Human-Computer Interaction        an introductionIntroductory slides to the course Human-Computer Interaction @ KU Leuven,...
http://www.southbedsda.org.uk/dyslexia/celebrities
HCI is ….the study of interactionbetween people and computers
USABILITY http://www.userfocus.co.uk/articles/cogwalk.html
http://www.userfocus.co.uk/articles/cogwalk.html
http://www.userfocus.co.uk/articles/cogwalk.html
Source: Google+ Josh Armour
More everyday examples-Find your way on the campus-Explore the Toledo user interface-Struggle with the GPS-Interaction wit...
Did you ever read a manual?
Definition usability ISO 9241-11http://www.developer.nokia.com/Resources/Library/Design_and_UX/designing-for-nokia-devices...
But usability is also…Learnability   – How easy is the system to learn?Efficiency   – How quickly can users achieve their ...
Relevance?•Competition is high, and only one click away•Lack of usability can damage corporate image•E-commerce  – Lack of...
Every day, more time is wasted on ‘tampering’ withcomputers than on being stuck in traffic
“
WHY USABILITY IS NO LONGER ENOUGH                                                                                         ...
THAT NEW MOVIE NOW IN 3D?                                                              SO WHAT?http://www.flickr.com/photo...
CONFESSIONS ON A DANCEFLOOR           AVERAGE CD PRICE OF $ 14
BUT HER WORLD TOUR
MADE ABOUT $ 64 PER       TICKET
“DESIGNING      for    UX
“DESIGNING    UX
“A persons perceptions and responses that result from the useor anticipated use ofa product, system or service”           ...
“A persons perceptions and responses      dynamic                                context-dependent that result from the us...
PLEASURE                                     HEDONICS                                     FUNOLOGY                        ...
THE PIANO STAIRCASE___________________
HCI is ….Not about people and computers as suchbut about the interaction between these
“ spacesfor human communcation                      Designing &   interaction                                 Winograd 199...
GOOGLE STREET VIEW____________________
“     spacesfor human communciation                       Designing                                                       ...
http://www.flickr.com/photos/haagsuitburo/534995778/sizes/m/in/photostream/
“   RE-PLACE-ING SPACE       Space is the opportunityPlace is the understood reality                                ”     ...
DESIGN SERVING USERS  http://www.flickr.com/photos/danisarda/3900990145/sizes/m/in/photostream/
DESIGN SERVING ADAPTERS              http://www.flickr.com/photos/eworm/4690444746/sizes/m/in/photostream/
DESIGN SERVING ADAPTERS              http://www.flickr.com/photos/eworm/4690444746/sizes/m/in/photostream/
DESIGN SERVING PARTICIPANTS                   http://www.flickr.com/photos/26611570@N04/4280275066/
DESIGN SERVING PARTICIPANTS                   http://www.flickr.com/photos/26611570@N04/4280275066/
DESIGN SERVING CO-CREATORS
DESIGN SERVING CO-CREATORS
HCI is ….Now turning into a more diffuse problem space
Diffuse problem space…•New paradigms•New conceptualizations•Innovative design methods
As a reaction to…•Arrival and rapid pace of technologicaldevelopments•which results in a variety of opportunities,•for all...
HCI is concerned with….“the design, evaluation and implementation ofinteractive systems for human useand with the major ph...
ISO 9241-210http://iso9241-210.blogspot.com/2010/04/iso-9241-210-on-ilmestynyt-korvaa-iso.html
CONTEXT OF USEImage by the Centre for User Experience Research (CUO), IBBT/KU Leuven, Belgium
USER REQUIREMENTS                                  De sto                                         k                       ...
