Linguistics (some basic concept)


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Linguistics (some basic concept)

  1. 1. LINGUISTICS (SOME BASIC CONCEPT) Presented by: Bida Javaid
  2. 2. Topic cover up today 1. What is language ? 2. Characteristics of Human Language 3. Origin of Language
  3. 3. What is Language ?
  4. 4. Language is the human capacity for acquiring and using complex systems of communication, and a language is any specific example of such a system. The scientific study of language is called linguistics.
  5. 5. Every human knows at least one language, spoken or signed. Linguistics is the science of language, including the sounds, words, and grammar rules. Words in languages are finite, but sentences are not. It is this creative aspect of human language that sets it apart from animal languages, which are essentially responses to stimuli.
  6. 6. The rules of a language, also called grammar, are learned as one acquires a language. These rules include phonology, the sound system, morphology, the structure of words, syntax, the combination of words into sentences, semantics, the ways in which sounds and meanings are related, and the lexicon, or mental dictionary of words. When you know a language, you know words in that language, i.e. sound units that are related to specific meanings. However, the sounds and meanings of words are arbitrary.
  7. 7. Alternative Definitions of Language “Language is a purely human and non-instinctive method of communicating ideas, emotions and desires by means of voluntarily produced symbols.” Edward Sapir “A language consists of symbols that convey meaning, plus rules for combining those symbols, that can be used to generate an infinite variety of messages.” Wayne Weiten
  8. 8. "We can define language as a system of communication using sounds or symbols that enables us to express our feelings, thoughts, ideas, and experiences.“ E. Bruce Goldstein "Language is the mother of thought, not its handmaiden." Karl Kraus
  9. 9. Characteristics of Human Language
  10. 10. Productivities / creativity / open endedness : Whatever we speaking or creating along with speaking is productivity Any one create or discuss a new thing called open endedness. Cultural transmission : Human being acquire language from there surrounding , culture but not from genes while animal acquire language through genes.
  11. 11. Displacement : We human being can talk about the things like past , future and things which we never seen , moon , stars , thing that are imaginary … only human being have this quality. Arbitrariness There is not as direct association between a word and the object that is denote (to refer). Languages are arbitrary because there is no necessary or natural relationship between the words and the concepts they represent. For example, there is nothing in the word "tree" that connects it to the concept of a tree. Also, languages are arbitrary because the rules for the combination of signs in order to produce complete thoughts are different from one language to the other, and no set of rules can claim to be correct.
  12. 12. Duality or double articulation: Human language has two level. The first level is of sound and phonemes and the second level is the combination of sounds , into words and sentences . In animal there is only one level that is sound. Specialization : There is no physical involvement in human language or communication. They can speak while working, while there is special physical involvement in their communication. Animal do this without physical involvement. Discreetness Sounds in human language are distinct separate from one another. Sounds of animal can not be separated.
  13. 13. Structure Dependence : Human language is structure dependent . It dependent on grammar. Pattering: Means that sounds and word not combined in random way in human Reciprocalatary / Interchangeability : There is an exchange ability in language. The speaker may be the audience . The sender may be the receiver and vice versa  Rapid fade: Linguistics feature that are produced , disappear quickly, they don't stay in the air.
  14. 14. Origin of language
  15. 15. The divine theory The natural sound theory The oral gesture theory Interactions and transaction
  16. 16. Thank you!