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Forests and Society – Responding to Global Drivers of Change

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Nos complace anunciar a toda la comunidad científica internacional una nueva publicación de la Unión Internacional de Organizaciones de Investigación Forestal (IUFRO), preparada por su Proyecto …

Nos complace anunciar a toda la comunidad científica internacional una nueva publicación de la Unión Internacional de Organizaciones de Investigación Forestal (IUFRO), preparada por su Proyecto Especial "Los Bosques del Mundo, la Sociedad y el Medio Ambiente (WFSE)" y titulada:

Forest and Society – Responding to Global Drivers of Change

El lanzamiento del libro se realizó en Agosto 2010 durante el XXIII Congreso Mundial de IUFRO en Seúl, Corea.

Para descargar el documento completo: http://www.iufro.org/science/special/wfse/forests-society-global-drivers/


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  • 1. PART I IntroductIon 11 Gerardo Mery FORESTS AND SOCIETY – RESPONDING TO GLOBAL DRIVERS OF CHANGE
  • 2. INTRODUCTION 1 Forests in a Changing World Gerardo Mery and René I. Alfaro 1.1 The Rationale of the Book A key aspect in this publication was to investigate whether the foremost paradigm that has governed This new book produced by the International Union forestry during the last two decades, namely sustain- of Forest Research Organizations (IUFRO) Special able forest management (SFM), is really working in Project on World Forests, Society and Environment practice for people and nature. We acknowledge the (WFSE) is the result of a collaborative effort involv- strategic impetus provided by SFM in the sustained ing researchers in multiple disciplines from through- production of goods and services, and in the mainten- out the world. The publication was conceived as a ance of future options related to forests, without dam- forum to analyse the challenges, threats, and oppor- aging other ecosystems. However, the rampant rate of tunities facing the forest sector due to the profound deforestation and forest degradation that still exists, changes that our planet and contemporary society are the continuity of the serious problems affecting our experiencing. The unprecedented pressures produced planet’s biodiversity, and the persistence of poverty by these changes – many of which are global in na- in areas where forest resources play an important ture, such as climate change, the growing demands role in socio-economic development, has led us to of human society on natural resources, and increas- think that the ultimate solution to these problems ing deforestation – often place the very survival of must be found not only by considering forests and numerous ecosystems at risk, threatening their resil- forestry activities, but also in looking beyond the ience, and seriously affecting the biodiversity of the forest sector. planet and the well-being of society. Therefore, our a priori consideration was the This book follows our previous publication, For- urgent need to broaden the concept of SFM through ests in the Global Balance: Changing Paradigms a more integrated notion of social and natural re- (Mery et al. 2005), and uses a similar research ap- source management, including the management of proach in which the analyses evolve in broad global land, water, and other natural resources along with or regional levels, and the phenomena studied are the forests. On that basis, we may find a proper bal- intended to describe problems and challenges in a ance – at the broadest landscape level – that enables comprehensive manner. Our aim has been to avoid an us not only to use these natural resources, but also analysis of the forest sector in isolation. We wanted to to effectively conserve them for the benefit of future consider the pressures and synergies on forests pre- generations. sented by other socio-economic sectors, particularly Special emphasis was placed on analysing poli- those that have a clear impact on forests and forestry, cies and institutional arrangements being pursued such as wood-based industries, agriculture, energy, to address new challenges, and how global and re- infrastructure, and the complex array of pressures gional policy goals translate into tangible progress from a growing human population and the resultant in sustainable forest management at the local level. high demands for forest products and services. We Drawing on experience to date, and on the perceived wanted to apply an interdisciplinary approach to the growing complexity of the forestry sector, policy and topics studied. institutional arrangements are proposed, as well as Our primary interest was to identify the main conclusions about the profile of new professionals drivers of change and their direct or indirect re- needed to meet crucial challenges affecting forests, percussions on forests and forestry, to propose ways society, and the environment. to reduce the adverse effects posed by these drivers, Consistent with the analysis and assumptions and to identify the benefits or opportunities these outlined above, this book, Forests and Society – Re- drivers of change may bring. We have included a sponding to Global Drivers of Change, offers readers number of case studies that serve to illustrate how 24 chapters grouped into six parts. This first part 13 society and institutions are striving to respond to the is introductory, explains the purpose of the book, aforementioned drivers of change, at different scales, and describes a brief introduction for each chap- and in diverse parts of the world. ter. The second part, in six chapters, analyses the FORESTS AND SOCIETY – RESPONDING TO GLOBAL DRIVERS OF CHANGE