DESIGN SOLUTIONSImage by the Centre for User Experience Research (CUO), IBBT/KU Leuven, Belgium
EVALUATE DESIGNSImage by the Centre for User Experience Research (CUO), IBBT/KU Leuven, Belgium (c) Rob Stevens
HCI isa multidisciplinary discipline
HUMAN SCIENCESEXACT SCIENCESDESIGNHCI’S MULTIDISCIPLINARITY
Introduction to Human-Computer Interaction
Introduction to Human-Computer Interaction
Introduction to Human-Computer Interaction
Introduction to Human-Computer Interaction
Introduction to Human-Computer Interaction
Introduction to Human-Computer Interaction
Introduction to Human-Computer Interaction
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  • What is it about? This is not a computer science department Technical issues will be touched, but main focus is on Human -Computer Interaction HCI studies how people use technology as well as how to design usable technology This course mostly treats the first part (with some references to how to design) The practical aspect of HCI will be treated in a different course (SC78 Usability Design) Eddie Izzard, British stand up comedian and actor 6 minutes + discussion
  • “ Figure 3 shows an example from a car park machine at Stuttgart airport that has a weak link between the control and the action. I used this machine over a period of 18 months while on assignment in Germany. The first time I arrived at the airport and wanted to leave the car park, I was confronted by the barrier and the control shown in the picture. The barrier has a slot at the top and two buttons, a green one on top and a red one below. I didn't have anything to put in the slot, so I guessed I had to press one of the buttons. Question: Which button would you press to lift the barrier: the green one or the red one? Convention dictates that you would press the green, upper button. In fact, this appeared to do nothing. Assuming that the barrier was broken, I pressed the red button, thinking that this would put me in intercom contact with the car park attendant who could then open it for me. To my surprise, the red button lifted the barrier.
  • Clearly, I was not the only person to experience this difficulty. When I returned some weeks later, the design had been upgraded (see Figure 4). As well as a large sign showing the correct button to push, some ‘help text’ had been added to the system (in both German and English) saying ‘Please press the red button’. To emphasise this, the designers had even printed the word ‘red’ in red ink. Which button would you press now?
  • As if to prove that customers do not read documentation, when I returned some weeks later, the design had been changed again (see Figure 5). Presumably, customers had not been using the help system. The hint text, now flapping in the breeze, had been almost discarded and the design had been changed to include a series of (red) arrows, indicating which button to press. This month’s rhetorical question: how many participants would have been needed in a usability test to spot this blooper?
  • Most people are right-handed
  • Atm = cash dispenser
  • http://vimeo.com/26489936
  • “ The extent to which a product can be used by specified users to achieve specified goals with effectiveness, efficiency, and satisfaction in a specified context of use”
  • A bad day at the office: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GhnLZ3Ryccg Compilation: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l1CjvMTHbKc
  • A bad day at the office: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GhnLZ3Ryccg Compilation: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l1CjvMTHbKc
  • Usability matters! Source article, The Telegraph by Nick Ross, Neil Tweedee April 28 2012 More examples: http://www.cracked.com/article_19776_6-disasters-caused-by-poorly-designed-user-interfaces.html
  • http://www.standaard.be/artikel/detail.aspx?artikelid=DMF20121017_00338964
  • Ecosystem (synonyms=product ecologies, product service ecosystems – ecology is the discipline of the ecosystems, not the systems themselves): The importance of usability has been extended outside the scope of the product in isolation, it now also relates to how we co-ordinate multiple digital devices, the usage context. Components that are usable in isolation might be less usable in combination. In this example, the Kindle charges with common adapter, fits into most pockets, readable in wide range of light conditions, contend downloads at click, etc.
  • Just take 3D television as an example: It is an innovation born out of a frantic need for re-inventing television to ensure future sales. The result is an expensive, hard to sell technology, without much power to impact our lives "The new movie by Darren Aronofsky now in 3D! So what?" Indeed, other technology-mediated innovations, such as improving the social experience of watching television as a family or over a distance, require less effort in terms of resources (both on the vendor and the consumer end), but at the same time offer a profound improvement of current practices and according experiences. We should definitely shift attention (and resources) from the development of new technologies to the conscious design of resulting experiences, from technology-driven innovations to human-driven innovations. http://www.flickr.com/photos/stereoviews/4486459884/sizes/m/in/photostream/ http://www.flickr.com/photos/mikechen-metalman/4452598095/sizes/m/in/photostream/
