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Ancient Near Eastern Religions (Iraq And Iran)

Ancient Near Eastern Religions (Iraq And Iran)



Ancient Near Eastern Religions slides

Ancient Near Eastern Religions slides



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    Ancient Near Eastern Religions (Iraq And Iran) Ancient Near Eastern Religions (Iraq And Iran) Presentation Transcript

    • Ancient Near Eastern Religions
    • Mesopotamian Religion:
      • Location: the area between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers
      • Religion: polytheistic
    • Historical Development: Mesopotamian Civilizations
      • Mesopotamia:
      • civilization developed around 7000 B.C.
      • writing took place much later 3100 B.C. by the Sumerians.
      • Sumerians, Akkadians, Amorites, Baylonians, and Assyrians
      • Learn much about Mesopotamia from the Bible.
    • Assyrian Empire: 8th and 7th centuries B.C.
      • In Judah, moral decline took place as Judah coexisted in much prosperity with the Assyrians. As a result the classical prophets began to preach: Amos, Hosea, Isaiah, and Micah.
      • Shalmaneser V governed Assyria when the northern nation fell in 722 B.C.
    • Babylonia
      • Defeated Assyria:
      • 597 B.C. Nebuchadnezzer (king of Babylon) attacked Jerusalem and deported a vast number of Jews to Babylon. In 587 B.C. he completely destroyed Jerusalem.
      • Prophetic figures in this time were: Jeremiah, Habakkuk, and Ezekiel.
      • Mesopotamians sought a good life on this earth but they were constantly bombarded with the forces of chaos around them.
      • Hammurabi and his law code (8th century BCE)
      • Nebuchadnezzar rebuilt Babylon and made a temporary home for exiled Jews.
      • The Persians will seize power in this area after the Babylonians.
      • The Greeks led by Alexander the Great will control the area around 332 BCE.
      • After the Greeks come Roman rule.
    • Myths of Mesopotamia:
      • Enuma Elish
      • Marduk
      • Tammuz and Ishtar through their marriage created (via sex).
      • The descent of Inanna
      Enuma Elish tablet
      • Atrahasis
    • Gilgamesh:
      • Enkidu and Gilgamesh
      • Gilgamesh searches for immortality once Enkidu dies
    • Worldview: Mesopotamia
    • World view continued:
      • Absolute:
      • Rituals and Symbols:
      • Humans
      • Relationship to other Religions:
    • Iranian Religion: Aka: ancient Persian Religion
    • Zoroastrianism
    • The life of Zoroaster
      • Born between 660 and 528 BCE (7th century BCE)
      • At 15 he receives the sacred thread of initiation and lives a good life afterward
      • At 20 he left his parents and his wife
      • At 30 he began to wrestle with religion.
      • Vohu Manah (human figure 9xs as big as a man) appeared to him
      • Ahura Mazda said that immortality would be given to the followers of Zathustra
      • Zoroaster had many visions of angels.
      • He later converted king Vishtaspa
      • Dies at the age of 77
    • Teachings of Zoroaster:
      • scriptures of this religion were written over centuries.
      • Avesta (book of law)
      • Visperad (used to honor lords)
      • Yashts (hymns of praise)
      • Vindevdat (rituals against demons)
      • Monotheism (Ahura Mazda was the main god worshiped), or dualism (Angra Mainyu is the evil deity)
      • People are judged upon their death
    • Zoroastrianism after Zoroaster
      • Cyrus embraced Zoroastrianism
      • Darius
      • Xerxes
      • Magi were probably Zoroastrian
      • Monotheism was replaced with Dualism
      • Manichaeism developed from the teaching of Mani (flesh is evil, spirit is good)
      • Augustine was originally a Manichaean
      • More deities were added
      • Moved to a universalism for salvation
    • Worldview: Zoroastrianism
      • Absolute:
      • The World:
      • Humans:
      • Problem for Humans:
      • Solution for Humans:
      • Rituals and Symbols:
      • Life after death
      • Relationship to Other Religions