Ancient Near Eastern Religions
Mesopotamian Religion: <ul><li>Location: the area between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers </li></ul><ul><li>Religion: poly...
Historical Development: Mesopotamian Civilizations <ul><li>Mesopotamia:   </li></ul><ul><li>civilization developed around ...
Assyrian Empire: 8th and 7th centuries B.C. <ul><li>In Judah, moral decline took place as Judah coexisted in much prosperi...
Babylonia <ul><li>Defeated Assyria: </li></ul><ul><li>597 B.C. Nebuchadnezzer (king of Babylon) attacked Jerusalem and dep...
<ul><li>Mesopotamians sought a good life on this earth but they were constantly bombarded with the forces of chaos around ...
<ul><li>The Persians will seize power in this area after the Babylonians. </li></ul><ul><li>The Greeks led by Alexander th...
Myths of Mesopotamia: <ul><li>Enuma Elish  </li></ul><ul><li>Marduk  </li></ul><ul><li>Tammuz and Ishtar through their mar...
<ul><li>Atrahasis </li></ul>
Gilgamesh: <ul><li>Enkidu and Gilgamesh </li></ul><ul><li>Gilgamesh searches for immortality once Enkidu dies </li></ul>
Worldview: Mesopotamia
World view continued: <ul><li>Absolute: </li></ul><ul><li>Rituals and Symbols: </li></ul><ul><li>Humans </li></ul><ul><li>...
Iranian Religion: Aka: ancient Persian Religion
Zoroastrianism
The life of Zoroaster <ul><li>Born between 660 and 528 BCE (7th century BCE) </li></ul><ul><li>At 15 he receives the sacre...
Teachings of Zoroaster: <ul><li>scriptures of this religion were written over centuries. </li></ul><ul><li>Avesta (book of...
Zoroastrianism after Zoroaster <ul><li>Cyrus embraced Zoroastrianism </li></ul><ul><li>Darius </li></ul><ul><li>Xerxes </l...
Worldview: Zoroastrianism <ul><li>Absolute: </li></ul><ul><li>The World: </li></ul><ul><li>Humans: </li></ul><ul><li>Probl...
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Ancient Near Eastern Religions (Iraq And Iran)

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Spring 2010 Amarillo College Bible Chair SW World Religions class.

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Ancient Near Eastern Religions (Iraq And Iran)

  1. 1. Ancient Near Eastern Religions
  2. 2. Mesopotamian Religion: <ul><li>Location: the area between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers </li></ul><ul><li>Religion: polytheistic </li></ul>
  3. 3. Historical Development: Mesopotamian Civilizations <ul><li>Mesopotamia: </li></ul><ul><li>civilization developed around 7000 B.C. </li></ul><ul><li>writing took place much later 3100 B.C. by the Sumerians. </li></ul><ul><li>Sumerians, Akkadians, Amorites, Baylonians, and Assyrians </li></ul><ul><li>Learn much about Mesopotamia from the Bible. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Assyrian Empire: 8th and 7th centuries B.C. <ul><li>In Judah, moral decline took place as Judah coexisted in much prosperity with the Assyrians. As a result the classical prophets began to preach: Amos, Hosea, Isaiah, and Micah. </li></ul><ul><li>Shalmaneser V governed Assyria when the northern nation fell in 722 B.C. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Babylonia <ul><li>Defeated Assyria: </li></ul><ul><li>597 B.C. Nebuchadnezzer (king of Babylon) attacked Jerusalem and deported a vast number of Jews to Babylon. In 587 B.C. he completely destroyed Jerusalem. </li></ul><ul><li>Prophetic figures in this time were: Jeremiah, Habakkuk, and Ezekiel. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Mesopotamians sought a good life on this earth but they were constantly bombarded with the forces of chaos around them. </li></ul><ul><li>Hammurabi and his law code (8th century BCE) </li></ul><ul><li>Nebuchadnezzar rebuilt Babylon and made a temporary home for exiled Jews. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>The Persians will seize power in this area after the Babylonians. </li></ul><ul><li>The Greeks led by Alexander the Great will control the area around 332 BCE. </li></ul><ul><li>After the Greeks come Roman rule. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Myths of Mesopotamia: <ul><li>Enuma Elish </li></ul><ul><li>Marduk </li></ul><ul><li>Tammuz and Ishtar through their marriage created (via sex). </li></ul><ul><li>The descent of Inanna </li></ul>Enuma Elish tablet
  9. 9. <ul><li>Atrahasis </li></ul>
  10. 10. Gilgamesh: <ul><li>Enkidu and Gilgamesh </li></ul><ul><li>Gilgamesh searches for immortality once Enkidu dies </li></ul>
  11. 11. Worldview: Mesopotamia
  12. 12. World view continued: <ul><li>Absolute: </li></ul><ul><li>Rituals and Symbols: </li></ul><ul><li>Humans </li></ul><ul><li>Relationship to other Religions: </li></ul>
  13. 13. Iranian Religion: Aka: ancient Persian Religion
  14. 14. Zoroastrianism
  15. 15. The life of Zoroaster <ul><li>Born between 660 and 528 BCE (7th century BCE) </li></ul><ul><li>At 15 he receives the sacred thread of initiation and lives a good life afterward </li></ul><ul><li>At 20 he left his parents and his wife </li></ul><ul><li>At 30 he began to wrestle with religion. </li></ul><ul><li>Vohu Manah (human figure 9xs as big as a man) appeared to him </li></ul><ul><li>Ahura Mazda said that immortality would be given to the followers of Zathustra </li></ul><ul><li>Zoroaster had many visions of angels. </li></ul><ul><li>He later converted king Vishtaspa </li></ul><ul><li>Dies at the age of 77 </li></ul>
  16. 16. Teachings of Zoroaster: <ul><li>scriptures of this religion were written over centuries. </li></ul><ul><li>Avesta (book of law) </li></ul><ul><li>Visperad (used to honor lords) </li></ul><ul><li>Yashts (hymns of praise) </li></ul><ul><li>Vindevdat (rituals against demons) </li></ul><ul><li>Monotheism (Ahura Mazda was the main god worshiped), or dualism (Angra Mainyu is the evil deity) </li></ul><ul><li>People are judged upon their death </li></ul>
  17. 17. Zoroastrianism after Zoroaster <ul><li>Cyrus embraced Zoroastrianism </li></ul><ul><li>Darius </li></ul><ul><li>Xerxes </li></ul><ul><li>Magi were probably Zoroastrian </li></ul><ul><li>Monotheism was replaced with Dualism </li></ul><ul><li>Manichaeism developed from the teaching of Mani (flesh is evil, spirit is good) </li></ul><ul><li>Augustine was originally a Manichaean </li></ul><ul><li>More deities were added </li></ul><ul><li>Moved to a universalism for salvation </li></ul>
  18. 18. Worldview: Zoroastrianism <ul><li>Absolute: </li></ul><ul><li>The World: </li></ul><ul><li>Humans: </li></ul><ul><li>Problem for Humans: </li></ul><ul><li>Solution for Humans: </li></ul><ul><li>Rituals and Symbols: </li></ul><ul><li>Life after death </li></ul><ul><li>Relationship to Other Religions </li></ul>
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