  • For example, Madonna's Confessions on a Dancefloor sold only 1.6 million copies, but her world tour generated about 200 million dollars. According to Pollstar (Bongiovann 2010), in 2009 the average ticket price for a top 100 act in the US was about $64, a CD made only $13.99. Typically, illegal digital downloads are made responsible for this effect. But the missing willingness to pay for music in the form of a tangible product may also be a consequence of shifting from a materialistic to an experiential orientation. Today the music itself matters, different type of ownership, cf. Spotify So, what's unique and not copyable? A feeling, or an experience."  EXPERIENCE ECONOMY http://www.flickr.com/photos/peggyq/2976961846/sizes/m/in/photostream/
  • Experience design cf Experience Design stands for technology, which suggests meaningful, engaging, valuable, and aesthetically pleasing experiences in itself. E.G Thinking "communication experiences" rather than "mobile devices" opens up a huge design space for possible devices STEP 1. Experience Design is a remedy to this. It starts from the Why , tries to clarify the needs and emotions involved in an activity, the meaning , the experience. STEP 2 Only then, it determines functionality that is able to provide the experience (the What ) and an appropriate way of putting the functionality to action (the How ). Experience Design wants the Why , What and How to chime together, but with the Why , the needs and emotions, setting the tone (see Figure 7). This leads to products which are sensitive to the particularities of human experience. It leads to products able to tell enjoyable stories through their use or consumption. Don't get me wrong, we still need all the wonderful technologies , dreamt up by engineers and computer scientists all over the world. But they are only materials - canvas, colours, and brushes - for the Experience Design The wake-up experience created by an alarm clock substantially differs from the experience created by sunrise and happy birds. The question is whether we can create technology which understands the crucial features of sunrise and birds and which succeeds in delivering a similar experience, even when the sun refuses to shine and the birds have already left for Africa. In fact, the experience I described in the beginning was not created by sun and birds, but by Philips' Wake-Up Light . This is a crossing of an alarm clock and a bedside lamp. Half an hour before the set alarm, the lamp starts to brighten gradually, simulating sunrise. It reaches its maximum at the set wake-up time and then the electronic birds kick in to make sure that you really get up. Admittedly, it is a surrogate experience, but so are love stories and travel novels. It is artificial, but not vulgar. And more importantly, it substantially changes the way one wakes up. It changes the experience. The object itself, its form, is rather unremarkable (see Figure 1). The Philips Wake-Up Light has nevertheless the power to "transcend its encasing" because its contribution is not one to the aesthetics of things, but to the aesthetics of experiences. This is the challenge designers and vendors of interactive products face: Experience or User Experience is not about good industrial design, multi-touch, or fancy interfaces. It is about transcending the material. It is about creating an experience through a device. Picture: http://www.flickr.com/photos/linhngan/3101950593/sizes/m/in/photostream/
  • Experience design cf Experience Design stands for technology, which suggests meaningful, engaging, valuable, and aesthetically pleasing experiences in itself. E.G Thinking "communication experiences" rather than "mobile devices" opens up a huge design space for possible devices STEP 1. Experience Design is a remedy to this. It starts from the Why , tries to clarify the needs and emotions involved in an activity, the meaning , the experience. STEP 2 Only then, it determines functionality that is able to provide the experience (the What ) and an appropriate way of putting the functionality to action (the How ). Experience Design wants the Why , What and How to chime together, but with the Why , the needs and emotions, setting the tone (see Figure 7). This leads to products which are sensitive to the particularities of human experience. It leads to products able to tell enjoyable stories through their use or consumption. Don't get me wrong, we still need all the wonderful technologies , dreamt up by engineers and computer scientists all over the world. But they are only materials - canvas, colours, and brushes - for the Experience Design The wake-up experience created by an alarm clock substantially differs from the experience created by sunrise and happy birds. The question is whether we can create technology which understands the crucial features of sunrise and birds and which succeeds in delivering a similar experience, even when the sun refuses to shine and the birds have already left for Africa. In fact, the experience I described in the beginning was not created by sun and birds, but by Philips' Wake-Up Light . This is a crossing of an alarm clock and a bedside lamp. Half an hour before the set alarm, the lamp starts to brighten gradually, simulating sunrise. It reaches its maximum at the set wake-up time and then the electronic birds kick in to make sure that you really get up. Admittedly, it is a surrogate experience, but so are love stories and travel novels. It is artificial, but not vulgar. And more importantly, it substantially changes the way one wakes up. It changes the experience. The object itself, its form, is rather unremarkable (see Figure 1). The Philips Wake-Up Light has nevertheless the power to "transcend its encasing" because its contribution is not one to the aesthetics of things, but to the aesthetics of experiences. This is the challenge designers and vendors of interactive products face: Experience or User Experience is not about good industrial design, multi-touch, or fancy interfaces. It is about transcending the material. It is about creating an experience through a device. Picture: http://www.flickr.com/photos/linhngan/3101950593/sizes/m/in/photostream/
