Jewish History
The Second-Temple Era <ul><li>In around the year 520 B.C., the prophets Haggai and Zechariah call for resumption of Temple...
The Second-Temple Era <ul><li>During the Persian Period, there were many significant developments.  Not the least was the ...
© 2002 MANNA All Rights Reserved. This PowerPoint file is copyrighted and may only be used by purchasers. If you have not ...
The Second-Temple Era Alexander, the son of Philip of Macedon, changed the world, including the Jewish world. Still in his...
The Second-Temple Era <ul><li>Tensions led to the rise of  several religious factions  among the Jews in Israel during thi...
<ul><ul><ul><li>The  Zealots  </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>opposed to foreign influences and bitterly opposed Roman...
 
Branches of  Rabbinical Judaism <ul><li>Orthodox </li></ul><ul><li>Conservative  </li></ul><ul><li>Reform </li></ul>
The Orthodox Branch
Orthodox History <ul><li>Orthodoxy dates back to the days of the Talmud (second to fifth centuries A.D.).  </li></ul><ul><...
Orthodox View of Scripture <ul><li>Torah, meaning essentially the teaching of the Five Books of Moses, is truth. </li></ul...
Orthodox View of God <ul><li>God is spirit rather than form. </li></ul><ul><li>He is a personal God—omnipotent, omniscient...
Orthodox View of Humankind <ul><li>Humanity is morally neutral, with a good and an evil inclination. </li></ul><ul><li>He ...
Orthodox View of  Tradition of the Law <ul><li>The Law is the basis of Judaism. </li></ul><ul><li>It is authoritative and ...
Orthodox View of Sin <ul><li>Orthodox Jews do not believe in “original sin.” </li></ul><ul><li>Rather one commits sin by b...
Orthodox View of Salvation <ul><li>Repentance (belief in God’s mercy), prayer, and obedience to the Law are necessary for ...
Orthodox View of the Messiah <ul><li>The Messiah is a human being who is not divine. </li></ul><ul><li>He will restore the...
Orthodox View of Life After Death <ul><li>There will be a physical resurrection. </li></ul><ul><li>The righteous will exis...
Orthodox Distinctives in Synagogue Worship <ul><li>The synagogue is a house of prayer as well as study; social aspects are...
The Conservative Branch
Conservative History <ul><li>Conservative Judaism is an American movement with roots in nineteenth century Germany. </li><...
Conservative View of Scripture <ul><li>The Bible, both the Torah and the other books, is the word of God and man. </li></u...
Conservative View of God <ul><li>The concept of God is nondogmatic and flexible. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There is less athei...
Conservative View of Humankind <ul><li>This group tends toward the Reform view  (Humanity’s nature is basically good…Throu...
Conservative View of the Tradition of the Law <ul><li>Adaptation to contemporary situations is inevitable. </li></ul><ul><...
Conservative View of Sin <ul><li>Conservative Jews do not believe in “original sin.” </li></ul><ul><li>The individual can ...
Conservative View of Salvation <ul><li>Conservative Jews tend toward the Reform view*, but include the necessity of mainta...
Conservative View of the Messiah <ul><li>Instead of belief in Messiah as a person or divine being, Conservative Jews favor...
Conservative View of  Life after Death <ul><li>Conservative Jews tend toward the Reform view*, but are less influenced by ...
Conservative Distinctives in Synagogue Worship <ul><li>The synagogue is viewed as the basic institution of Jewish life. </...
The Reform View
Reform History <ul><li>Emerged following the emancipation from ghetto life in the late eighteenth century. </li></ul><ul><...
Reform View of Scripture <ul><li>The Bible is a human document preserving the history, culture, legends and hopes of a peo...
Reform View of God <ul><li>Reform Judaism allows a varied interpretation of the “God concept” with wide latitude for natur...
Reform View of Humankind <ul><li>Humanity’s nature is basically good. </li></ul><ul><li>Through education, encouragement, ...
