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Chip  Design Trend & Fabrication Prospects In India
 

Chip Design Trend & Fabrication Prospects In India

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Chip Design Trends

Chip Design Trends

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    Chip  Design Trend & Fabrication Prospects In India Chip Design Trend & Fabrication Prospects In India Presentation Transcript

    • Chip Design Trend & Fabrication Prospects in India BY: Bibhuti Bikramaditya Technical Leader DCA Electronic System Design Pune
    • Topics of Discussion
      • Chip design in Brief
      • Chip design application Areas
      • Latest chip design trend
      • Fabrication prospect
      • conclusion
    • Chip design in brief
      • Historical journey
      • VLSI Techniques
      • FPGA Vs. ASICs
      • New FPGA Revolution
      • Embedded advantages
    • Historical Journey
      • Just after Invention of Transistors in the end of 1947 and the beginning of 1948 , valve era supposed to become obsolete and the journey of Modern Electronics began.
      • Miniaturization of ICs started with the idea of putting more no. of Transistors into one silicon chip
      • SSI : < 12 Gates.
      • MSI: <100 Gates
      • LSI : <1000 Gates
      • VLSI: < 10000 Gates
    • IC Era (from SSI To VLSI)
      • IC in 1960’s
      • Only 2 transistors and one resistor.
      • Size of chip was more than required.
      • Unable to deal with complex functionalities.
      • Excess power dissipation.
      • Speed was not significant .
      • IC in 2003’s
      • More than 40 million transistors and other components and expected to be of order of Billions of transistors by 2005.
      • Every part of the chip is utilized.
      • Efficient in dealing with complex functionalities.
      • Power dissipation brought in control.
      • Million of operations can be done in just one second.
    • IC Design Technique from layout level to system level The introduction of HDLs have made possible the design of complete System on Chip(SOC), with the complexities rising from 1 million to 10 million transistors.Recently System C has been introduced for 100 million to 1000 millions of transistors.
    • IC Design Growth at frequency level The clock frequency increased for high performance micro processor and industrial micro controllers with the technology scale down. here motorola micro controler has been taken as the example used for high performance automotive industry applications.
    • Intel Microprocessor Growth Describes the evolution of complexity of intel@ micro processors in terms of no. of devices on the chip the pentium 4 processor produced in 2003 is 50 million MOS devices integrated on a single piece of silicon no larger than 2 x 2 c.m.
    • Evolution of Memory Size First 1 kb memory produced by Intel in 1971 , semiconductor memory have advanced both in density as well as performances. With the production of 256 Mb memories in 2000 and 1Gb in 2004 according to the estimates , it will expected to increase up to 16 Gb in 2008.
    • Evolution of Lithography Trend towards the smaller dimension has been accelerated since 1996. in 2007, the lithography is expected to decrease down to 0.07 um .
    • Evolution of silicon area for NAND Gate Fig shows how fabrication for Simple NAND gate become complex as its feature size is decreasing almost exponentially .
    • Typical Structure ICs
    • Moor’s Law Vs. IC Technology Growth First Law: Silicon Technology will double the number of transistors per chip every 18 months !!! all above example shows its validity. In other way ,its minimum feature size must decrease by a factor of 0.7 every three years
    • VLSI Techniques
      • Stands for Very Large Scale Integration. This is the technology of Putting millions of transistors into one silicon chip.
      • Tools (for VLSI)
      • (1) Modelsim 5.5b : Simulation
      • Simulation is used for the testing the
      • behavior of outputs on the waveform
      • according to their input given.
      • (2) Leonardo Spectrum 3 : Synthesis
      • Synthesis tool is used for looking the
      • hardware according to the program
      • written in their languages like
      • VHDL/VERILOG.
      • (3) Xilinx 6.1 ISE Pack : Chip
      • Downloading
    • VLSI Techniques
      • Evolution Of Programmable Devices
      • PROM: Programmable ROM
      • PAL: Programmable Array Logic
      • PLA: Programmable logic Array.
      • CPLD: Complex Programmable Logic Devices.
      • FPGA: Field Programmable Gate Arrays.
      • ASIC : Application Specific ICs.
    • PLD Trend
    • Xilinx FPGA Architecture
    • CPLD Vs. FPGA Architecture PLA like Gate array like Density Low to medium Medium to high Speed Fast, predictable Application dependent Interconnect Crossbar Routing Power consumption High Medium
    • ASIC Vs. FPGA
    • New FPGA Revolution
      • All Disadvantages of ASICs
      • Longer time to market
      • Complex Design methodology
      • have been overcome by FPGA
      • In terms of No. of Transistors per chip , FPGA Vendors have increased its capacity and astounding result is coming as time pass through.
      • Inclination Towards FPGA is increasing day by day.
    • New FPGA Revolution
    • New FPGA Revolution: SPARTAN 3 Recently Introduced
    • New FPGA Price Revolution Price of 100k gates over time
    • Cost Management through System Integration
    • Embedded Advantage
      • Complete System Design Possible
      • Real time application.
      • Low cost Chip
      • VLSI Goes on embedded as we can write program in Linux and Unix Environment.