  • the UX definition proposed by ISO (2008) [10] The definition focuses UX on the immediate consequences of use (perceptions and responses) and also introduces the concept of ‘anticipated use ’ . contextual factors The ISO definition also addresses the object that the investigated UX is related to: product, system, or service. This means the definition is in line with our view that user experience is related to usage, and so, is a narrower concept than general ‘ experience ’ . According to our views, user experience focuses on interaction between a person and something that has a user interface
  • No specific goals – ‘ lean back ’ – free choice Not effective or efficient, but emotionally rewarding Unique context of the experience Designing for user experience Avoid negative emotions vs. produce positive emotions Making products challenging, seductive, playful, surprising, memorable, moody, enjoyable, … It is not possible to design the user experience, you can only design for the user experience Exploit design solutions that evoke or intensify certain feelings A holistic view on designing products
  • Pioneers: Hassenzahl and his unifying model: Beyond the instrumental (holistic, aesthetic, hedonic) Emotion and affect (subjective, positive, antecedents & consequences) The experiental (dynamic, complex, unique, situated, temporally bounded) academic perspective (e.g. Hassenzahl) Non-instrumental aspects Value (fun) Pleasure and fun Pleasure typology (Jordan): physio-, psycho-, socio-, ideo-pleasure Funology (Blythe e.a.) see also Carroll Ludic products (Gaver) Aesthetics (Tractinsky) Correlation between aesthetics and (perceived) usability Value (Cockton) Hedonics (Hassenzahl) Pragmatic attributes Fulfilment of individual ’ s behavioural goals Manipulation of the environment Hedonic attributes Individual ’ s psychological well-being Are strong potentials for pleasure “ outstanding ” , “ impressive ” , “ exciting ” , “ interesting ” , … Provide stimulation, communicate identity and provoke valued memories ---- Stimulation A product's perceived ability to surprise, to be novel Products should provide new impressions, opportunities and insight E.g. unused features you hope to use in the future Identification A product's ability to communicate a favorable identity relevant others Social function of self-expressivity Evocation The memories attached to a product A product that represents past events, relationships or important thoughts
  • Example ‘the piano staircase’ initiative from the thefuntheory.com sponsored by Volkswagen. Through this playful environment, people are invited to take the staircase instead of the escalator. The designers turned a subway staircase into a real piano. Many people started to create music by joining the others in activating the interactive steps= Example of playful experience design: more focus on the quality of the user experience, less on increasing or improving the functionality http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2lXh2n0aPyw
  • Interaction design (more and more being banded about in addition to of HCI as a way of focusing more on what is being done (i.e. designing interactions) rather than the components it is being done to (i.e. the computer, the human ) cf. quote winograd 1997 or also quote Rogers 2002, p.6: Interaction design is “ the design of interactive products to support people in their everyday and working lives ” .
  • WHY so compelling? objectively: the same information as the older static maps, The same driving directions As usability as it is now But experienced as: More fun, more engaging Design, graphics Additional layer
  • We are all highly skilled at structuring and interpreting space for our individual or interactive purposes. IN real life: OFFICE Physical spaces are structured according to uses and needs for interaction. An office door can be closed to give independence from the space outside, or left open to let us see passers-by. People’s offices are more likely to be sited near to the offices of their colleagues. LANGUAGE: Space goes with metaphors , spatial concepts play in our thinking and our language (notion of distance ‘far apart’ or ‘up and down ~ good & bad’ These metaphors have been adopted particularly in Computer supported cooperative work Example of designing spaces: shared workspaces , providing a setting for interaction, drawn upon analogies with the spatial organization of the everyday physical world to structure aspects of distributed multi-user interaction E.g. through metaphors of “ virtual hallways ” or principles related to spatial Proximity and action. In the everyday world, we act (more or less) where we are. We pick up objects that are near us, not at a distance; we talk to people around us, because our voices only travel a short distance; we carry things with us; and we get closer