  • 3. 1 FORESTS IN A CHANGING WORLD von Thünen Institut Photo 1.This book was developed by 160 authors from all around the world through a collaborative and open process.The photo shows the participants to the Editorial Workshop organised on the premises of von Thünen Institut in Hamburg, Germany, in June 2009. global environmental changes affecting the world’s climate change, and the use of forests in adaptation forests. The third part, also with six chapters, deals practices, as well as associated policy issues. with issues relating to global socio-economic chan- In Chapter 3, Harnessing Forests for Climate ges affecting forests. The fourth part presents eight Change Mitigation through REDD+, the authors regional or local examples of forest-related challen- point out that deforestation, forest degradation, and ges and opportunities in the changing world. The fifth land-use changes are major sources of carbon emis- part, in two chapters, deals with forest management sions. The urgent need to reduce carbon emissions options, policies, and institutional arrangements the has led to the development of mechanisms, such as authors believe are needed to address new challen- REDD+, that may provide an attractive option to ges, and present the main findings, highlighting the enable developed countries to partially achieve their challenges and opportunities found within the book, reduction targets through investment in developing and propose strategies to promote a better future for countries. Such mechanisms may also provide less people and forests. In the sixth part, the final chapter developed countries with a source of financing for of the book, the reader will find in-depth analyses sustainable forest management to support rural de- of the challenges and opportunities faced by forests velopment plans and poverty reduction strategies. and forestry in a changing world. Beginning with The implementation of these new mechanisms will Part 2, Chapter 2, the individual chapters are briefly demand the active participation of local communi- described below. ties, enabling them to benefit from emerging carbon markets and opportunities generated by the renewal of governmental institutions, and the formulation and 1.2 Brief Introduction to application of new policies and regulations. Chapter 4, Air Pollution Impacts on Forests in the Chapters a Changing Climate, is also concerned with climate change issues. The authors point out that awareness Chapter 2 is Forests and Adaptation to Climate of air pollution effects on forests from the early 1980s Change: Challenges and Opportunities. In this chap- led to intensive research, monitoring, and public ter, the authors explain why and how forests and awareness, particularly in developed countries. The forest-dependent societies are likely to be affected first indications of a recovery of forest soil and tree by climate change and its associated environmental conditions – which may be attributed to improved 14 and socio-economic disturbances. The chapter pro- air quality – have been identified. However, the in- vides an overview of climate change as a driver of tegrative effects of air pollution and climatic change change in forests, the challenges and opportunities (particularly elevated O3) altered nutrient cycling and of adapting forests and forest-dependent people to availability, temperature, water availability, and el- FORESTS AND SOCIETY – RESPONDING TO GLOBAL DRIVERS OF CHANGE
  • 4. 1 FORESTS IN A CHANGING WORLD evated CO2, will be key issues for research, including fied and investigated. The reallocation of the forest into interactions of these effects and the development industry’s production capacity in developing coun- of ecosystem models integrating multiple effects. tries is analysed. The authors also discuss the chang- In Chapter 5, Forest Cover in Global Water Gov- ing face of forestry and the global markets for wood ernance, the authors stress the importance of water products, coupled with timberland investment as a as a key resource for growing human populations form of joint response to changing economies, mar- and for sustaining increased production of food and kets, land values, technologies, and public policies. energy under threat from climate change. The central The greater environmental awareness of consumers role of forests in water cycling and for protecting is also considered. water quality is also emphasised. The development Chapter 9, Implications of Technological De- of a common understanding of the role of forest man- velopment (TD) to Forestry, observes that TD often agement in water governance, and a readiness for creates new