Player-Centric Game Design:Adding UX Laddering to theMethod Toolbox for Player Experience Measurement A poker case study Bieke Zaman CUO, KULeuven – iMinds http://www.linkedin.com/in/biekezaman Presentation at Measuring Behaviour Conference 2012
Measuring player experiences Informing game designUser eXperience Laddering
OriginsMeans-End Chain TheoryHow do specific features of a product relate topersonal values?
People choose a product because it containsattributesthat are instrumental to achieving the desiredconsequencesand fulfilling values
People choose a product because it containsattributes (the means)that are instrumental to achieving the desiredconsequences and fulfilling values (the ends)
Means-End Chain Theory inspiredGame eXperience ModelInsight into1. Player2. Game system3. Game context
Laddering?One particular method for interviewing and datatreatment within Means-End TheoryOrigins: Popular in consumer researchCurrent use: broader research domainsrelevance for user profiling, revealing personalbenefits of product use, supporting the redesignprocess, supporting marketingcampaigns, product benchmarking, ...
What are the motivations to playonline poker (i.c. Poker Stars & FBZynga)?What are the differences betweenamateur, semi-pro and a professionalplayer, if there are any?How does the design of the onlinepoker website influence the game playexperiences and website preferences?
Preference RankingI: “You’ve been playing both onlinepoker games. If you had thechoice, which one would you prefer?”R: “Pokerstars” Interview 6 – semi- professional
Which attributes top of mind? DirectelicitationI: “You usually play poker onFacebook, euhm, now that I asked you toplay poker on PokerStars, which one wouldyou prefer?”R: “Yes, now I actually prefer PokerStarsbecause I find it clearer and more user-friendly than Facebook poker.” Interview 15 - amateur
Lenient LadderingProbing why these attributes areimportant• I: “Why do you play 6 tables at a time?”• R: “Eh, it is just a matter of being able to play more hands an hour so that you can earn more. It is a matter of playing so many tables so that you think you can always play your best game.”• I: “It is maybe a stupid question but why do you want to play better or be more focused?”• R: (laughing) “Well euh, yes, I want to earn more money.” Interview duration: 6 minutes – 47 minutes
Qualitative Data analysisTranscribing the interviewsCoding & categorizingSecond coder ICR (n=6/n =18, k=.934) total
Concrete Attributes: – Extra features (time bank, search function, multi table, filters, hand history…) – Stand alone software – Real money –… CA
Abstract Attributes: – User friendly – Serious game play – Compatibility – Large user base – Legal –… AA
Functional Consequences: – Being more focused – Play quicker – Playing more hands an hour – Profit maximalization – Earn more money – …. FC
Psycho-Social Beliefs: – Challenge – Trust – Playing amongst friends – Fun – Better life –… PSB
Quantitative Data analysisScore MatrixLadderux.com Avg. ladders/resp= 7.8 Avg. elements/ladder=3.7
Quantitative Data analysisImplication MatrixLadderux.com
Duration and effort of data gathering andanalysis – Interviewing, transcribing, coding…Research aim – Can it successfully feed the design?Products studied – Not always existing, hence fewer ladders, no values?
Bieke Zaman Kristof Geurden master student, poker study KU Leuven, Belgium Vero Vanden Abeele Ladderux.comQuestions? Thanks!