to things to view them clearly. Similar properties are exploited in collaborative virtual spaces. We talk to those people that we face and stand close to. Also principles of Presence and awareness. But what exactly do we mean by spaces? Understand its meaning by comparing it to places SPACE: is the structure of the world; it is the three-dimensional environment, in which objects and events occur, and in which they have relative position and direction. ” Space is abstract. E.g. ‘desktop’ with its elements. PLACE: more specific than a space. A space is always what it is, but a place is how it’s used. A place is generally a space with something added—social meaning, convention, cultural. Hence, the meaning of place depends on both the spatiality and the cultural understanding Bijvoorbeeld: A small comfortless, uninviting smooking room (space) versus the place (place) to close informal deals, to gossip. House versus Home. When we acknowledge the difference between space and place, we must understand that in the design for meaningful experiences, designing for places becomes important too. Space is not enough!! This has been acknowledged over the last few years, cf. Harrison and dourish 1996 Uit Re-Place-ing Space: The Roles of Place and Space in Collaborative Systems Steve Harrison * and Paul Dourish†
  • Example A conference hall and a theatre share many similar spatial features (such as lighting and orientation); and yet we rarely sing or dance when presenting conference papers. We wouldn’t describe this behaviour as “out of space”; but it would most certainly be “out of place”; and this feeling is so strong that we might try quite hard to interpret a song or a dance as part of a presentation. It is a sense of place, not space, which makes it appropriate to dance at a Grateful Dead concert, but not at a Cambridge college high table; to be naked in the bedroom,
  • we can design for it –> similarities with user experience design Design implications Turn the attention away from the structure of space toward the activities that take place there, emphasizing not how to design the space, but how to design for the interaction!! Place reflects the emergence of practice, i.e. knowledge that is shared by a particular set of people based on their common experiences of time. E.g. meeting room: other constellation when focus group, brainstorm, presentation … customized to changing needs, ‘appropriated’, malleable enough. Such practices do not emerge from the designers of the system but from the actions of the users. The idea of place is relative to a particular community of practice, only shared by a particular set of people. E.g. a shopping street: view from delivery trucks, children on their way to school, meet and dine, lazy weekend etc. See also Anthony Giddels and Geraldine Fitzpatrick in his Locale framework (the same idea of a place as a setting for action) Let’s now see what kind of opportunities designers have taken in history…
  • New design spaces are emerging … and these have consequences on the roles played by everyday people in the design process too The traditional design space can be described as design for consuming . This space is focused on designing for consumptive activities such as shopping and buying which lead to owning and using . Because design in this space is often market-driven as opposed to human-centered, it has resulted in many over-featured products that are easy to sell, yet may be difficult to use . Companies spend large amounts of money communicating about and advertising these products and services. The Design for Consuming Space is a good example of design serving markets, not people. Design serving users was first introduced in the mid 1980’s when everyday people began to try to use computers and found that they could not use them. New disciplines, such as usability engineering, emerged to help bring about more “user friendly” products. Microsoft, for example, a pioneer in usability testing, had four usability engineers on staff in 1988 (8). The usability domain has grown and gained tremendous momentum. Today Microsoft has hundreds of people involved in usability testing and user-centered designing. The focus on usability led to improved products and tools. Yet, important as it is, usability has not been enough. In 1992, I suggested (7) that that we needed to learn how to design products and tools that were simultaneously “useful, usable and desirable”. Today thousands of people are involved in user-centered design practices, most often in the field of Human Computer Interaction (hci), many of them succeeding in designing product and/or systems that are simultaneously useful, usable and desirable. Comparison: your home versus your neighbours’ house/home. It may look like a similar space, but it is a different perceived place. When you have to swap houses suddenly for one day, you will USE that house. What you care about is whether the house is user-friendly, but you don ’ t care about what it means to you as this is no place that can be appropriated. Cf Sanders http://www.maketools.com/articles-papers/DesignServingPeople_Sanders_06.pdf
