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Breastfeeding, Sensitivity, And Attachment
 

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    Breastfeeding, Sensitivity, And Attachment Breastfeeding, Sensitivity, And Attachment Document Transcript

    • Breastfeeding, Sensitivity, and Attachment John R. Britton, Helen L. Britton and Virginia Gronwaldt Pediatrics 2006;118;e1436-e1443 DOI: 10.1542/peds.2005-2916 The online version of this article, along with updated information and services, is located on the World Wide Web at: http://www.pediatrics.org/cgi/content/full/118/5/e1436 PEDIATRICS is the official journal of the American Academy of Pediatrics. A monthly publication, it has been published continuously since 1948. PEDIATRICS is owned, published, and trademarked by the American Academy of Pediatrics, 141 Northwest Point Boulevard, Elk Grove Village, Illinois, 60007. Copyright © 2006 by the American Academy of Pediatrics. All rights reserved. Print ISSN: 0031-4005. Online ISSN: 1098-4275. Downloaded from www.pediatrics.org by on June 2, 2009
    • ARTICLE Breastfeeding, Sensitivity, and Attachment John R. Britton, MD, PhD, Helen L. Britton, MD, Virginia Gronwaldt, PhD Department of Pediatrics, University of Arizona Health Sciences Center, Tucson, Arizona The authors have indicated they have no financial relationships relevant to this article to disclose. ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE. Our goal was to test the hypothesis that breastfeeding is associated with enhanced infant-mother attachment and its antecedent maternal sensitivity. www.pediatrics.org/cgi/doi/10.1542/ METHODS. Breastfeeding intent and practice were assessed by questionnaires admin- peds.2005-2916 istered to 152 mothers between 32 weeks of gestation and 12 months postpartum. doi:10.1542/peds.2005-2916 Early maternal sensitivity was measured by the Sensitivity to Cues subscale of the Key Words breastfeeding, mother-infant attachment, Nursing Child Assessment Satellite Training Feeding Scale at 3 months, and quality maternal sensitivity of the mother-infant interaction was measured by the Nursing Child Assessment Abbreviations Satellite Training Feeding Scale at 6 months. Security of attachment was evaluated NCAST—Nursing Child Assessment by the Ainsworth Strange Situation at 12 months. Satellite Training ANOVA—analysis of variance OR— odds ratio RESULTS. A direct relationship between attachment security and breastfeeding prac- CI— confidence interval tice was not identified. The quality of the mother-infant interaction at 6 months, Accepted for publication May 24, 2006 rather than the type of feeding, predicted security of attachment. However, moth- Address correspondence to John R. Britton, ers who chose to breastfeed displayed greater sensitivity in dyadic interactions with MD, PhD, Department of Neonatology, Kaiser Permanente, Exempla St Joseph Hospital, their infants 3 months postnatally than those who chose to bottle feed, and 1835 Franklin St, Denver, CO 80218. E-mail: intended breastfeeding duration prenatally correlated with sensitivity 3 months johnrbritton@comcast.net postpartum. Although a path analysis failed to demonstrate contributions of early Reprints of this article will not be available. breastfeeding duration to either sensitivity or security, it did substantiate a signif- PEDIATRICS (ISSN Numbers: Print, 0031-4005; Online, 1098-4275). Copyright © 2006 by the icant path between prenatal breastfeeding intent and attachment security medi- American Academy of Pediatrics ated by sensitivity. In addition, multivariate analyses revealed that early sensitivity among breastfeeding mothers was an independent predictor of the duration of any and exclusive breastfeeding during the first year. CONCLUSIONS. Although the quality of the dyadic interaction in infancy, rather than feeding type, is predictive of attachment security, mothers who choose to breast- feed display enhanced sensitivity during early infancy that, in turn, may foster secure attachment. Among breastfeeding mothers, higher sensitivity is associated with longer duration of breastfeeding during the first postpartum year. These findings suggest a link between attachment security and breastfeeding. e1436 BRITTON et al Downloaded from www.pediatrics.org by on June 2, 2009