      • System C developed by Xilinx.
    • Chip Design Application Areas
      • Networking (PCI,Ethernet,USB)
      • DSP & Communication
      • Speech Processing &Image processing
      • Tele mobile communication.
      • Micro processor & Micro controller Based System.
      • Home appliances
    • DSP VLSI & Communication Trend is now to implement all DSP Function and algorithm into VLSI so as it could make complete chip being largely used for High speed Multimedia application, tele-mobile communication and GPS System DSP Performance and Flexibility: FPGA Solution
    • Conventional DSP Software VS. FPGA Performance advantage
    • Image Processing
    • Image Processing : MPEG-4 The Brilliant Engineers of DCA Electronic System Design is also working on complete Implementation Of MPEG-4 using VLSI and Embedded Technology
    • Latest Chip Design Trend
      • Auto motive Sector
      • Biometric analysis for Security
      • Neural network & Artificial intelligence.
      • System On Chip Design with Virtual Component.
      • Bio Chips: Rule Based System
      • Neuro Chips.
    • Auto motive Electronics Market Overview
    • Auto motive Applications
    • FPGA Solution for Car Manufacturers
    • CAR CUBE : Telematics Platforms from Acuna & Xilinx
    • CAR CUBE : Architectural Description
    • Auto motive Sector : Issues and Challenges
    • Auto motive Sector : In Vehicle Networking LAN: Local Area Network, CAN: Control Area Network
    • Auto motive Sector : MOST Application
    • Auto motive networks
    • Car Multimedia System
    • Security System: Encryption & Decryption AES Algorithm Implementation
    • Security System: Encryption & Decryption AES Algorithm Implementation
    • System On Chip Design : with Virtual Component System On Chip may contain both a system bus connect and Peripheral bus connect custom I/O block that provide functions not commercially available,may also be included In the recycling age, designing for reuse sounds like a great idea but with increasing requirements and chip sizes,its no easy task.
    • System On Chip Design : with Virtual Component
      • Adv. Of System On Chip:
      • Increased levels of design reuse.
      • More effective hardware-software co-design.
      • Better trade-offs between general-purpose vs. domain-specific architectures and algorithms.
      • Greater integration of functionality on-chip (hardware-software, analog-digital).
    • Bio Chips : A medical Revolution developed to sequence unknown genes and to study gene expression. but the working principle suggest that they can be used for engineering application that require parallel processing. DNA chips are proposed here as the physical substrate to store and evaluate a set of rules for knowledge based systems. In DNA chips, each cell uses millions of copies of DNA sequence called probes. The colors indicate that probes are different between cells
    • Bio Chips : Design Steps Fig(1) Single stranded DNA sequences Fig2 Nucleotide with pyrimidine base and Purine base Simplified Diagram for Fig3
    • Bio Chips : Design Steps Fig4:DNA sequence tagged with the quantum dots. Here half circle represent Single stranded DNA Sequence and Small dot is the quantum dot Fig5:Complementary probes and target bind to fluorescent DNA helix. In practice , there are millions of probes per cells ,so millions of targets are required to produce Fluorescent cell after hybridization Fig6: plant states are sampled and A/DNA Converter produce millions of two tagged DNA sequences. Small dot is quantum dot used to identify helix Fig7:DNA chip is injected with millions of tagged DNA strands. After Scanning the chip and processing the rules o/p is produced Fig8: DNA chip can be used to detect faults in the plant. State variables are sampled ,converted into DNA target and injected into chip. The green cells are fluorescent probes after being excited with UV light
    • Look up tables as DNA Chips: Rule Based System Basically , look up table is derived from the past experience and it can be used to improve the performance of the closed loop with an existing controller (fig 9) . The rules are stored on the chip and the evaluation of the complete rule base at each sampling instant is carried out in parallel using the hybridization of DNA strands.
      • Applications:
      • To store boolean or fuzzy rules
      • Rule Based System
      • Plant Behavior
      fig9
    • Time Delay Neural Network : Phoneme Recognition (Speech Recognition) Fig1: component of Speech Recognition System Fig2:Neuron Unit Schematic Diagram Fig3: Error Signal Generator Schematic Diagram Fig4:Synapse Unit Schematic Diagram Used for storage and updates of weight Conclusion: Using Small dimension CMOS processes, such as 0.35 um ,a 5 mm by 5 mm chip could include up to 150 neurons, 150 synapses and 150 error signal generator unit to construct full time delay neural network for phoneme recognition, using just a Single Chip . This chip could then be interfaced with computer to generate fully generated phoneme recognition system
    • Neuro Chip : Design Dreams Recently revolutionary Invention of Neuro Chip wondered the world : if it mixed with our nervous system ,it will control Brain’s nervous system and then according to the program one can control on his thinking ability also. Are you not thinking that designing dream is also not impossible ? See my article in “The Times Of India” Education Times dated sept,30,03 on “VLSI DSP & Embedded Systems : Emerging Careers”
    • FABRICATION PROSPECT
      • Chip Design Productivity
      • Chip Design Forecast