  • Design serving adapters emerged over the last five years as people who have been inundated with options for consumption seek avenues for creative expression. Design serving adapters is not only a reaction to an overabundance of choices. It has been enabled by our use of information technology to find what we want, when we want it and to be able to purchase it, for the lowest possible price, over the Internet. Companies such as Levi’s, L.L. Bean, Converse and Dell Computer are capitalizing on this need/want and now offer people the ability to customize products online, making it possible for them to enjoy one-of-a-kind products made to their specifications. New publications such as Readymade and Make cater to the adapters among us, as well. As designers serving adapters, we will learn how to design things that are not only useful, usable and desirable, but are also reusable and customizable. Comparison: It is here were people are given the chance to make places in media spaces, through a process of adaptation and appropriation. Just like you rearrange a house to suit our lives and hereby making the house into a home, we can do the same in technological spaces. Turn-key : choosing from a catalogue, but making it your own choice (materials, kitchen, budget). You can adapt, but still the options are predefined and rather limited. Adaptation is like
  • Design serving adapters emerged over the last five years as people who have been inundated with options for consumption seek avenues for creative expression. Design serving adapters is not only a reaction to an overabundance of choices. It has been enabled by our use of information technology to find what we want, when we want it and to be able to purchase it, for the lowest possible price, over the Internet. Companies such as Levi’s, L.L. Bean, Converse and Dell Computer are capitalizing on this need/want and now offer people the ability to customize products online, making it possible for them to enjoy one-of-a-kind products made to their specifications. New publications such as Readymade and Make cater to the adapters among us, as well. As designers serving adapters, we will learn how to design things that are not only useful, usable and desirable, but are also reusable and customizable. Comparison: It is here were people are given the chance to make places in media spaces, through a process of adaptation and appropriation. Just like you rearrange a house to suit our lives and hereby making the house into a home, we can do the same in technological spaces. Turn-key : choosing from a catalogue, but making it your own choice (materials, kitchen, budget). You can adapt, but still the options are predefined and rather limited. Adaptation is like
  • The new information and communication technologies have spawned another of the new design spaces: design serving participants . We now have the ability to locate and to communicate instantly with people anywhere in the world having similar passions, interests or hobbies. We already have community sites such as eBay, wikis, and blogs that support these activities. In the Design serving Participants Space, we will learn how to design things that are useful, usable, desirable, reusable, and customizable. We will also learn how to design to support immersive and collective experiences . Comparison: your house becomes a home when you live in it, when you can invite friends family, when it becomes a collective, shared experience
  • The new information and communication technologies have spawned another of the new design spaces: design serving participants . We now have the ability to locate and to communicate instantly with people anywhere in the world having similar passions, interests or hobbies. We already have community sites such as eBay, wikis, and blogs that support these activities. In the Design serving Participants Space, we will learn how to design things that are useful, usable, desirable, reusable, and customizable. We will also learn how to design to support immersive and collective experiences . Comparison: your house becomes a home when you live in it, when you can invite friends family, when it becomes a collective, shared experience
  • Beyond the current edge of practice are the co-creating spaces where designers and everyday people work collaboratively throughout the design development process. Co-creation has been noted across different domains. There has been a synchronicity in the appearance of this idea which has been referred to as “ underdesign ” (4), “ meta-design ” (1), and “ loose fit ” design (5). Co-creation is no longer a future dream. Recent research (3) shows that over half of all on-line American teenagers create their own content. (The following activities counted as the creation of new content: create a blog; create or work on a personal website; create or work on a webpage for school, a friend, or an organization; share original content such as artwork, photos, stories or video online; or remix content found online into a new creation). Although this study was conducted in the us, it is not hard to imagine that the results would be similar for other parts of the world. Imagine the world ten years from meta-design = how to create new media that allow users to act as designers and be creative • why meta-design? - design as a process is tightly coupled to use and continues during the use of the system - address and overcome problems of closed systems - “ underdesign ” - example: American constitution - create opportunities for design at use time - create design opportunities rather than design solutions - beyond participatory design 􀃆 design for change - transcend a “ consumer mindset ” a researcher in our center: “You're not going to make a Hollywood feature with iMovie, but you can make some pretty cool home movies from the holidays.” - success of CLever video presentation - my skiing movie as another example Trade-offs in a “Do-It-Yourself Society” LEGO Digital Designer DIY creations + business model: order your constructions in a self-made box Comparison house vs home: use google sketchup to draw the home you dream of and discuss this with architect to co-design it. http://www.flickr.com/photos/korosirego/4471665520/sizes/z/in/photostream/