    • B REASTFEEDING IS KNOWN to have positive effects on infant health and nutrition1 and has been associ- ated with enhancement of later cognitive ability and vations led to predictions that neither feeding itself nor individual differences in feeding, such as breast or bottle, contribute to individual differences in attachment qual- educational achievement.2–5 It is also believed to foster ity.19,20 Attachment theory, thus, contrasts with the con- the development of a “bond” between the mother and cept of bonding regarding the importance of breastfeed- infant in early infancy.6–8 In an early study,9 mothers ing: bonding is felt to be enhanced by breastfeeding, yet who nursed their infants during the first 3 hours after attachment is believed to be fostered by the quality of birth and then spent 15 hours with them over the next the dyadic interaction irrespective of feeding method. 3 days displayed greater emotional attraction to their Given this contrast, it is surprising that although the infants 1 month later compared with mothers with min- relationship between breastfeeding and bonding has imal postpartum contact. The term “bonding” refers to been explored,6–8 no studies have been performed to the tie from parent to infant, a tie unique and specific to assess the potential relationship between feeding type that relationship.6 Although the effect of this bond is (breast or bottle) and infant-mother attachment. generally felt to be enduring,6 an association between Thus, the present study was designed to explore the early bonding or breastfeeding experiences and the potential relationships among breastfeeding, attach- mother-child relationship later in infancy and early ment, and sensitivity. We speculated that breastfeeding childhood remains to be established.10,11 would be associated with enhanced infant-mother at- The developing mother-child relationship in early tachment and its antecedent maternal sensitivity and childhood is characterized most frequently by the con- tested 5 related hypotheses. First, we hypothesized that cept of attachment. Attachment was first described by mothers who decide to breastfeed would be more likely Bowlby,12 who theorized that infant behavior is adapted than those who do not to be sensitive parents to their to complement caregiver behavior when the caregiver’s infants in early infancy. Second, we postulated that behavior is appropriate and responsive to the infant’s breastfeeding dyads would be more likely to be securely cues. In contrast to bonding, which refers to the parent’s attached in early childhood than those who do not emotional investment in the infant, the term “attach- breastfeed and that longer duration of breastfeeding ment” refers to the tie from infant to parent and is a would be associated with enhanced attachment security. representation of “the internal organization of the indi- Third, the hypothesis that the duration of breastfeeding vidual.”13 A child with a mental representation of the in early infancy might foster secure attachment, either parent as responsive and available is likely to be securely directly or through enhancement of maternal sensitivity, attached to the parent; insecure attachment occurs was tested. Fourth, we asked whether breastfeeding per when such a representation is lacking. For the securely se, or the quality of the dyadic interaction irrespective of attached infant, the parent provides a secure base from feeding type, would be important predictors of attach- which to explore the environment. Attachment security ment security. Finally, we speculated that breastfeeding in late infancy seems unrelated to early maternal bond- mothers who are more sensitive to their infant’s cues ing experiences,10 and unlike bonding its persistent ef- would breastfeed their infants for longer periods than fects throughout childhood have been demonstrated.14 those who are less sensitive. A basic component of attachment theory is that in- fants gradually develop a relationship with a principal METHODS attachment figure and that the attachment figure’s sen- Participants were part of a prospective, nonrandomized, sitivity to the infant’s needs may be a critical factor for longitudinal cohort parenting study of 174 mother-in- the establishment of a secure attachment.12 Research fant dyads during the first year postnatally. The popula- over several decades, summarized in 2 meta-analy- tion has been described previously,21 and the hypotheses ses,15,16 has established that sensitivity is indeed an im- of our study were formulated retrospectively using this portant but not exclusive predictor of secure attachment. database. Pregnant women were recruited for study par- The exact definition of sensitivity has varied widely in ticipation by use of posters in waiting rooms and letters attachment research, yet promptness, consistency, and given at routine 32-week prenatal care visits. Recruit- appropriateness are thought to be main constituents of ment sites included a freestanding birthing center, a this construct.17 Some attachment authorities have ar- large private obstetric group practice, university hospital gued