was an American scientist most known for his use of operant conditioning  Operant conditioning: “describes learning that is controlled and results in shaping behavior through the reinforcement of stimuli-response patterns” (Shelley 259)  Begins with a stimulus, ends in a reward, either positive or negative Skinner conducted experiments in which he rewarded pigeons when they behaved in a correct way He concluded that people “shape their behavior based on the rewards or positive reinforcement they receive” (Shelley 259)
  • 5. Behaviorism and Teachers Behaviorism puts the teacher at the forefront of the learning experience and “implies the dominance of the teacher” (learningandteaching.info). In a behaviorist classroom, the teacher would be responsible for affecting the behavior of the students, possibly by implementing classical or operant conditioning. Technology has been developed that utilizes operant conditioning; computer games or apps use positive reinforcement to encourage student learning
  • 6. Behaviorism and Students For students, behaviorism puts student behavior in the hands of the instructor. Using iPad applications or computer games encourage student learning through operant conditioning. Other ways of using behaviorism with students include giving out candy or extra credit for certain behaviors  This can also go the opposite way: using detention or some other sort of punishment to affect students when they act out of line
  • 7. Behaviorism and Us We feel that there are good things and bad things about behaviorism. The Good:  Operant conditioning is a great way to influence student behavior, especially with positive reinforcement. The Bad:  It puts too much emphasis on the teacher and not enough on the student.  Too much influence from the teacher could cause conflicts with parents.
  • 8. Sources Image of Pavlov: http://faith-happens.com/wp- content/uploads/2012/10/pavlov-experiment-dog.jpg Image of Skinner: http://www.harvardsquarelibrary.org/stafford/images/bfskinne r.jpg Images of children with iPads:  http://www.nytimes.com/2011/01/05/education/05tablets.html  http://www.ipadsforeducation.vic.edu.au/userfiles/images/TB_042_20101 213_HP_4444.jpg http://www.learningandteaching.info/learning/behaviour.htm http://www.learning-theories.com/behaviorism.html Teachers Discovering Computers: Integrating Technology in a Connected World. Shelly|Gunter|Gunter. Pages 258-260