Human Resource DevelopmentHRD is a system of developing in a continuous and planned way the competencies ofindividual employees, dyadic groups (superior and subordinate), teams and the totalorganization to achieve organizational goals. It maximizes the similarity betweenindividual and organizational goals of employees and develops an organizational culturein which superior-subordinate relationships, teamwork and collaboration among variousunits become strong and contribute to the professional well-being, motivation and prideof employees.Characteristics of HRD1. HRD is concerned with employees both as individuals and as groups in attaining theobjectives of the business enterprise. It is also concerned with the behavior, emotions andsocial aspects.2. HRD is concerned with the development of human resources i.e.; the knowledge, skill,capabilities and potential of people. This is then directed towards the achievement ofemployee goals including job satisfaction.3. HRD covers all levels (low, middle and high) and all categories (unskilled, skilled,technical, professional, clerical and managerial) of employees. It covers both in theorganized and unorganized sector.4. HRD is a continuous and never ending process. It requires constant awareness ofhuman relations and their importance in everyday operations. It aims at securingunrestricted cooperation from all employees in order to attain predetermined goals.5. HRD is the process of improving, molding and changing the skills, knowledge,creative ability, aptitude, values commitment based on present and future jobs andorganizational requirements.
Role of Human Resource Development within Organizations1. Getting the top management to think in terms of strategic and longterm business plans:It may sound ironical that the HRD should begin with such strategic plans, but in somecases it has compelled the top management to think about such plans. While somecompanies started thinking about them, a few others started sharing these plans with alarger number of persons.2. Streamlining of other management practices:Most often HRD process identifies the strengths and weaknesses in some of themanagement systems existing in the organization. It is also points out to the absence ofsystems that can enhance human productivity and utilization of the existing competencybase; for example, the MIS, rules and procedures, etc. which may have an effect on thefunctioning of the employees. In a few cases HRD has helped the management to look atsome of these sub-systems and work procedures. Preparation of a manual of delegation ofpowers, clarification of roles and responsibilities, developing or streamlining the manualsof financial and accounting procedures, strengthening the information systems, andsharing of information are some of the resultant activities in this direction.3. Supply necessary inputs to HR department for better recruitmentpolicies and more professional staff:Perfect HRD system sets the stage and gives direction for the competency requirementsof employees at various levels and thus provides a base for recruitment policies andprocedures. In some companies, it has resulted in strengthening the recruitment policiesand procedures. As a result of HRD practices, new recruitment and retention strategieshave been worked out.
4. More planning and more cost-effective trainingOne of the aspects emphasized in the HRD system is to calculate the investment made intraining and ask questions about the returns. The process of identifying training needs andutilization of training inputs and learning for organisation growth and development areassessed. As direct investments are made in training, any cost-benefit analysis drawsattention of the top management and HRD managers to review the training function withrelative ease. One organization strengthened its training function by introducing a newsystem of post-training follow –up and dissemination of knowledge to others throughseminars and action plans. Many organisations have developed training policies andsystematized their training function. Assessment of training needs has also become morescientific in these organisations.5. Increased focus on Human Resources and Human competenciesHRD focuses on new knowledge, attitudes and skills required by the employees in theorganization Comments are made about the technical, managerial, human and conceptualcompetencies of the staff at various levels. This differentiation has been found to helporganisations identify and focus sharply on the competency requirements and gaps. HRDSystem establishes a system of role clarity and fixing of accountabilities. This can takeplace through separate role clarity exercises or through the development of an appropriateperformance appraisal system. The attention of the organization gets focused ondeveloping the competency base of the organization. More sensitivities are developed tothe missing aspects of competencies. For example, one organization has been found toneglect human relations competencies of their staff, resulting in a large number of humanproblems leading to wastage of time. Some of these got streamlined and various HRDpolicies also got strengthened.
6. Strengthening accountabilities through appraisal systems and othermechanismsHRD gives significant input about the existing state of accountabilities of employees.This gets assessed through performance appraisals as well as through the work cultureand other cultural dimensions. A number of organizations have introduced systems ofperformance planning, sharing of expectation and documenting the accountabilities ofstaff.Learning organizationOne of the objectives of HRD is to create a learning organization. A learningorganization is a place where employees excel at creating, acquiring and transferringknowledgeBUILDING BLOCKS OF THE LEARNING ORGANIZATIONThere are three broad factors that are essential for organizational learning andadaptability:(1) A supportive learning environment: An environment that supports learning hasfour distinguishing characteristics.1.Psychological safety: To learn, employees cannot fear being belittled or marginalizedwhen they disagree with peers or authority figures, ask naïve questions, own up tomistakes, or present a minority view points. Instead they must be comfortable expressingtheir view points about the work at hand.2. Appreciation of differences: Learning occurs when people become aware of opposingideas. Recognizing the value of competing functional outlooks and alternativeworldviews increases energy and motivation, sparks fresh thinking, and prevents lethargyand drift.