  • Beyond the current edge of practice are the co-creating spaces where designers and everyday people work collaboratively throughout the design development process. Co-creation has been noted across different domains. There has been a synchronicity in the appearance of this idea which has been referred to as “ underdesign ” (4), “ meta-design ” (1), and “ loose fit ” design (5). Co-creation is no longer a future dream. Recent research (3) shows that over half of all on-line American teenagers create their own content. (The following activities counted as the creation of new content: create a blog; create or work on a personal website; create or work on a webpage for school, a friend, or an organization; share original content such as artwork, photos, stories or video online; or remix content found online into a new creation). Although this study was conducted in the us, it is not hard to imagine that the results would be similar for other parts of the world. Imagine the world ten years from meta-design = how to create new media that allow users to act as designers and be creative • why meta-design? - design as a process is tightly coupled to use and continues during the use of the system - address and overcome problems of closed systems - “ underdesign ” - example: American constitution - create opportunities for design at use time - create design opportunities rather than design solutions - beyond participatory design 􀃆 design for change - transcend a “ consumer mindset ” a researcher in our center: “You're not going to make a Hollywood feature with iMovie, but you can make some pretty cool home movies from the holidays.” - success of CLever video presentation - my skiing movie as another example Trade-offs in a “Do-It-Yourself Society” LEGO Digital Designer DIY creations + business model: order your constructions in a self-made box Comparison house vs home: use google sketchup to draw the home you dream of and discuss this with architect to co-design it. http://www.flickr.com/photos/korosirego/4471665520/sizes/z/in/photostream/
  • Methods: eg. Location based games Concepts: usability, UX Paradigms: desktop paradigm (WIMP & GUI) to UbiComp
  • Technologies: e.g. wireless technologies, handheld computers etc -> experiences for all manner of people Opportunities: functional, but also entertaining People: not only users Settings: office to home to even our privat live (e.g. domestic life, personal hygiene) Activities: some we are conscious of, some we aren’t (e.g. monitoring)
  • Source definition: http://old.sigchi.org/cdg/cdg2.html#2_1
  • Human sciences e.g. (cognitive) psychology, (cognitive) ergonomy, human factors, social sciences Focus on the user Methods to study users (psychology, anthropology) From experiments to ethnographic observations Mental processes (cognitive psychology) Social interaction (sociology, communication sciences) Exact sciences e.g. computer sciences, informatics, engineering Focus on computer Development of new technologies to enhance interaction with computers (in & output & supporting technologies) Software engineering methods Design e.g. graphic design, product design, industrial design Focus on visual and interaction design (prototyping, design, ergonomics, aesthetics, graphical design) Design innovation (creative skills)
  • Introduction to Human-Computer Interaction

    1. 1. Human-Computer Interaction an introductionIntroductory slides to the course Human-Computer Interaction @ KU Leuven, Belgiumhttp://onderwijsaanbod.kuleuven.be/syllabi/e/S0C76AE.htmBy Bieke Zaman http://www.linkedin.com/in/biekezamanYou can be inspired by these slides, but please give me the credits
    2. 2. http://www.southbedsda.org.uk/dyslexia/celebrities
    3. 3. HCI is ….the study of interactionbetween people and computers
    4. 4. USABILITY http://www.userfocus.co.uk/articles/cogwalk.html
    5. 5. http://www.userfocus.co.uk/articles/cogwalk.html
    6. 6. http://www.userfocus.co.uk/articles/cogwalk.html
    7. 7. Source: Google+ Josh Armour
    8. 8. More everyday examples-Find your way on the campus-Explore the Toledo user interface-Struggle with the GPS-Interaction with different ATM-Turn round memory stick-Struggle with printer-Format master thesis (love Word?)-…
    9. 9. Did you ever read a manual?
    10. 10. Definition usability ISO 9241-11http://www.developer.nokia.com/Resources/Library/Design_and_UX/designing-for-nokia-devices/usability-overview/about-usability.html
    11. 11. But usability is also…Learnability – How easy is the system to learn?Efficiency – How quickly can users achieve their tasks?Memorability – How easy is the system to remember?Errors – Control of errors, including prevention and recoverySatisfaction – How much users like the system Nielsen 1993
    12. 12. Relevance?•Competition is high, and only one click away•Lack of usability can damage corporate image•E-commerce – Lack of usability can hinder buying process – Shopping cart abandonment rates
    13. 13. Every day, more time is wasted on ‘tampering’ withcomputers than on being stuck in traffic
    14. 14.