that sensitivity permeates all interactive behavior obstetric and family practice clinics, and a neighborhood and can only be studied as part of a dyadic unit,17 and family health center. Approval of relevant institutional Bowlby18 emphasized the importance of mutual satisfac- review boards and individual informed consent were tion and enjoyment of the dyadic relationship in foster- obtained for all cases. Only mothers with singleton ges- ing attachment security. tations expecting uncomplicated vaginal deliveries were Although Bowlby acknowledged that feeding may enrolled. Cases were excluded if complications at the facilitate mother-infant proximity and thereby provide time of delivery required cesarean section, preterm de- opportunity for sensitive interaction, his clinical obser- livery, or transfer of the newborn to a NICU. PEDIATRICS Volume 118, Number 5, November 2006 e1437 Downloaded from www.pediatrics.org by on June 2, 2009
    • Maternal social and demographic characteristics were months postpartum. Although the NCAST Feeding Scale determined from medical chart review and question- is administered during feeding, its assessment of the naires administered at enrollment, before discharge from dyadic interaction is independent of feeding method. the place of delivery, and at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months Feeding sessions were videotaped in the home and postpartum. From these questionnaires, socioeconomic scored later by 2 raters who were trained and certified by status was estimated by using the Hollingshead index developers of the scales. Interrater differences were rec- (A. B. Hollingshead, PhD, The Four-Factor Index of Social onciled by discussion and consensus with a third impar- Status, unpublished data, 1975). Social support from the tial certified rater. Because of the retrospective nature of father/spouse and the mother’s family was assessed by the current study hypotheses, all raters were blind with using the Family Apgar.22 On these instruments, higher respect to these hypotheses, especially any future rele- scores reflect higher socioeconomic status and social vance of feeding method (breastfeeding or bottle feed- support, respectively. ing) to data analysis. Questions also addressed intended or actual breast- Infant-mother attachment was assessed by the Ains- feeding practices and duration. An extensive body of worth Strange Situation,30 with laboratory sessions vid- literature has demonstrated that most women who eotaped at 12 months postnatally and scored later by 2 breastfeed decide to do so before delivery and that the trained raters. As with the NCAST, discrepancies among duration of breastfeeding may be predicted by their in- raters were reconciled by discussion and consensus, and tended duration prenatally.23–25 Consequently, maternal all raters were blind with respect to study hypotheses. intent to breastfeed or formula feed was determined Dyads were categorized as securely attached, insecure- from the prenatal questionnaire, and those mothers avoidant, insecure-resistant, or unclassified. It should be who intended to breastfeed were asked to estimate the noted that the study was performed before the D cate- expected duration of breastfeeding. In keeping with cur- gory had been developed. For some analyses, dichoto- rent breastfeeding research approaches,24,26 actual lacta- mous variables were used to indicate either secure or tion performance was measured by breastfeeding initia- insecure attachment. tion and duration of breastfeeding among mothers who Statistical analyses included 2 analysis, Pearson cor- initiated breastfeeding. Mothers were deemed to have relations, t tests, and analysis of variance (ANOVA) with initiated breastfeeding if they began breastfeeding at the posthoc Scheffe tests for bivariate analyses and linear place of delivery and continued to do so at the time of and logistic regression for multivariate analyses. discharge. Breastfeeding duration, coded as a continuous Throughout the text, correlation coefficients are re- variable, was determined from feeding practices reported ported with sample size in brackets. Colinearity diagnos- on the questionnaires at each time point throughout the tics were performed for linear regressions, and covariates study period. Consistent with current recommendations were forcibly entered for all regression models. We used regarding definitions of breastfeeding,26 mothers who SPSS 11.5 (SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL) for analyses. Sample- were breastfeeding their infants fully without formula size analysis was performed by using GPOWER.31 For supplementation were characterized as exclusively path analysis we used structural