Psychoanalysis is a psychological theory conceived in thelate 19th and early 20th centuries by famous neurologistSigmund Freud.In addition to being a specialized type of therapy,psychoanalysis is also a comprehensive, in-depth theory ofthe mind. It has many applications. Using the uniquelypsychoanalytic explanatory tools of the unconscious,transference and development, among others,psychoanalytic insight can enrich the understanding ofhuman beings, their behaviors and motivations in a widerange of arenas from business to politics to sports, the arts,education, advertising, the law, literature, family relations,and popular culture.
THE BASIC TENETS OF PSYCHOANALYSISINCLUDE THE FOLLOWING: human behavior, experience, and cognition are largely determined by irrational drives; those drives are largely unconscious attempts to bring those drives into awareness meet psychological resistance in the form of defense mechanisms; beside the inherited constitution of personality, ones development is determined by events in early childhood; conflicts between conscious view of reality and unconscious (repressed) material can result in mental disturbances such as neurosis, neurotic traits, anxiety, depression etc.; .
PSYCHOANALYTIC TECHNIQUES Free Association Client reports immediately without censoring any feelings or thoughts Interpretation Therapist points out, explains, and teaches the meanings of whatever is revealed Dream Analysis Therapist uses the “royal road to the unconscious” to bring unconscious material to light
FIVE PSYCHOSEXUAL STAGES Oral stage lasts for the first 18 months pleasure seeking activities include: sucking, chewing, and biting Fixation adults who continue to engage in oral activities, such as overeating, gum chewing, or smoking; oral activities can be symbolic as well, such as being overly demanding or “mouthing off”
Anal stage late infancy: one and a half to three years a time when the infant’s pleasure seeking is centered on the anus and its functions of elimination Fixation results in adults who continue to engage in activities of retention or elimination retention: very neat, stingy, or behaviorally rigid elimination: generous, messy, or behaving very loose or carefree
Phallic stage early childhood: 3 to 6 years infant’s pleasure seeking is centered on the genitals Oedipus complex process in which a child competes with the parent of the same sex for the affections and pleasures of the parent of the opposite sex
Latency stage middle to late childhood: 6 to puberty time when the child represses sexual thoughts and engages in nonsexual activities, such as developing social and intellectual skills puberty sexuality reappears
Genital stage puberty through adulthood time when the individual has renewed sexual desires that he or she seeks to fulfill through relationships with other people conflict resolution depends on how conflicts in the first three stages were resolved
ID,EGO,SUPER EGO Freud divided the mind into three separate processes. ie; id , ego and super ego each has a different function Freud believed that the human mind was like an iceberg.
THE MIND IS AN ICEBERGThe id and superegoare below the surfaceOnly the ego is on the conscious level.
Id•The id demands immediate satisfaction•The id does not care what society thinks •ID isn’t bound by logic or reality; it follows the “pleasure principle”; • it’s aims are to avoid pain, reduce tension, and indulge; it is made of urges, wishes, needs, and wants; it is the original source of the personality.Ego•Ego emerges from the id to satisfy the demands of society;•it is the part of the mind that balances personal needs withavailable resources• its goal is to ensure the health and survival of the self. Ituses reason, planning, and delayed gratification• it operates according to the “reality principle”
• it operates according to the “realityprinciple • The ego is logical • it is the most ideal stage • The ego is the decision maker • The ego compromises between Id and super ego • Ego is Rational, logical, waking part of mind. Its job: • To regulate the instinctual desires of the ID • Allow those desires to be released in some nondestructive way
SUPEREGO Acts as an internal censor Causes one to make moral judgments in light of social pressures. Operates according to the Morality society and us from ID. Suppresses desires and instincts forbidden by society Puts them back into unconscious Manifests itself through punishment. If allowed to operate at its own discretion, will create an unconscious sense of guilt and fear
Objections to Freuds TheorySome of the objections typically raised in response toFreudian theory are:• Freuds hypotheses are neither verifiable nor falsifiable. It is not clearwhat would count as evidence sufficient to confirm or refute theoreticalclaims.• The theory is based on an inadequate conceptualization of theexperience of women.• The theory overemphasizes the role of sexuality in humanpsychological development and experience.
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