Reform View of  Tradition of the Law <ul><li>The law is an evolving, ever-dynamic religious code that adapts to every age....
Reform Views of Sin <ul><li>Reform Jews do not believe in “original sin.” </li></ul><ul><li>Sin is interpreted as the ills...
Reform Views of Salvation <ul><li>“Salvation” is obtained through the betterment of self and society. </li></ul><ul><ul><l...
Reform View of the Messiah <ul><li>Instead of belief in Messiah as a person or divine being, Reform Jews favor the concept...
Reform View of  Life after Death <ul><li>Generally, Reform Judaism has no concept of personal life after death. </li></ul>...
Reform Distinctives  in Synagogue Worship <ul><li>The synagogue is known as a “Temple.” </li></ul><ul><li>The service has ...
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Rabbinical Judaism

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Rabbinical Judaism

  1. 1. Jewish History
  2. 2. The Second-Temple Era <ul><li>In around the year 520 B.C., the prophets Haggai and Zechariah call for resumption of Temple construction (Ezra 5:1-2; 6:14; Haggai 1:8; Zechariah 8:9). </li></ul><ul><li>The Persian King Darius I gives help to get the Temple finished; and it is dedicated in 516 (Ezra 6:1-15). </li></ul><ul><li>In the year 490, the Greeks defeat Darius at Marathon, which marks the beginning of the end for Persia. </li></ul><ul><li>As part of a later return of Jewish exiles and their descendants from Persia to Jerusalem, around 444 B.C. Nehemiah becomes distressed over the condition of Jerusalem, is appointed governor of Judah by Artaxerxes I, and leads the residents to rebuild the city wall. </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Second-Temple Era <ul><li>During the Persian Period, there were many significant developments. Not the least was the shift from Hebrew to Aramaic as the language spoken by Jews in daily conversation. Aramaic had been widely used by the Assyrians, and it was the lingua franca of the Persian Empire. Sections of the Daniel and Ezra are not in Hebrew, but Aramaic. </li></ul>
  4. 4. © 2002 MANNA All Rights Reserved. This PowerPoint file is copyrighted and may only be used by purchasers. If you have not purchased this product then you may be in violation of copyright law. The full line of maps and charts is available on our Bible Maps CD. www.biblemaps.com “ Thou shalt not steal.” Exodus 20:15
  5. 5. The Second-Temple Era Alexander, the son of Philip of Macedon, changed the world, including the Jewish world. Still in his 20s, the new King of the Macedonians swept through Palestine in 332. Later, he founded the great city Alexandria on the western delta of the Nile. By 326, Alexander’s conquests were mainly complete. He died in Babylon at age 32.
  6. 6. The Second-Temple Era <ul><li>Tensions led to the rise of several religious factions among the Jews in Israel during this period, espcially after 165 B.C.E. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Sadducees were the first of the factions to emerge. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>in charge of the temple and its activities </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Pharisees </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>focus was on preserving Hebrew piety through careful observation of religious laws and ORAL traditions </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><ul><ul><li>The Zealots </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>opposed to foreign influences and bitterly opposed Roman rule of Israel </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>these patriots sometimes used violent means to achieve their ends </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Essenes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>they lived a communal, celibate life, primarily in the desert area near the Dead Sea </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 9. Branches of Rabbinical Judaism <ul><li>Orthodox </li></ul><ul><li>Conservative </li></ul><ul><li>Reform </li></ul>
  9. 10. The Orthodox Branch
  10. 11. Orthodox History <ul><li>Orthodoxy dates back to the days of the Talmud (second to fifth centuries A.D.). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It was the only form of Jewish practice prior to the eighteenth century and the emergence of Reform Judaism. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Orthodoxy today seeks to preserve classical or traditional Judaism. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Also called Traditional or Torah Judaism </li></ul><ul><li>6% of all American Jews </li></ul>