3. Openness to new ideas: Learning is not simply about correcting mistakes and solvingproblems. It is also about crafting novel approaches. Employees should be encouraged totake risks and explore the untested and unknown4. Time for reflection: All too many managers are judged by their sheer number of hoursthey work and the task they accomplish. When people are too busy or overstressed bydeadlines and scheduling pressures, however, their ability to think analytically andcreatively is compromised. They become less able to diagnose problems and learn fromtheir experiences. Supportive learning environment allow time for pause in the action andencourage thoughtful review of the organization’s processes.(2) Concrete learning processes and practices: Learning process involve the generationcollection, interpretation and dissemination of information. They include:1. Experimentation: Experimentation to develop and test new products and services,and experiments frequently with new ways of working.2. Information Collection: The organization should collect information on customers,competitors, economic social and technological trends, and it should compare itsperformance with that of competitors and best-in-class organizations3. Analysis: The organization should do a disciplined analysis and interpretation toidentify and solve problems. It should engage in productive conflict and debate duringdiscussions, and it should frequently identifies and discusses underlying assumptions thatmight affect key decision.4. Education and training to develop both new and established employees. Newly hiredemployees in the organization should receive adequate training. Experienced employeesshould receive periodic training and training updates, training when switching to a newposition, training when new initiatives are launched. In such organizations training isvalued and time is made available for education and training5. Information transfer: In a learning organization, it has forum for meeting with andlearning from experts from other departments, teams or divisions ,experts from outsidethe organizations, customers and clients, suppliers etc. it regularly shares informationwith networks of experts within the organization and outside it. It quickly and accurately
communicates new knowledge to key decision makers. Here post-audit and after-actionreview are regularly conducted(2) Leadership that reinforces learning: Organizational learning is strongly influencedby the behavior of leaders. When leaders actively question and listen to employees,people in the institution feel encouraged to learn. If leaders signal the importance ofspending time on problem identification, knowledge transfer, and reflective-postaudits, these activities are likely to flourish. When people in power demonstratethrough their own behavior a willingness to entertain alternative points of view,employees feel emboldened to offer new ideas and options. Such managers inviteinput from others. They ask probing questions, listen attentively and encouragemultiple points of view. They provide time, resources and venues for identifyingproblems and organizational challenges and for reflecting and improving on pastperformance.Changing role of HRD within organizations.The new focus on employee learning changes the role of the Human ResourceDevelopment function. The role HRD within learning organizations is becoming clearer,but many uncertainties remain for HRD professionals, especially with regard to thequestion of how to bring their new roles into practice. There are only a few instruments tohelp HRD officers in this regard.The “learning organization” is an important metaphor for HRD professionals to assistthem in:Developing collective intelligence within organizations and organizational formssupporting such a need thus eliminating the holding of knowledge in separatecompartments at different levels.
Understanding the importance of knowledge and in particular tacit knowledge, which hasto be recognized and valorized insofar as it is embedded in human resources.Moving from training-based development policies towards new policies fosteringlearning in different waysLearning oriented organisations do employ a rich bouquet of change initiatives, in which,no one type of change is particularly dominant.The main motivator for wanting to become a learning organisation is the desire tobecome more client centered by continuous improvement and innovation. However, morepeople-oriented reasons such as improving the quality of working life seem to play a roleas well.The envisioned role of HRD within learning organizations is to:1. Support the business.2. Support (informal) learning.3. Support knowledge sharing.4. Develop and coordinate training.5. Should continuously design and experiment with new methods to build right type ofHRD.6. Change HRD practices.Barriers to change1. Insufficient time for learning on the part of the employees2. Insufficient time for performing HRD tasks on the part of the managers3. Lack of clarity on the role of HRD
HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENTTopic: HRDDATE:9-4-08 Submitted to: Mr. Vivek.S.ASubmitted by:Bijoy.RDeepak.VPriya.SSethukumar.K