    15. 15. WHY USABILITY IS NO LONGER ENOUGH Product Product ecosystem ecosystem Appealing to Appealing to Based on report by Human Factors International Dr. Eric Schaffer “the Kindle Fire: solid proof that usability is no longer enough” February 2012 emotions and emotions and preferences preferences
    16. 16. THAT NEW MOVIE NOW IN 3D? SO WHAT?http://www.flickr.com/photos/stereoviews/4486459884/sizes/m/in/photostream/, http://www.flickr.com/photos/mikechen-metalman/4452598095/sizes/m/in/photostream/
    17. 17. CONFESSIONS ON A DANCEFLOOR AVERAGE CD PRICE OF $ 14
    18. 18. BUT HER WORLD TOUR
    19. 19. MADE ABOUT $ 64 PER TICKET
    20. 20. “DESIGNING for UX
    21. 21. “DESIGNING UX
    22. 22. “A persons perceptions and responses that result from the useor anticipated use ofa product, system or service” Definition user experience by ISO (2008)
    23. 23. “A persons perceptions and responses dynamic context-dependent that result from the use subjectiveor anticipateda use of range of potential benefits users may“UX stems from broadderive from a system or service”a product, product” Law et al. 2009
    24. 24. PLEASURE HEDONICS FUNOLOGY VALUE“A persons perceptions and responses“UX stems from a from range use that result broad the ofNon-instrumental benefits users derive”or anticipated use ofa product, system or service”
    25. 25. THE PIANO STAIRCASE___________________
    26. 26. HCI is ….Not about people and computers as suchbut about the interaction between these
    27. 27. “ spacesfor human communcation Designing & interaction Winograd 1997 ” http://www.flickr.com/photos/eyedeaz/2784233518/sizes/m/in/photostream/
    28. 28. GOOGLE STREET VIEW____________________
    29. 29. “ spacesfor human communciation Designing ” & interaction Winograd 1997 p. 155 http://www.flickr.com/photos/eyedeaz/2784233518/sizes/m/in/photostream/
    30. 30. http://www.flickr.com/photos/haagsuitburo/534995778/sizes/m/in/photostream/
    31. 31. “ RE-PLACE-ING SPACE Space is the opportunityPlace is the understood reality ” Harrison & Dourish 1996 http://www.flickr.com/photos/haagsuitburo/534995778/sizes/m/in/photostream/
    32. 32. DESIGN SERVING USERS http://www.flickr.com/photos/danisarda/3900990145/sizes/m/in/photostream/
    33. 33. DESIGN SERVING ADAPTERS http://www.flickr.com/photos/eworm/4690444746/sizes/m/in/photostream/
    34. 34. DESIGN SERVING ADAPTERS http://www.flickr.com/photos/eworm/4690444746/sizes/m/in/photostream/
    35. 35. DESIGN SERVING PARTICIPANTS http://www.flickr.com/photos/26611570@N04/4280275066/
    36. 36. DESIGN SERVING PARTICIPANTS http://www.flickr.com/photos/26611570@N04/4280275066/
    37. 37. DESIGN SERVING CO-CREATORS
    38. 38. DESIGN SERVING CO-CREATORS
    39. 39. HCI is ….Now turning into a more diffuse problem space
    40. 40. Diffuse problem space…•New paradigms•New conceptualizations•Innovative design methods
    41. 41. As a reaction to…•Arrival and rapid pace of technologicaldevelopments•which results in a variety of opportunities,•for all manner of people•in all manner of settings•doing all manner of things
    42. 42. HCI is concerned with….“the design, evaluation and implementation ofinteractive systems for human useand with the major phenomena surroundingthem” ACM
    43. 43. ISO 9241-210http://iso9241-210.blogspot.com/2010/04/iso-9241-210-on-ilmestynyt-korvaa-iso.html
    44. 44. CONTEXT OF USEImage by the Centre for User Experience Research (CUO), IBBT/KU Leuven, Belgium
    45. 45. USER REQUIREMENTS De sto k klas-ap aan de p bewee licatie gt wanne e zieke k r het in aanda d de ch vraagt t53 / 141 Images left and upper right by Centre for User Experience Research (CUO), IBBT / KU Leuven, Belgium Image below right by http://www.gamestudies.org/0501/ermi_mayra/
    46. 46. DESIGN SOLUTIONSImage by the Centre for User Experience Research (CUO), IBBT/KU Leuven, Belgium
    47. 47. EVALUATE DESIGNSImage by the Centre for User Experience Research (CUO), IBBT/KU Leuven, Belgium (c) Rob Stevens
    48. 48. HCI isa multidisciplinary discipline
    49. 49. HUMAN SCIENCESEXACT SCIENCESDESIGNHCI’S MULTIDISCIPLINARITY
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