Water resources planning and development m5


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Levels in planning, Functional requirements of water resources projects, steps in
water resources planning, Environmental aspects in water resources planning.

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Water resources planning and development m5

  1. 1. MODULE- VWater resources planning and development Prepared by Bibhabasu Mohanty Dept. of Civil Engineering SALITER, Ahmedabad
  2. 2. ContentLevels in planning, Functional requirements ofwater resources projects, steps in waterresources planning, Environmental aspects inwater resources planning.
  3. 3. IntroductionWater available in atmosphere, oceans, on land and with in soil.Hydrological cycle main responsible for this.water resources engineering concerned with utilization, control and quality management of water.
  4. 4. Development of water resources involve conception, planning, design, construction and operation facilities to control and utilize water.Development of water resources a function of civil engineers.
  5. 5. Levels of planning1. Local level2. Regional level3. State level4. National level5. International level
  6. 6. Local levelPlanned for a small area or village.Watershed development plan for village.Rain water harvesting technique.Check dams, village tanks constructed.
  7. 7. Regional levelComparatively large area with several villages.Construction of irrigation schemes.
  8. 8. State levelWhen regional level planning covers several districts of state.Narmada water supply pipe network in Saurashtra region.
  9. 9. National levelWater resources planning carried for major river basin of a river.Sardar Sarovar dam over river Narmada beneficiary for Gujarat, Maharashtra, Madhyapradesh, Rajasthan.
  10. 10. International levelRiver running across neighboring nations planning need at international level.River Kosi, rises in Nepal- Himalayas and flows in Bihar and finally meets river Ganga.
  11. 11. Water resources projectSingle purpose projectMultipurpose project
  12. 12. Single purpose project• Designed and operate to serve only one purpose.Irrigation projectWater supply projectNavigation projectFishing project
  13. 13. Multi purpose projectMulti purpose project designed to operate two or more purpose.
  14. 14. Functional requirements of water resources projectsWater requirements for various functions are:IrrigationWater supplyHydroelectric powerFlood controlNavigationRecreationFish and wild life
  15. 15. Water resources planning Statement of objectives Collection of data Projections for future Project formulation Project evaluation
  16. 16. Statement of objectivesObjective would be based on need of the region.For national govt. it may for achieving maximum economic and social benefits.For state govt. it may be to reduce flood damage.For village panchayats, it may be for water supply or irrigation purpose.
  17. 17. Collection of data(A)General data Physical data- location, size, climate, history, population, etc. Hydrological data- precipitation, evaporation, transpiration, stream flow, sediment, water quality, etc. Geological data- explorations, geological formations, rock and soil type, ground water availability, minerals, erosion, etc.
  18. 18. Cartographic data- topographic and other maps of the area.Ecological data- vegetation, fish and wild life.Economical data- industry, transportation, market, tourism, recreation, land, etc.Legal data - water rights, pollution control, land zoning, land ownership, administrative pattern, etc.Public opinion data – opinions of public and politicians
  19. 19. (B) Special dataAgricultural data- crop water requirements, climatic data, types of crops, etc.Municipal water supply data- drinking water needs, industrial water needs, quality of water, etc.Hydroelectric power data- existing and required capacities, alternative source of power, etc.Flood control data- record of past floods, extent of past flooding and damages, storm drainage requirements, etc.
  20. 20. Navigation data- present water traffic patterns, alternative means of transportation, etc.Recreation data- present recreational facilities, natural attraction, scenic data, etc.Fish and wild life data- types of fishes and wild life, biological data in respect of species and their habits, protection requirements, etc.Pollution control data- existing waste discharge methods, location, time and character of waste, water pollution regulation, quality standards, etc.
  21. 21. Projection of futureWater resources project usually planned to meet future needs.Projections include future population growth, land use, water requirements for various uses, etc.Projection should be worked out with great care and caution, because unrealistic higher values may lead to over design and excessive investments.
  22. 22. Lower value may fail to fulfill the purpose of project, lead to shortage of water.So evaluation of future water demands should be based on realistic projections.
  23. 23. Project formulation• It needs a lot of imagination and skill, only done by experienced planner.• First step, to define boundary conditions which restrict water resource project.Physical limitation, e.g, no navigation in torrential mountain river.Limitations on available waterLimited land areasLegal problems
  24. 24. • Next step to define alternative land use plans for each possible project units.• Project units which serve no useful purpose should not included.• Next is cataloging of possible project units.• Project units along with alternatives indicated in catalouge.
  25. 25. Project evaluationEvaluation carried out to select alternative which is economically suitable.Best alternative consists of unit or combination of units which are economically most efficient.For economic evaluation benefits and cost data are collected.
  26. 26. For selecting most efficient unit, fist step is to find out whether individual units are physically and economically independent or not.For single purpose, independent project evaluation is relatively simple.Multipurpose independent unit more difficult.
  27. 27. Environmental aspects in water resources planningNegative impactsDamage to fish and wild life.Due to extinction of species of flora and fauna change in ecology.Loss of forest land.Damage to vegetation on river bank.Loss of agricultural land.
  28. 28. Loss of geological, historical, archaeological or scenic sites.Displacement and rehabilitation of people.Water borne disease.Reservoir induced seismicity
  29. 29. Positive impactsLand use improvement by irrigation.Flood protection.Improved water supplies for domestic and municipal uses.Power supplies without consumption of fuel.Water quality improvement.
  30. 30. Fishery improvement.Recreational improvement.Health improvement.Improvement in climate of surrounding area.Development of sanctuaries and wild life.
  31. 31. ASSIGNMENT
  32. 32. 1. What are the environmental issues in water resources project?2. Discuss briefly the various steps involved in planning of water resources project.3. Discuss various levels of planning.4. Discuss the functional requirements of water resources projects.