equation modeling with breastfeeding, and those who breastfed partially or with maximum-likelihood estimation performed with LISREL any formula supplementation were denoted as practic- 8.3 (Scientific Software International, Lincolnwood, IL). ing “any” breastfeeding. Infants who received only in- Path coefficients are displayed diagrammatically for all fant formula were considered to be bottle fed. proposed paths tested, with their magnitude indicative In addition to these parameters, several other breast- of the strength of the association. For all analyses, sig- feeding variables were determined. Early breastfeeding nificance was accepted at P .05. was defined by dichotomous variables that designated any or exclusive breastfeeding at 3 months postpartum RESULTS among mothers who initiated breastfeeding. Because the American Academy of Pediatrics has recommended any Study Population breastfeeding until at least 12 months postpartum and Study participants included 36 dyads from the freestand- exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months,27 addi- ing birthing center, 59 from private obstetric group prac- tional dichotomous variables designated these outcomes. tice, 69 from university hospital obstetric and family Finally, an ordinal variable coded early breastfeeding practice clinics, and 10 from a neighborhood family duration (0, none; 1, initiation only; 2, to 3 months or health center. Although there was some attrition beyond). throughout the period of the study, 164 dyads continued The quality of the mother-infant interaction was to participate at 3 months, 158 at 6 months, 157 at 9 measured at 6 months postpartum by the Nursing Child months, and 152 at 12 months postnatally. Assessment Satellite Training (NCAST) Feeding Scale.28,29 Of the study mothers, 4.1% were 18 years old, Early maternal sensitivity was assessed by using the 37.2% were between 18 and 25 years, 50% were be- Sensitivity to Cues subscale of that instrument at 3 tween 26 and 35 years, and 8.7% were 35 years of age. e1438 BRITTON et al Downloaded from www.pediatrics.org by on June 2, 2009
    • With respect to ethnicity, 75.4% were white non-His- secure attachment after controlling for demographic panic, 21.7% were Hispanic, and 2.9% were “other,” variables, with an adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 1.26 (95% including black and Native American. Educational levels confidence interval [CI]: 1.02–1.56). This magnitude of were less than high school graduate (15.8%), high the relationship between sensitivity and security is con- school graduate (15.1%), attended college but did not sistent with that of previous studies.15,16 graduate (41.3%), college graduate (19.8%), and ad- vanced degree (8.0%). Twenty-three percent of the First Hypothesis: Early Breastfeeding and Sensitivity women were primiparous, 80.3% were married, and The first hypothesis was that mothers who chose to 16.1% were smokers. With respect to employment, breastfeed would demonstrate more-sensitive parenting 50.3% of the mothers worked outside the home during behavior in early infancy than those who selected for- the first 6 months postpartum and 61.4% during the first mula feeding. year. The mean Hollingshead index score was 36.76 (SD: Compared with mothers who intended to formula 12.16), and the mean Family Apgar scores for father/ feed, mothers who intended to breastfeed prenatally had spouse and family were 8.25 (SD: 2.51) and 7.46 (SD: significantly higher sensitivity scores at 3 months (Table 2.60), respectively. 1). Among mothers who intended to breastfeed prena- Prenatally, 144 mothers expressed an intention to tally and expressed an expected breastfeeding duration, breastfeed (82.8%). Of these, 1.4% planned to breast- there was a significant correlation between intended feed for 1 month, 14.6% for 1 to 3 months, 25.7% for duration of breastfeeding and sensitivity (r[108] 0.26; 4 to 6 months, 28.4% for 7 to 12 months, and 13.9% for P .008). 1 year; 16% were unsure of their intended duration of Those mothers who initiated breastfeeding had breastfeeding. With respect to actual practice, 141 moth- higher sensitivity scores than those who did not (Table ers (81.0%) initiated breastfeeding, and prenatal intent 1). Among mothers who initiated breastfeeding, those to breastfeed correlated strongly with actual breastfeed- who continued to breastfeed at 3 months had higher ing initiation (r[167] 0.743; P .001). There were 101 sensitivity scores than those who ceased breastfeeding mothers (61.6% of the current study population) who by this time. Sensitivity scores were also higher among were breastfeeding at 3 months, 80 mothers (50.6%) those who exclusively breastfed compared with those