Linguistic branches


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Linguistic branches

  1. 1. Linguistics THE STUDY OF LANGUAGE Image from
  2. 2. What is “Linguistics”?  Linguistics is the study of language not just particular languages, but the system of human communication Photo from
  3. 3.  Each human language is a complex of knowledge and abilities enabling speakers of the language to communicate with each other, to express ideas, hypotheses, emotions, desires, and all the other things that need expressing. Linguistics is the study of these knowledge systems in all their aspects: how is such a knowledge system structured, how is it acquired, how is it used in the production and comprehension of messages, how does it change over time? Linguists consequently are concerned with a number of particular questions about the nature of language. What properties do all human languages have in common? How do languages differ, and to what extent are the differences systematic, i.e. can we find patterns in the differences? How do children acquire such complete knowledge of a language in such a short time? What are the ways in which languages can change over time, and are there limitations to how languages change? What is the nature of the cognitive processes that come into play when we produce and understand language?
  4. 4. Common Misconceptions Image from  “A linguist is someone who just knows lots of languages.” Image from  “A linguist is someone who just knows lots of big words.”
  5. 5. So then which of these does a linguist do?  Studies lots of different languages  Studies how children learn language  Studies conversations  Studies speech sounds  Studies language structure  YES, all of the above, and much more!
  6. 6. The field of Linguistics has many subfields  Anthropological linguistics  Neurolinguistics  Applied linguistics  Philosophy of Language  Cognitive science  Phonetics  Computational linguistics  Pragmatics  Corpus linguistics  Psycholinguistics  Discourse Analysis  Semantics  Ecolinguistics  Semiotics  Forensic Linguistics  Sociolinguistics  Historical linguistics  Syntax  Lexicography  Typology  Linguistics and Literature  Writing Systems  Morphology  XenolinguisticsThe study of languages originating from alien species!
  7. 7. Why study Linguistics? Because language is fascinating!
  8. 8. Direct or Indirect? Gender Differences in Language  Why do men say, "Open the window," but women say, "Boy, it sure would be nice if we could get a breeze in here"? Image from
  9. 9. Jobs Available to Linguists Some examples…     Teaching English as a second language (TESL) Research jobs with companies such as Microsoft, Apple or IBM Government jobs with the FBI or CIA Teaching at a community college or university  Field work documenting language in a foreign country  Or use your linguistic skills in the fields of anthropology, law, library science, psychology, or sociology.
  10. 10. Language Fun Fact  Did you know that "nice" used to mean "ignorant" thousands of years ago?  Meanings assigned to words in any language are completely arbitrary. We've all simply agreed upon the meanings we give to words.
  11. 11. Future of Linguistics  What will texting do to our ability to write? “OMG! I'm omw, will u b there 2? TTFN!” Artist unknown  Email, texting and instant messaging are replacing older forms of communication. What will the consequences be?
  12. 12. Future of Linguistics  Image from How can we help bridge the cultural gap between employees working together from different parts of the world?
  14. 14. Phonetics Phonology Morphology  Syntax Semantics  Pragmatics 
  15. 15.  . PHONETICS Phonetics studies speech sounds, including Production of speech, that is how speech sounds are actually made Articulatory Phonetics Transmission and receipt of speech Acoustic Phonetics Perception of the transmitted sound by human brain Auditory Phonetics.
  16. 16.  PHONOLOGY Studies the sound system of languages.   Distinctive sounds within a language, Nature of sound systems across the languages. Phoneme (from the Greek: φώνημα, phōnēma, "a sound uttered") is the smallest segmental unit of sound employed to form meaningful contrasts between utterances.
  17. 17.  MORPHOLOGY  Studies the formation of words from smaller units called morphemes.  Morpheme: minimal meaningful language unit.  Phoneme(s): smallest linguistically distinctive units of sound) in spoken language.  Grapheme(s): written symbol to represent speech
  18. 18.  SYNTAX Rules that govern the formation of sentences from words. Syntactic phrases include: Noun Phrase : a tall man, the bus Verb Phrase : roam around, hit the ball Prepositional Phrase : in the class, at the club Adjective Phrase : Very good, nice girl  The Grammatical Rules: SOV: eg. Hindi SVO: eg . English
  19. 19.  GRAMMAR  The syntax of a language deals with the grammatical structure of a language.  Grammar is the structural foundation of our ability to express ourselves. Descriptive grammar : structure actually used by speakers and writers. Prescriptive grammar : structure that should be used
  20. 20.  SEMANTICS  Study of language meaning.  Concerned with not only the meaning of words, but also that of morphemes and of sentences.  Lexical semantics study how and what the words of a language denote
  21. 21.  PRAGMATICS  Pragmatics is the study of meaning in context.  How language is used to communicate rather than how it is internally structured.  Govern a number of conversational interactions, such as sequential organization, repair of errors, role and speech acts.
  22. 22. Thank you !!!!