The Gospel Of John

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Slides for Jon Kohler's Amarillo College Bible Chair SW World Religions Class, Spring 2010.

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The Gospel Of John

  1. 1. “ The Gospel of John”
  2. 2. Author: <ul><ul><li>John the son of Zebedee, one of the 12 apostles. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Earliest sources would validate John’s authorship: Ignatius of Antioch (110-115); Justin Martyr (150); Tatian, and Athenagoras. Theophilus of Antioch (180) and Irenaeus make explicit claims that John was the author. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Note: Irenaeus got his information from Polycarp who was a direct disciple of John. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arguments against John’s authorship are based on internal criticism: the Christology is too advanced for the time period…so they say. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Date and Place of writing <ul><li>Ephesus A.D. 90 is the traditional view. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Modern critics date it to 180 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>John was located in Ephesus at the latter portion of his life (Patmos is off the coast of Ephesus). </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Outline: <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prologue (1:1-18) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Book of Signs (1:19-12:50) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Book of Glory (13:1-20:31) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Epilogue (21:1-25) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Purpose and characteristics John 20:31
  6. 6. In the Beginning was the word <ul><li>John focuses on the divine glory of Jesus…he is nothing less than God himself, incarnate in human flesh. </li></ul><ul><li>Jesus is emphasized as being deity. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jesus embodies life (1:4; 5:21; 6:57; 11:25; 14:6) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Light (1:4; 5, 9; 3:19; 8:12) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Truth (1:14; 14:6; 18:37) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Glory (1:14; 2:11; 11:4; 12:41; 17:5, 24) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Grace (1:14, 17) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>He is the word (1:1) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. In the Beginning was the word <ul><li>Jesus is the personal embodiment of God as Son. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Son (1:34, 49; 3:16-18; 3:36; 5:25, 26; 10:36; 17:1; 19:7) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>One and only Son (1:14, 18) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lord (13:14; 20:28; 21:7) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>God (1:1; 5:18; 10:30, 33, 37-39; 14:11; 20:28) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The existing one “I am” (8:57-58) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. In the Beginning was the word <ul><li>Note also John’s use of the OT in relation to Jesus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Isaiah saw Jesus’ Glory and spoke about him (Jn 12:38-41; Isa 53:1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>See also Jn 12:13; cf Ps 118:25-26 </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. In the Beginning was the word <ul><li>The Trinity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unity and diversity within the divine being (Jn 1:18). </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. The Seven “I am” statements in John. <ul><li>I am the bread of life (6:35-48) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In the OT “bread of God” is used for the show bread (Lev. 21:6, 8, 17, 21, 22; 22:25). manna is called “bread of the mighty” or “bread of the angels” (Heb Lehem ) in Psa 78:25. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No one can come to Jesus unless the Father “drags” him </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This bread delivers someone from eternal death (6:48-50). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eat the flesh of Jesus (6:56) </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. The Seven “I am” statements in John. <ul><li>I am light of the world (8:12) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In the OT God is his people’s light (Ps 27:1); in the light of His presence they enjoy grace and peace (Num 6:24-26). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Servant of the Lord is the light to the nations, that God’s salvation might extend to the whole earth (Isa 49:6). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The word or law of God is also described as a light to guide the path of the obedient (Ps 119:105; Prov 6:23). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jesus embodies all of the OT language related to being the light. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. The Seven “I am” statements in John. <ul><li>I am the Gate for the Sheep (10:7) </li></ul><ul><li>I am the Door is similar to “I am the Way” (14:6) </li></ul><ul><li>The door to salvation. </li></ul>
  13. 13. The Seven “I am” statements in John. <ul><li>I am the good shepherd (10:11) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Good shepherd shows himself to be a good shepherd because the welfare of the sheep, not his own, is his primary care…he even risks his life to save theirs. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. The Seven “I am” statements in John. <ul><li>I am the Resurrection and the Life (11:25) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jesus is authorized by the father to raise the dead. (Jn 5:21; 24-29; 6:39f). </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. The Seven “I am” statements in John. <ul><li>I am the way the truth and the Life (14:6) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exclusive? </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. The Seven “I am” statements in John. <ul><li>I am the True vine (15:1) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The vine is one of the OT figures used to illustrate the people of Israel (Ps 80:8-19). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jesus is presented as true Israel, the genuine vine, the man of God’s right hand. God is the vine dresser, the farmer. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If Jesus is the Vine then his disciples are the branches, deriving their life and fruit-producing strength from him. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Every branch undergoes pruning. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Jesus as Unique Divine Messenger <ul><ul><ul><li>Jesus comes down to earth from God (3:34; 5:24; 6:38; 8:16, 18, 42; 15;21; 17:18) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The teacher who comes from God (3:2; 13:13-14) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>True bread from heaven (6:32-33, 50, 58). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The one who possesses all power (13:3) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The one through whom the Holy Spirit speaks (14:26; 15:26) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The one who conquers the world (16:33) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Judge who raises all up at the last day (5:22, 27-30; 6:39, 54; 11:25). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>His true home is in heaven (16:28). </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Jesus’ fulfillment of Israel’s and all humanity’s Hopes and Needs. <ul><ul><ul><li>Jesus is the Messiah of Israel (1:41; 4:25-26; 7:41; 10:24-25; 11:27) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>King of Israel (1:49; 18:37; 19:19 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lamb of God (1:29, 35) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Son of Man (1:51; 3:13-14; 6:27, 53, 61; 13:31) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prophet Par Excellence (4:44; 6:14; 7:40; 9:17) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The fulfillment of OT Prophecy (1:45; 5:39, 45-47; 8:56; 12:41; 19:36-37) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Savior of the world (4:42) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>One who gives eternal life (8:12) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. The word became flesh <ul><li>It was Jesus’ humanity that was called into question long before his deity. </li></ul><ul><li>Gnosticism and Jn 1:14 </li></ul><ul><li>The Gospel stresses Jesus’ human nature as well as the divine nature of God (1:45; Nazareth); asks for a drink of water (4:7) </li></ul><ul><li>Only one who was truly human and truly divine could redeem the world </li></ul>
  20. 20. The principle of Faith <ul><li>The main point of John’s gospel is faith in Jesus Christ that glorifies God. </li></ul><ul><li>Those who believe have everlasting life (3:16) and will never die (11:26) </li></ul><ul><li>Those who do not believe are condemned (3:18) and they will experience the wrath of God (3:36). </li></ul><ul><li>Notice what Jesus calls people to believe in. </li></ul><ul><li>Jesus’ prayer in Jn 17 is for believers. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Other themes in John <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the nature of eternal life </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the future resurrection of the dead </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The work of the Holy Spirit </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The special place of Jesus’ miraculous signs </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The personal relation of Jesus to the believer </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The love of God </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The conflict of the believer with the world </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Light, glory, truth and revelation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>

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