breastfeeding at 6 months, 56 mothers (35.7%) breast- who did not. In 1-way ANOVA with posthoc Scheffe test feeding at 9 months, and 38 mothers (25%) breastfeed- (F2,159 20.73), mothers who exclusively breastfed at 3 ing at 12 months. These breastfeeding rates were very months had higher mean sensitivity scores (13.57 [SD: close to the goals advised by the US Department of 1.76]) than those who partially breastfed (11.80 [SD: Health and Human Services in its Healthy People 2010 2.19]) (P .002) and those who had ceased breastfeed- recommendations.32 Among the mothers who initiated ing (11.59 [SD: 2.22]; P .001). The latter 2 groups did breastfeeding, the mean duration of any breastfeeding not differ significantly. was 6.07 months (SD: 4.69 months), and the mean duration of exclusive breastfeeding was 4.01 months Second Hypothesis: Breastfeeding and Attachment (SD: 2.66 months). The expected duration of breastfeed- The second hypothesis was that mothers who breastfed ing prenatally correlated with the actual duration of any during infancy would be more likely than those who breastfeeding (r[114] 0.58; P .001). Of breastfeeding formula fed to have secure attachment with their infants mothers, 59% were exclusively breastfeeding at 3 and that increased breastfeeding duration would be as- months, and 38.2% were exclusively breastfeeding at 6 sociated with enhanced attachment security. months. When dyads were grouped among the 3 major attach- Of the study dyads evaluated in the Ainsworth ment categories, there were no differences in the pro- Strange Situation, 56.6% were categorized as securely portion of women who initiated breastfeeding or in the attached, 23.7% as insecure-avoidant, 17.1% as inse- duration of any or exclusive breastfeeding among those cure-resistant, and 2.6% as unclassified. This distribu- tion is similar to that generally reported for populations from the United States.33 The mean score on the TABLE 1 Sensitivity Scores Among Mothers With Different Early 6-month NCAST Feeding Scale was 58.69 (SD: 7.52), Breastfeeding Practices and the mean score on the 3-month Sensitivity to Cues Yes No subscale was 12.44 (SD: 2.28). These scores are similar to Mean SD n Mean SD n published values.29 The interrater reliability ranged from Prenatal intent 12.65 a 2.20 136 11.19 a 2.33 26 0.89 to 0.92, and the internal consistency reliability ( ) Initiation 12.75b 2.20 135 11.04b 2.16 27 ranged from 0.80 to 0.82. The 3-month sensitivity score Continued breastfeeding at 3 mo correlated significantly with security of attachment in Any 13.21b 1.98 99 11.59b 2.22 34 the Ainsworth Strange Situation30 at 1 year (r[151] Exclusive 13.57b 1.76 79 11.67b 2.19 54 0.19; P .023) and remained a significant predictor of Comparisons of means with like footnote symbols: a P .005; b P .001. PEDIATRICS Volume 118, Number 5, November 2006 e1439 Downloaded from www.pediatrics.org by on June 2, 2009
    • who initiated (Table 2). When attachment was dichoto- Fourth Hypothesis: Breastfeeding, Quality of Dyadic mized as either secure or insecure, 85.7% of secure Interaction, and Attachment dyads initiated breastfeeding compared with 86.2% of The next hypothesis was a question of whether breast- 2 insecure dyads ( 1,149 .006; P .939). The mean feeding per se, or the quality of the dyadic interaction duration of any breastfeeding for secure dyads was 6.12 irrespective of feeding type, would predict security of months (SD: 3.14 months), similar to the 5.88 months attachment. (SD: 3.21 months) for insecure dyads (P .785). In Quality of the dyadic interaction, as assessed by the addition, the mean duration of exclusive breastfeeding NCAST Feeding Scale at 6 months, did not differ among for secure dyads was 4.29 months (SD: 2.51 months) mothers who exclusively breastfed (mean: 59.55; SD: compared with the mean duration of 3.84 months (SD: 7.91), partially breastfed (mean: 59.59; SD: 6.45), or 2.92 months) for insecure dyads (P .588). None of bottle fed (mean: 57.52; SD: 7.63) (ANOVA: F2,152 these differences were significant. 