opportunities and structures that make diverse future scenarios in a global change perspec- obsolete and commonly destroy the old technolo- tive are key objectives. Major conclusions include gies. Technological development has rarely been the emphasis on preparedness for solutions where forest focus of forest research, despite its large impact on management is part of water governance to meet different fields of forest sciences and forestry. The the needs of different land users. The importance of impacts of technological change on the forest sector transparency and local involvement of stakeholders are analysed by focusing on three technologies: in- is also discussed. formation and communication technologies, biotech- Chapter 6, Forest Biodiversity and Ecosystem nology applications in forestry, and laser technology Services: Drivers of Change, Responses, and Chal- applications to forest inventories and monitoring. lenges, describes four relevant anthropogenic driv- The implications and opportunities created by these ers of change in biodiversity, namely conversion of three technologies are analysed, as well as the chal- forests into agricultural lands, over-exploitation of lenges that they represent. forests, air pollution leading to climate change and Chapter 10, Forests and Bioenergy Production, acid rain, and invasive species. The authors recom- refers to the growing global role of forests as a renew- mend a proactive approach to forest conservation, able energy source. The authors explain how woody combining aspects of willingness to conserve with biomass is increasingly being used for power, heat, willingness to pay for further conservation; removal and in the derivation of transportation fuels. Forest- of administrative barriers to sustainable forest man- based energy production can reduce the use of fossil agement and protection; landscape management; fuels and the emission of greenhouse gases. How- inter-sectoral coordination between international, ever, the over-utilisation of forest ecosystems can national, and local policies; increased communica- jeopardise the sustainable development of forests and tion among stakeholders; and more research on the have negative effects on the people who are depend- interactions between biodiversity and ecosystem ent on them. Therefore, forest energy policies have to services. be based on the principle of sustainable development, In Chapter 7, Forest Health in a Changing Envi- ensuring both socio-economic and environmental vi- ronment, the authors emphasise that climate change ability of this use of the resource. will have profound effects on future forest distribu- Chapter 11, Forestry in Changing Social Land- tion and composition, as well as on the organisms scapes, describes how current rapid changes tend living in forests. It describes how climate change to push social and ecological systems toward un- models anticipate that trees will become more sus- sustainable conditions. The challenge is to maintain ceptible to insects and diseases as these organisms the balance between these systems and, simultane- sustain alterations in their lifecycles, increase their ously, secure ecological resilience while avoiding host ranges and virulence, and become important social disruption and insecurity. Global population drivers of change in forest ecosystems. Accelerated growth, its concentration in urban centres, as well global trade will foster the likelihood of introduction as changing consumption habits, will impact global of new pathogens as well as plants and animals alien land use, including forests. Perceptions and attitudes, to native ecosystems. Measures for increasing forest and inherent cultures of societies, determine the level resistance to climate-induced forest health decline of public support and success of forestry, the imple- and the role of pest management as a mitigating tool mentation of sustainable management, and effective for climate change on forests are presented. conservation measures. Chapter 8, Changes in Global Markets for Forest Chapter 12, Forests, Human Health and Well- Products and Timberlands, presents a brief review of being in Light of Climate Change and Urbanisation, the major global trends in the trade of forest products, begins with the recognition that forests provide a 15 followed by an analysis of foreign direct investment wide range of ecosystem goods and services ben- in forest industries, and the growth of timberland eficial (and in many cases, absolutely required) for investments. The driving forces of changes are identi- human life in both urban and rural areas. In addition, FORESTS AND SOCIETY – RESPONDING TO GLOBAL DRIVERS OF CHANGE