      • World Fab Industry Vs. Indian Fab Industry
      • Why Fab lab doesn’t exist in India?
      • Challenges before Chip Design & Fab lab
    • Chip Design Productivity Fig1: Actual No. of Transistors in millions per IC design. This data illustrates that there is little correlation between transistors count and engineering effort Fig2: Normalized Transistors count Vs. Persons week Fig 3: Factors Influencing IC Design Effort Design Productivity = output produced /labour expended = output per unit worker hour Manufacturing productivity = value added/labour expended = value added per unit worker hour. = (end product selling price- material cost of the product) worker hour = dollars per worker hour Chip design productivity ≠ transistor /gate per unit engineering effort. Chip design productivity = chip design complexity/ engineering effort. = complexity per unit engineering hour. = normalized transistors per person-hour.
    • Chip Design Fore cast 1.According to a Gartner forecast: 3 per cent growth in global semiconductor revenue ,2003 &quot;after its worst fall ever in 2001.&quot; (2) India's chip design industry :revenues of Rs 1,500 crore ($ 300 million), (3) Indian Market Share : not up to the mark but in three-four years ,it will reach on standard mark. According to a Monster India.com report, &quot;The integrated circuit (chip) design industry is pegged to grow into a multi-million dollar industry in India, thanks to the US slowdown.&quot; (4) Indian Design Industry: performing well and going global. large semiconductor vendors are growing their operations in India.
    • World Fabrication Industry Vs. Indian Fabrication Industry 5. Fab Industry: (a) Around 50 Fab lab Exist in the world,another 50 in near future (b) First fab lab by Intel Just open in Taiwan ,first in South Asia. (c) No Complete VLSI Fab Industry In India, (d) SCL ,Chandigarh has its own LSI Fab lab. (e) Proposal : Rs.1500 crore (for Indian Govt) (f) Recently Two Companies joined forces in Fab Industry like IBM/siemens for 64 Mb Technology and IBM, Siemens &Toshiba for 256 Mb Technology. 6.Huge Investment Required for Design and Fab Lab: According to Mr Girish of Texas Instruments, &quot;It's not feasible for many small Indian companies to make sustained investments for a long period of time, which is required for product development (including the area of chips design/manufacture). I don't think we can do that now. Also, to get into full-scale manufacturing, the government should also take some efforts. It has to take a decision to shift manufacturing units to smaller towns instead of concentrating on the metros.&quot;
    • Fab lab does not exist : why?
      • Huge Fabrication lab cost
      • According to Mr Girish of Texas Instruments, &quot;It's not feasible for many small Indian companies to make sustained investments for a long period of time, which is required for product development (including the area of chips design/manufacture). I don't think we can do that now. Also, to get into full-scale manufacturing, the government should also take some efforts. It has to take a decision to shift manufacturing units to smaller towns instead of concentrating on the metros . “
      • (2)Design Incompetency, Probably India is not prepared .
      • The actual problem is that quality talent with the right skills is becoming scarce. The skills required are in vertical domains (DSP, telecom etc.) along with in-depth understanding of chip design challenges like designing for high speed, low power, small size, handling large complexities, accounting for deep sub-micron effects like signal integrity. This is assuming that these engineers come with basic microelectronics skills including an understanding of semiconductors and design basics like language-based design methodologies. Exposure to contemporary design tools is also important.&quot;
    • Challenges before Chip Design and Fab Industry
      • System Level Integration:
      • According to Mr. S.Surinder Lall , Sr Marketic Manager , Xilinx Inc. (St.Pitsberg) during my words with him :There is still requirement of System Engineers who can understand the complete system. The trend towards coding is to write code in C/C++, Matlab/Java and then converted into VHDL/VERILOG, is not suitable. Chip Design has a long walk to travel”.
      • 2. Chip Design Limits : There is Physical Limits to the Chip Design , reported by New york Times by at Paul Packan, a scientist with Intel Corp., the world's largest chipmaker, said semiconductor engineers have not found ways around basic physical limits beyond the generation of silicon chips that will begin to appear next year. Packan called the apparent impasse &quot;the most difficult challenge the semiconductor industry has ever faced.&quot;
      • &quot;These fundamental issues have not previously limited the scaling of transistors,&quot; Packan wrote in the Sept. 24 issue of Science. &quot;There are currently no known solutions to these problems.&quot;
      • According to Dennis Allison, a Silicon Valley physicist and computer designer
      • If the miniaturization process for silicon-based transistors is halted, hopes for continued progress would have to be based on new materials, new transistor designs and advances like molecular computing, the Times reported . This Mystry will be solved ultimately .
    • Conclusion: Despite all these stiff challenges , Chip Design Industry is growing not wittingly fast and are affecting even common mass to go nuclear as well as global . Indian Fabrication Industry is the biggest challenge and dream also . Let us see when this dream comes true.
    • The End