1.43; P .24). However, Feeding Scale scores were Sample-size analysis31 revealed that the sample size significantly higher among dyads later classified as se- was adequate to detect a 25% difference in breastfeeding curely attached compared with those classified as inse- initiation between secure and insecure dyads with an cure (mean: 60.00 [SD: 6.23] vs 57.38 [SD: 8.74]; P value of .05 and a power of 0.83. For breastfeeding .04). In logistic-regression models containing covariates duration, the sample was adequate to detect a 33% for either exclusive or any breastfeeding, the Feeding difference between the same groups with this value Scale score contributed significantly to security of at- and a power of 0.82. tachment, with an adjusted OR of 1.05 (95% CI: 1.01– 1.10; P .05); the breastfeeding parameters were not Third Hypothesis: Early Breastfeeding Duration, Sensitivity, significant predictors of security in these models. and Attachment To test the hypothesis that breastfeeding in early infancy Fifth Hypothesis: Sensitivity and Breastfeeding Duration might foster secure attachment, either directly or Next, the hypothesis that maternal sensitivity may pre- through enhancement of maternal sensitivity, the rela- dict breastfeeding duration was tested. Among mothers tionship between early breastfeeding duration, sensitiv- who initiated breastfeeding, mean sensitivity scores ity, and security was explored by path analysis. In biva- were higher for those who breastfed for 12 months riate analyses, early breastfeeding duration correlated (13.58 [SD: 1.70]) compared with those who did not with maternal sensitivity (r[162] 0.39; P .000) but (12.46 [SD: 2.21]; t 3.08; P .003). In addition, the not with security (r[148] 0.03; P .75). Prenatal mean scores were higher for those who breastfed exclu- intent to breastfeed correlated with early breastfeeding sively for at least 6 months (13.59 [SD: 1.84]) compared duration (r[162] 0.71; P .000) and with sensitivity with those who did not (12.30 [SD: 2.17]; t 3.47; P (r[162] 0.24; P .003), suggesting that it might not .001). For mothers who initiated breastfeeding, sensitiv- only be an antecedent of lactation success but also of ity correlated significantly with duration of any (r[135] sensitive parenting. Consequently, all of these variables 0.32; P .001) and exclusive (r[131] 0.41; P were included in the path model (Fig 1). Structural .001) breastfeeding. equation modeling based on maximum-likelihood esti- Because demographic and social variables are known mation showed that the model fit the data well ( 1,149 2 to influence breastfeeding, linear-regression models .04; P .85; root mean square error of approximation were constructed next, with breastfeeding duration as 0.00). In this model, no significant contribution of early the dependent variable and these factors as predictors breastfeeding duration to either sensitivity or security added on the first block. Maternal sensitivity was then was demonstrable. Other alternative models tested did added on the second block (Table 3). All models included not converge. maternal age, education, ethnicity, smoking, and em- ployment status, because these variables are the most well-substantiated predictors of lactation performance.24 In these analyses, sensitivity remained a significant pre- TABLE 2 Breastfeeding Initiation and Duration Among Major dictor of the duration of any breastfeeding during the Attachment Groups first year, accounting for 6% of the variance in this Attachment Category variable (Table 3). In similar models, sensitivity signifi- Secure Avoidant Resistant cantly predicted the duration of exclusive breastfeeding, a Initiation, n (%) 72 (85.7) 30 (83.3) 22 (88.0) accounting for 8% of the variance in this outcome (Table Duration, mean (SD), mo 3). Addition of variables for other less well-substantiated Anyb 6.12 (3.14) 5.40 (3.14) 6.27 (3.24) predictors of lactation performance, including parity, Exclusivec 4.29 (2.51) 2.58 (2.26) 5.04 (3.20) a 2 marital status, Hollingshead index, and spousal and fam- .266; P .876. 2,145 b ANOVA F2,121 .299; P .742. ily support, neither improved the models nor obviated c ANOVA F 2,119 2.09; P .128. the significant contribution of sensitivity to the criterion. e1440 BRITTON et al Downloaded from www.pediatrics.org by on June 2, 2009
    • FIGURE 1 Hypothesized structural relations and path coefficients between breastfeeding intent and attachment security. a P .05. TABLE 3 Sensitivity as a Predictor of Breastfeeding Duration DISCUSSION Variables Entered B SE F R 2 2 R R 2 adjusted SEest This study is the first to explore the relationship among Any breastfeeding breastfeeding, sensitivity, and attachment security. The Model 1 13.05d 0.36 0.36 0.33 1.27 results demonstrate an association between breastfeed- Age 0.45 0.17 0.20a ing and maternal sensitivity, thereby establishing a link Education 0.33 0.10 0.25c between attachment theory and infant feeding behav- Ethnicity 0.71 0.30 0.18a iors not previously described. However, no direct rela- Employment 1.37 0.25 0.42d Smoking 0.06 0.39 0.01 tionship between attachment security and breastfeeding Model 2 13.98c 0.42 0.06 0.39 1.21 was demonstrable in the population studied. Age 0.44 0.16 0.20b Our data suggest that mothers who choose breast- Education 0.26 0.10 0.20a feeding over bottle feeding may be more likely to be Ethnicity 0.78 0.29 0.20b sensitive