  • 5. 1 FORESTS IN A CHANGING WORLD forests are important arenas for recreation, aesthetic that provides a more precise identification of the appreciation, and stress relief, and for some cultures, real potential of communal forestry to contribute to even spiritual renewal. However, many of these posi- rural development. The authors review some of the tive effects of forests on human health and well-being challenges faced by community forestry develop- may be threatened as a result of climate change. In- ment initiatives, and critically reflect on the need creased pressure on urban forests and their capacity for actions to favour community forestry enterprise to provide ecosystem services, reduced availability development and their integration into forest prod- and quality of recreational areas, and higher risk of ucts value chains. These measures are seen necessary exposure to vector-borne diseases are some of the to enhance the generation of profits and to better adverse effects discussed. prepare community-based enterprises to deal with Chapter 13, Extra-Sectoral Drivers of Forest complex policies and regulations. Finally, the po- Change, discusses the importance of drivers that tentials, limitations, and challenges of community are external to the forest sector in shaping forests and smallholder forestry are discussed. and forestry. These driving forces originate beyond Emerging Local Economic and Social Dynamics forestry, and often affect forests and their social, eco- Shaping East African Forest Landscapes is the sub- nomic, and ecological functions. The authors explain ject of Chapter 17. It focuses on three East African that these drivers of change have frequently contrib- countries: Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda. Climate uted to extra-sectoral influences that eclipse secto- change is a future threat in the region, accentuated by ral developments as key drivers of forest landscape the heavy dependency of local communities on forest transformation. A brief overview of extra-sectoral resources for income and fuelwood. Conversion of pressures on forests, and the effects these have had forest land to agriculture is another key challenge. on forest-dependent communities, is given. Among the major drivers of deforestation is the fail- Chapter 14, Sustainability of Boreal Forests and ure to implement policies and regulations meant to Forestry in a Changing Environment, explains that control the use of forest resources. New initiatives this extensive biome, which is undergoing changes have been undertaken to help resolve these challeng- such as thawing of permafrost and increased levels of es, including decentralisation, increasing participa- natural and anthropogenic disturbance, may produce tion of communities in the management of forests, net releases of CO2 and methane, while forest cover expanding the role of the private sector, and local with greater biomass can be expected to expand onto communities in forest plantation development. the arctic tundra. Human use in some parts of north- In Chapter 18, Secondary Forests in West Africa: ern forests is becoming more centralised and indus- A Challenge and Opportunity for Management, the trialised. The ecosystems and people of the world’s authors point out that secondary forests constitute boreal forests are vulnerable to impending climatic about 90% of West African forests. These forests and socio-economic changes. Despite these changes, are often degraded and continue to suffer diverse the boreal zone will continue to present opportunities pressures and disturbances. Viable options for the to undertake landscape management over large areas sustainable use of these forests must be developed. dominated by natural forests to conserve biodiversity, A broad dissemination and application of rehabilita- establish and sustain economically viable enterprises tion concepts based on ecological processes – such and enhance development opportunities for northern as succession – must be undertaken. Applicable sil- communities. vicultural management systems, including enrich- Chapter 15, Amazon Forests at the Crossroads: ment planting, refining, and liberation to gradually Pressures, Responses, and Challenges, describes re-convert degraded forests into valuable timber some of the current key social, occupational, and resources, must be explored and applied with local political dynamics in the region, and reviews the participation. Agroforestry and utilisation of non- prime threats affecting Amazonian forests and rural wood forest products also offer good possibilities livelihoods. Among these are cattle-ranching, soy- for management, economic improvement of impov- beans production, logging, infrastructure expansion, erished resources and food security, contributing and the oil and gas industry. Also, a review of several to the stabilisation of livelihood strategies of rural recent responses to these threats is discussed, includ- populations. ing progress in retooling institutions: for example, Chapter 19, Promoting Sustainable Forest land tenure reform, decentralised government and Management Through Community Forestry in the deregulation, and incentives to support sustainable Philippines, explains that participation and equity forest use and the newly emerging REDD initia- are core values of “community forestry or partici- tives. patory forestry.” The Philippines is one of the pio- 16 Chapter 16, Opportunities and Challenges for neers in Asia in the adoption of community-based Community Forestry: Lessons from Tropical Ameri- forest management strategies, having three decades ca, focuses on the actual contribution of forests and of experience in promoting sustainable forest man- trees to rural livelihoods concentrating on evidence agement (SFM) through the participation of local FORESTS AND SOCIETY – RESPONDING TO GLOBAL DRIVERS OF CHANGE