  11. 12. Orthodox View of Scripture <ul><li>Torah, meaning essentially the teaching of the Five Books of Moses, is truth. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A person must have faith in its essential, revealed character. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A true Jew believes in revelation and the divine origin of the oral and written Torah. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“Oral Torah” was given to Moses along with the written Torah. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Torah is accorded a higher place than the rest of the Hebrew Bible. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 13. Orthodox View of God <ul><li>God is spirit rather than form. </li></ul><ul><li>He is a personal God—omnipotent, omniscient, omnipresent, eternal, and compassionate. </li></ul>
  13. 14. Orthodox View of Humankind <ul><li>Humanity is morally neutral, with a good and an evil inclination. </li></ul><ul><li>He or she can overcome his or her evil bent and be perfected by his or her own efforts in observance of the Law. </li></ul>
  14. 15. Orthodox View of Tradition of the Law <ul><li>The Law is the basis of Judaism. </li></ul><ul><li>It is authoritative and gives structure and meaning to life. </li></ul><ul><li>The life of total dedication to Halakhah (body of Jewish law) leads to a nearness of God. </li></ul>
  15. 16. Orthodox View of Sin <ul><li>Orthodox Jews do not believe in “original sin.” </li></ul><ul><li>Rather one commits sin by breaking the commandments of the Law. </li></ul>
  16. 17. Orthodox View of Salvation <ul><li>Repentance (belief in God’s mercy), prayer, and obedience to the Law are necessary for a proper relationship with God. </li></ul><ul><li>“Salvation” is not considered to be a Jewish concept, inasmuch as Jewish people presume a standing with God. </li></ul>
  17. 18. Orthodox View of the Messiah <ul><li>The Messiah is a human being who is not divine. </li></ul><ul><li>He will restore the Jewish kingdom and extend his righteous rule over the earth. </li></ul><ul><li>He will execute judgment and right all wrongs. </li></ul>
  18. 19. Orthodox View of Life After Death <ul><li>There will be a physical resurrection. </li></ul><ul><li>The righteous will exist forever with God in the “World to Come.” </li></ul><ul><li>The unrighteous will suffer, but disagreement exists over their ultimate destiny. </li></ul>
  19. 20. Orthodox Distinctives in Synagogue Worship <ul><li>The synagogue is a house of prayer as well as study; social aspects are incidental. </li></ul><ul><li>All prayers are recited in Hebrew. </li></ul><ul><li>Men and women sit separately. </li></ul><ul><li>The officiants face the same direction as the congregants. </li></ul>
  20. 21. The Conservative Branch
  21. 22. Conservative History <ul><li>Conservative Judaism is an American movement with roots in nineteenth century Germany. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It arose as a reaction to what some viewed as the extreme assimilationist tendencies of Reform Judaism. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It tried to be middle ground, attempting to maintain basic traditions while adapting to modern life. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Also known as Historical Judaism </li></ul><ul><li>35% of all American Jews </li></ul>
  22. 23. Conservative View of Scripture <ul><li>The Bible, both the Torah and the other books, is the word of God and man. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is not inspired in the traditional sense, but rather dynamically inspired. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Revelation is an ongoing process. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 24. Conservative View of God <ul><li>The concept of God is nondogmatic and flexible. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There is less atheism in Conservative Judaism than in Reform, but most often God is considered impersonal and ineffable. </li></ul></ul>
  24. 25. Conservative View of Humankind <ul><li>This group tends toward the Reform view (Humanity’s nature is basically good…Through education, encouragement, and evolution he or she can actualize the potential already existing within him or her.) though it is not as likely to espouse humanism. </li></ul><ul><li>Perfectibility can come through enlightenment. </li></ul><ul><li>Humanity is “in partnership” with God. </li></ul>
  25. 26. Conservative View of the Tradition of the Law <ul><li>Adaptation to contemporary situations is inevitable. </li></ul><ul><li>The demands of morality are absolute; the specific laws are relative. </li></ul>
  26. 27. Conservative View of Sin <ul><li>Conservative Jews do not believe in “original sin.” </li></ul><ul><li>The individual can sin in moral or social actions. </li></ul>