in responding to the cues of their infants in Employment 1.20 0.24 0.37d Smoking 0.03 0.38 0.01 dyadic interactions in early infancy. Not only did sensi- Sensitivity 0.19 0.06 0.26c tivity correlate with the initiation of breastfeeding, but it Exclusive breastfeeding was also greater among mothers who continued to Model 1 8.36d 0.26 0.26 0.23 1.36 exclusively breastfeed their infants through 3 months Age 0.30 0.18 0.14 postnatally. Moreover, sensitivity was associated with Education 0.31 0.11 0.24b Ethnicity 0.66 0.31 0.17a prenatal intent to breastfeed and with the intended du- Employment 1.12 0.25 0.37d ration of breastfeeding prenatally, suggesting that intent Smoking 0.25 0.42 0.05 may be an early marker for later maternal sensitivity. Model 2 10.27d 0.34 0.08 0.31 1.28 Finally, compared with breastfeeding mothers with low Age 0.26 0.17 0.12 sensitivity, mothers with high sensitivity were more Education 0.22 0.11 0.17a Ethnicity 0.71 0.29 0.18a likely to breastfeed either partially or exclusively for Employment 0.96 0.24 0.31d longer periods during infancy. Smoking 0.14 0.40 0.03 Among the possible explanations for these associa- Sensitivity 0.22 0.06 0.30d tions is that mothers destined to be more sensitive par- SEest indicates standard error of the estimate. Levels of significance: a P .05; b P .01; c P ents will be more likely, perhaps because of their intrin- .005; d P .001. sic personality characteristics, to choose breastfeeding even before the birth of the infant and to continue to breastfeed longer and more exclusively. This possibility Next, logistic-regression models were constructed implies that breastfeeding and sensitivity may have com- with sensitivity as the predictor, controlling for the same mon, perhaps as-yet undetermined, antecedent person- covariates as mentioned above but with any breastfeed- ality characteristics. The limited literature comparing ing at 12 months and exclusive breastfeeding at 6 personality characteristics of mothers breastfeed and months as dependent variables. In the first model, the bottle feed is consistent with this notion. Compared with adjusted OR was 1.45 (95% CI: 1.09 –1.91; P .05) for mothers who bottle feed their infants, breastfeeding any breastfeeding at 12 months. For exclusive breast- mothers have been reported to provide a more enriched feeding at 6 months, the adjusted OR was 1.89 (95% CI: home environment for the infant, together with greater 1.35–2.66; P .001). variety of daily stimulation and play and less authoritar- PEDIATRICS Volume 118, Number 5, November 2006 e1441 Downloaded from www.pediatrics.org by on June 2, 2009
    • ian parenting approaches.2,34 In addition, a number of a variety of childhood morbidities compared with bottle- reports support the general conclusion that infant-cen- fed infants.1 Although intrinsic characteristics of breast tered, rather than mother-centered, considerations re- milk seem to contribute to some of these outcomes, the garding the mode of feeding are more commonly ob- existence of other contributory mechanisms remains served among mothers who choose breastfeeding over plausible. The association between sensitivity and bottle feeding.35–39 Such reports led Sauls,40 in a review of breastfeeding observed in our study suggests that sensi- the literature on associations of psychological variables tivity among breastfeeding mothers could contribute to with infant-feeding practices, to conclude that breast- enhanced cognitive ability of the child, perhaps through feeding mothers may place more importance on affec- fostering of intellectual development. In support of this tion than bottle-feeding mothers. notion are reports that consistent responsiveness in early An alternative explanation for the relationship be- childhood may predict enhanced cognitive and social tween breastfeeding and sensitivity is that the actual growth.42,43 Sensitive parenting among breastfeeding experience of early breastfeeding fosters the develop- mothers might also contribute to lower childhood mor- ment of maternal sensitivity. This mechanism was not bidity, possibly because of more attentive preventive supported by our data, however. Although sensitivity medical care. Such associations are entirely speculative, correlated with early breastfeeding duration, no signifi- however, and additional studies will be required to ex- cant relationship between early duration and sensitivity plore these possibilities. was demonstrable in our path model. There are several limitations of our study. First, the Similarly, no direct relationship between attachment cohort evaluated was almost certainly subject to selec- security and breastfeeding initiation or duration was tion bias in that the mothers