Steel Steel is an alloy made by combining iron andother elements, the most common of these beingcarbon.Carbon and other elements act as a hardeningagent, preventing dislocations in the iron atomcrystal lattice from sliding past one another.Steel with increased carbon content can bemade harder and stronger than iron, but suchsteel is also less ductile than iron.
World Steel IndustrySteel, the recycled material is one of the topproducts in the manufacturing sector of theworld.After the adoption of the liberalization policiesall over the world, the World steel industry isgrowing very fast.
HISTORY OF STEELSteel was discovered by the Chinese in 202BC.Around 9th century AD, the smiths in theMiddle East developed techniques topproduce sharp and flexible steel blades.In the 17th century, smiths in Europe cameto know about a new process of cementationto produce steel.
Why Steel?Steel: A cornerstone of the worlds economyThe industry directly employs about more than twomillion people worldwide, with a further two millioncontractors and four million people in the supportingindustries.World crude steel production has increased from 851mega tonnes (Mt) in 2001 to 1,527 Mt in 2011. (It was28.3 Mt in 1900).World average steel use per capita has steadilyincreased from 150 kg in 2001 to 215 kg in 2011.India, Brazil, South Korea and Turkey have all enteredthe top 10 steel producers list in the last 40 years
Why Steel? Cont..Sustainable steelSteel is at the core of the green economy, in whicheconomic growth and environmental responsibility workhand in hand.Steel is the main material used in delivering renewableenergy – solar, tidal and wind.All steel created as long as 150 years can be recycled todayand used in new products and applications.The amount of energy required to produce a tonne of steelhas been reduced by 50% in the last 30 years.Nowadays, 97% of steel by-products can be reused.
Why Steel? Cont..Steel is everywhere in your lifeSteel touches every aspect of our lives. No othermaterial has the same unique combination ofstrength, formability and versatility.Almost 200 billion cans of food are produced each year.Steel cans mean saving energy as refrigeration is notneeded. Cans mean tamper-free and safe food,nutritional value and beneficial environmental impactfrom recycling.Approximately 25% of an average computer is made ofsteel. Over 320 million PCs were sold in 2010.
USES OF STEEL In the construction of roads, railways,infrastructure, and buildingsLarge modern structures, such as stadiumsand skyscrapers, bridges, and airports, aresupported by a steel skeleton.Those with a concrete structure will employsteel for reinforcing. In addition to widespreaduse in major appliances and cars (Despitegrowth in usage of aluminium, it is still themain material for car bodies.)
USES OF STEEL Cont…Steel is used in a variety of other construction-related applications, such as bolts, nails, andscrews.Shipbuilding, pipeline transport, mining,offshore construction, pipeline transport,aerospace, white goods (e.g. washing machines),heavy equipment(e.g. bulldozers), office furniture,steel wool, tools, and armour in the form ofpersonal vests or vehicle armour (better known asrolled homogeneous armour in this role).
Steel Production (million tonnes)Rank Country/Region 2010 2011 World 1413.6 1490.11 Peoples Republic of China 626.7 683.32 Japan 109.6 107.63 United States 80.6 86.24 India 68.3 72.25 Russia 66.9 68.76 South Korea 58.5 68.57 Germany 43.8 44.38 Ukraine 33.6 35.39 Brazil 32.8 35.210 Turkey 29.0 34.1Reff: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_steel_production
Top steel-producing companies 2011 Rank Company Tonnage* 1 ArcelorMittal 97.2 2 Hebei Group (1) 44.4 3 Baosteel Group 43.3 4 POSCO 39.1 5 Wuhan Group 37.7 6 Nippon Steel 33.4 7 Shagang Group 31.9 8 Shougang Group 30 9 JFE 29.9 10 Ansteel Group (2) 29.8 11 Shandong Group 24 12 Tata Steel (3) 23.8 13 United States Steel 22 14 Gerdau 20.5 15 Nucor (4) 19.9Reff: http://www.worldsteel.org/statistics/top-producers.html
Iron and Steel Industry in IndiaIron and Steel Industry in India is on anupswing because of the strong global anddomestic demand.Indias rapid economic growth and soaringdemand by sectors like infrastructure, realestate and automobiles, at home and abroad,has put Indian steel industry on the global map.According to the latest report by InternationalIron and Steel Institute(IISI), India is theseventh largest steel producer in the world.
Industry StructureIndian Iron and steel Industry can be divided into twomain sectors Public sector andPrivate sector.Further on the basis of routes of production, theIndian steel industry can bedivided into two types of producers.
Industry Structure Cont…Integrated producersThose that convert iron ore into steel. There are threemajor integrated steel players in India, namely SteelAuthority of India Limited (SAIL), Tata Iron and SteelCompany Limited (TISCO) and Rashtriya Ispat NigamLimited (RINL).Secondary producersThese are the mini steel plants (MSPs), which make steelby melting scrap or sponge iron or a mixture of the two.Essar Steel, Ispat Industries and Lloyds steel are thelargest producers of steel through the secondary route.
History of Iron and Steel Industry in IndiaIron and Steel industry in the country hasexperienced a sustainable growth since theindependence of the country. 1870 -A humble beginning of the modern steelindustry was reached in India at Kulti in WestBengal.1907 -The out set of bigger production starts onlywith the establishment of a steel plant inJamshedpur in Bihar.1912-It started production
History of Iron and Steel Industry in India Cont…After Independence that the steel industry was able to find astrong foot hold in the country.Excluding the Jamshedpur plant of the Tata’s, all are in thepublic sector and looked after by Steel Authority of IndiaLtd.(SAIL).
Challenges Facing Steel Industry First oneThe safety and health of people working in the steelindustry has been one of the top challenges for years. Historically, steelmaking has been considered adangerous process and accidents were thought to beinevitable.The situation today remains that people are still beingkilled in steel plants and these accidents are preventable
Second oneThe business profitability which is movingaway from a tonnage mentality to evensharper focus on value and value creation.Sustainable steel contributing to a sustainableworld is about value creation, innovation andusing less volume of steel to achieve superiorperformance.Increase R&D expenditure.
Third oneTo create a level playing field for competition aroundthe world.There are still too many subsidies and state aid usedin the industry, which distort competition and thereare too many artificial barriers to competitioninternationally.
Future GrowthIndian steel consumption is seen rising to about 130 milliontonnes in 2020 from about 67 million tonnes this year asgrowing incomes and urbanisation drive demand.India’s steel output is expected to rise to more than 150million tonnes in 2020 from close to 70 million tonnes thisyear and about 80 million tonnes in 2012India’s total production of coated and galvanized steelwhich is used in environments requiring corrosionresistance is expected to rise to more than 6 million tonnesin 2013 from 4.7 million tonnes this yea
RecommendationsFurther liberalization towards tariff structure, fullconvertibility of Indian currency, more equityparticipation by foreign partners, rationalization of taxstructure etc. will be requiredR&D focus is to be increased substantially.Firms must do technological forecasting.Resource utilization must be more effective toimprove on the productivity.Investment in infrastructure is crucial to step updemand for steel.