  • 6. 1 FORESTS IN A CHANGING WORLD communities. The potential and current limitations of Chapter 22, Managing Forested Landscapes for this national strategy are explored, and the rationale, Socio-Ecological Resilience, puts forward new ap- history, objectives, and analyses of the factors behind proaches for managing forests for wood and other its development are explained. Different approaches ecosystem goods and services. Case studies are used to community forestry, accomplishments, and out- to illustrate recent advances in forest management comes are discussed; the enabling and reinforcing in response to local impacts brought on by global mechanisms are analysed, along with the issues and change that address current challenges and ele- challenges facing the implementation of SFM. Fi- ments of an emerging management paradigm based nally, a synopsis of conclusions and lessons learned on ecological and socio-economic systems. Such a is presented. framework recognises the complexity of systems, Chapter 20, Genetic Resources and Conser- their hierarchical structures, their interactions, and vation of Mahogany in Mesoamerica, reviews the their capacity for self-organisation. Learning how to current knowledge on the genetic variation of ma- facilitate the ability of natural forest systems to self- hogany (Swietenia spp.) and discusses the impor- organise, adapt and evolve, and to guide them towards tance of provenance variability, seed transfer and a desired appropriate state is one of the challenges. sourcing recommendations. Further, the authors The increasing importance of engagement, capacity explore management strategies for mahogany, and building, and participation in landscape management provide guidelines for conversing genetic diversity in is recognised as a first step toward maintaining the different forest landscapes. They conclude that con- provision of ecosystem goods and services. servation and sustainable management of mahogany Chapter 23, Ability of Institutions to Address genetic resources are not simple tasks, requiring local New Challenges, presents an analytical framework community involvement to prevent illegal logging. for reviewing research findings and analysing the Community efforts must be compensated to ensure most promising institutional settings with which to mutual benefit. Landscape level strategies for the address the drivers of change, to ameliorate problems, effective management of mahogany trees outside of and to encourage responsible and sustainable forest forests, for example in agroforestry practices, are ur- management. Attention is focused on the shift from gently needed. An international consensus is needed government to governance, political authority, dis- for phytosanitary procedures. entangling abstract policy for specific requirements, Chapter 21, Sustainability of Wood Supply: Risk and capacity enhancing knowledge-generating and Analysis for a Pulp Mill in Guangxi, China, focuses administrative institutions. It reveals that the glo- on the experiences of Stora Enso Corporation in es- bal nature of economic, social, and environmental tablishing eucalypt plantations for supplying a large demands on the world’s forests, and complex com- pulp mill in southern China with an annual produc- mercial trade relationships, require an integrative tion capacity of 1 million tonnes. The evaluation of analyses of domestic and local responses to assess the project concluded that it would be profitable, the role of innovative regional and global institutions and environmentally and socially sustainable. Wood designed to address “good governance.” The authors supply was assessed to be sufficient for the plant, a conclude by calling for much greater attention to the conclusion based on simple estimates of mean annual potential of synergistic institutional intersection to increment and areas of plantation available without respond to new and enduring challenges in ways that fully taking into account many high-risk factors. single institutions are incapable of doing. The paper illustrates the need for many new fast- Chapter 24, the concluding chapter, is titled growing eucalypt plantations to ensure long-term The Need for New Strategies and Approaches. This sustainability of wood supply. National macro-eco- chapter summarises the main findings of the book, nomic planning; a consistent policy and management highlights challenges and opportunities, and analyses framework; and systematic and focused approaches and proposes strategies required to promote a more emanating from the government and the private sec- promising future for people and forests. A brief al- tor are needed, including clear policies of corporate lusion is made to the profile of new professionals responsibility. required to meet current challenges affecting forests, society, and the environment. The key messages of the book are presented in a concise fashion in the last section of this chapter. 17 FORESTS AND SOCIETY – RESPONDING TO GLOBAL DRIVERS OF CHANGE