enrolled electively and demonstrable in bivariate analyses, and a path analysis agreed to participate in repeated evaluations throughout did not suggest a contribution of early breastfeeding the first postpartum year. Thus, they may have repre- duration to attachment security, either directly or indi- sented a group with greater parenting capabilities and rectly via sensitivity. In addition, our regression models interests than those who chose not to participate. It is suggest that the quality of the dyadic interaction, rather conceivable that a direct relationship between breast- than the type of feeding, may predict security, a finding feeding and attachment might have been demonstrable entirely consistent with Bowlby’s19,20 early predictions. in a larger, more diverse, and randomly selected popu- Yet, the power of the study was inadequate to detect lation subjected to interventions to promote breastfeed- subtle differences in breastfeeding practices among at- ing, especially one in which breastfeeding rates and par- tachment groups, such that a direct relationship between enting capabilities were initially low. A randomized, breastfeeding and attachment security cannot com- controlled trial would seem most desirable, yet given the pletely be eliminated by our data. It is also possible that current known advantages of breastfeeding over bottle the indirect path between breastfeeding intent and se- feeding, obvious ethical considerations would prohibit curity mediated by sensitivity may be of greatest impor- such a study. tance, especially in light of the strength of the association Programs to specifically promote breastfeeding have between intent and sensitivity, which exceeds that be- been described, and some have been shown to foster tween sensitivity and security. improved infant health at the community level.44–46 Sim- It should be noted that although much is known ilarly, interventions to enhance maternal sensitivity about the determinants of prenatal breastfeeding intent, have been reported, and some have been found to im- less is understood about the factors that predict breast- prove security of attachment.47 The link between sensi- feeding duration.24 Our observation that maternal sen- tivity and breastfeeding reflected by our data thus sug- sitivity accounts for 6% to 8% of the variance in the gests the possibility that interventions to augment duration of breastfeeding during the first year postna- sensitivity might not only enhance security but also tally clearly identifies sensitivity as the first established increase breastfeeding. Because current breastfeeding maternal behavioral characteristic that may predict rates remain below desirable levels despite interven- breastfeeding duration independently of demographic tional efforts,27,32 additional studies to address this possi- and social factors. Although causation may not be con- bility would seem warranted. cluded from our data, the findings support the notion that more sensitive breastfeeding mothers, perhaps be- ACKNOWLEDGMENT cause of greater consistency, appropriateness, and infant This work was supported in part by Maternal and Child centered concern, may breastfeed their infants for longer Health Bureau grant MCJ-040523-03-0. periods of time. Recent reports suggest that breastfeeding during in- REFERENCES fancy may lead to enhanced cognitive ability and edu- 1. Department of Health and Human Services, Office on Women’s cational achievement later in childhood.2–5,41 Breastfed Health. Benefits of breastfeeding. 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    • Breastfeeding, Sensitivity, and Attachment John R. Britton, Helen L. Britton and Virginia Gronwaldt Pediatrics 2006;118;e1436-e1443 DOI: 10.1542/peds.2005-2916 Updated Information including high-resolution figures, can be found at: & Services http://www.pediatrics.org/cgi/content/full/118/5/e1436 References This article cites 36 articles, 9 of which you can access for free at: http://www.pediatrics.org/cgi/content/full/118/5/e1436#BIBL Citations This article has been cited by 1 HighWire-hosted articles: http://www.pediatrics.org/cgi/content/full/118/5/e1436#otherarti cles Subspecialty Collections This article, along with others on similar topics, appears in the following collection(s): Nutrition & Metabolism http://www.pediatrics.org/cgi/collection/nutrition_and_metabolis m Permissions & Licensing Information about reproducing this article in parts (figures, tables) or in its entirety can be found online at: http://www.pediatrics.org/misc/Permissions.shtml Reprints Information about ordering reprints can be found online: http://www.pediatrics.org/misc/reprints.shtml Downloaded from www.pediatrics.org by on June 2, 2009