  27. 28. Conservative View of Salvation <ul><li>Conservative Jews tend toward the Reform view*, but include the necessity of maintaining Jewish identity. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>* “Salvation” is obtained through the betterment of self and society. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It is social improvement. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 29. Conservative View of the Messiah <ul><li>Instead of belief in Messiah as a person or divine being, Conservative Jews favor the concept of a Utopian age toward which humankind is progressing, sometimes called the “Messianic age.” </li></ul>
  29. 30. Conservative View of Life after Death <ul><li>Conservative Jews tend toward the Reform view*, but are less influenced by nontraditional ideas such as Eastern mysticism. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>* Generally, have no concept of personal life after death. It is said that a person lives on in the accomplishments or in the minds of others. </li></ul></ul>
  30. 31. Conservative Distinctives in Synagogue Worship <ul><li>The synagogue is viewed as the basic institution of Jewish life. </li></ul><ul><li>Alterations listed under Reform are found to a lesser degree in Conservative worship. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The service has been modernized and abbreviated. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>English, as well as Hebrew, is used. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Men and women sit together. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reform temples use choirs and organs in their worship services. </li></ul></ul>
  31. 32. The Reform View
  32. 33. Reform History <ul><li>Emerged following the emancipation from ghetto life in the late eighteenth century. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It sought to modernize Judaism and thus stem the tide of assimilation threatening German Jewry. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It was thought that Jewish identity could be best maintained by modernization, but others saw this as in fact contributing to assimilation and the loss of Jewish identity. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Also known as Liberal or Progressive Judaism </li></ul><ul><li>38% of all American Jews </li></ul>
  33. 34. Reform View of Scripture <ul><li>The Bible is a human document preserving the history, culture, legends and hopes of a people. </li></ul><ul><li>It is valuable for deriving moral and ethical insights. </li></ul><ul><li>Revelation is an ongoing process. </li></ul>
  34. 35. Reform View of God <ul><li>Reform Judaism allows a varied interpretation of the “God concept” with wide latitude for naturalists, mystics, super-naturalists, or religious humanists. </li></ul><ul><li>It holds that “the truth is that we do not know the truth.” </li></ul>
  35. 36. Reform View of Humankind <ul><li>Humanity’s nature is basically good. </li></ul><ul><li>Through education, encouragement, and evolution he or she can actualize the potential already existing within him or her. </li></ul>
  36. 37. Reform View of Tradition of the Law <ul><li>The law is an evolving, ever-dynamic religious code that adapts to every age. </li></ul><ul><li>It is maintained that is religious observances clash with the just demands of civilized society they must be dropped. </li></ul>
  37. 38. Reform Views of Sin <ul><li>Reform Jews do not believe in “original sin.” </li></ul><ul><li>Sin is interpreted as the ills of society. </li></ul><ul><li>Humanity is sometimes held to have a “divine spark” within. </li></ul>
  38. 39. Reform Views of Salvation <ul><li>“Salvation” is obtained through the betterment of self and society. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is social improvement. </li></ul></ul>
  39. 40. Reform View of the Messiah <ul><li>Instead of belief in Messiah as a person or divine being, Reform Jews favor the concept of a Utopian age toward which humankind is progressing, sometimes called the “Messianic age.” </li></ul>
  40. 41. Reform View of Life after Death <ul><li>Generally, Reform Judaism has no concept of personal life after death. </li></ul><ul><li>It is said that a person lives on in the accomplishments or in the minds of others. </li></ul><ul><li>Some are influenced by Eastern mystical thought, where souls merge into one great impersonal life force. </li></ul>
  41. 42. Reform Distinctives in Synagogue Worship <ul><li>The synagogue is known as a “Temple.” </li></ul><ul><li>The service has been modernized and abbreviated. </li></ul><ul><li>English, as well as Hebrew, is used. </li></ul><ul><li>Men and women sit together. </li></ul><ul><li>Reform temples use choirs and organs in their worship services. </li></ul>
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