Section Two                                                        Unit 4                          Sweetening Agents, Fat ...
Objectives               Discuss the different types of sugars and                their functions               Identify...
Terms to Know               Carmelization – A browning of sugar when                the surface temperature of baked good...
Terms to Know               Crystallization – When sucrose returns to it’s                crystallized state.            ...
Terms to Know              Fructose – A natural invert sugar that is found in                 honey and fruit.            ...
Granulated/Powdered Sugars               Most sugars are processed from sugar cane                and sugar beets        ...
Granulated/Powdered Sugars              (continued)               Brown sugar                        Made by spraying mo...
Sugar Substitutes                    Saccharin                    Aspartame                    Acesulfame potassium    ...
Other Sweetening Agents               Molasses                        Unsulphured                        Sulphured     ...
Relative Sweetness                           Types of Sugar                          Relative Sweetness                Sug...
Fats and Oils               Essential nutrients in both human and animal                diets               Important pr...
Fats and Oils (continued)               Animal origin:                                      Vegetable origin:           ...
Fats and Oils (continued)               Hydrogenated oils (solidified oils):                        Frying shortening   ...
Eggs               Important properties:                            Leaven                            Emulsify         ...
Eggs (continued)               Frozen egg products:                        Whole eggs                        Egg whites...
Summary               Sugars are naturally occurring sweeteners in all fruits and                vegetables              ...
Exercises                    Review of different types of granulated sugars                    Carmelization of sugar   ...
Equipment Needed               Ingredients               Pans/bowls (as needed)               WhipsAmerican Culinary Fe...
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Ingredients 2

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  • Carmelization – A browning of sugar when the surface temperature of baked goods reaches 300°F (150°C). Crystallization – When sucrose returns to it’s crystallized state. Emulsification – The suspension of a liquid and fat crated by agitation, temperature or the addition of an acid while agitating. Fructose – A natural invert sugar that is found in honey and fruit. Glucose – A simple sugar made by action of acid on starch. Hydrogenated Oil – Oil treated with hydrogen to make it plastic and improve its keeping quality. Invertion – The process where an acid mixes with a carbohydrate and changes sucrose to dextrose and levalose. Lactose – Sugar found in cow’s milk and milk powder. Maltose – A simple sugar obtained from fermented barley and is used as a yeast food in dough. Additional Source : Steve Labensky, Gaye Ingram, & Sarah Labensky. Webster’s New World Dictionary of Culinary Arts . Prentice Hall: Upper Saddle River, NJ. 1997.
  • Carmelization – A browning of sugar when the surface temperature of baked goods reaches 300°F (150°C). Crystallization – When sucrose returns to it’s crystallized state. Emulsification – The suspension of a liquid and fat crated by agitation, temperature or the addition of an acid while agitating. Fructose – A natural invert sugar that is found in honey and fruit. Glucose – A simple sugar made by action of acid on starch. Hydrogenated Oil – Oil treated with hydrogen to make it plastic and improve its keeping quality. Invertion – The process where an acid mixes with a carbohydrate and changes sucrose to dextrose and levalose. Lactose – Sugar found in cow’s milk and milk powder. Maltose – A simple sugar obtained from fermented barley and is used as a yeast food in dough. Additional Source : Steve Labensky, Gaye Ingram, & Sarah Labensky. Webster’s New World Dictionary of Culinary Arts . Prentice Hall: Upper Saddle River, NJ. 1997.
  • Carmelization – A browning of sugar when the surface temperature of baked goods reaches 300°F (150°C). Crystallization – When sucrose returns to it’s crystallized state. Emulsification – The suspension of a liquid and fat crated by agitation, temperature or the addition of an acid while agitating. Fructose – A natural invert sugar that is found in honey and fruit. Glucose – A simple sugar made by action of acid on starch. Hydrogenated Oil – Oil treated with hydrogen to make it plastic and improve its keeping quality. Invertion – The process where an acid mixes with a carbohydrate and changes sucrose to dextrose and levalose. Lactose – Sugar found in cow’s milk and milk powder. Maltose – A simple sugar obtained from fermented barley and is used as a yeast food in dough. Additional Source : Steve Labensky, Gaye Ingram, & Sarah Labensky. Webster’s New World Dictionary of Culinary Arts . Prentice Hall: Upper Saddle River, NJ. 1997.
  • Ingredients 2

    1. 1. Section Two Unit 4 Sweetening Agents, Fat and Oil, and EggsAmerican Culinary Federation: Baking Fundamentals © 2007 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved
    2. 2. Objectives  Discuss the different types of sugars and their functions  Identify the different levels of sweetness in sugars  Describe the carmelization of sugars  Identify the baking properties of fats and oils in baked goods  Select the best fat or oil for a recipe  Describe how to purchase, store, and use eggs in baked goodsAmerican Culinary Federation: Baking Fundamentals © 2007 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved
    3. 3. Terms to Know  Carmelization – A browning of sugar when the surface temperature of baked goods reaches 300°F (150°C).American Culinary Federation: Baking Fundamentals © 2007 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved
    4. 4. Terms to Know  Crystallization – When sucrose returns to it’s crystallized state.  Emulsification – The suspension of a liquid and fat crated by agitation, temperature or the addition of an acid while agitating.American Culinary Federation: Baking Fundamentals © 2007 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved
    5. 5. Terms to Know Fructose – A natural invert sugar that is found in honey and fruit. Glucose – A simple sugar made by action of acid on starch. Lactose – Sugar found in cow’s milk and milk powder. Maltose – A simple sugar obtained from fermented barley and is used as a yeast food in dough.American Culinary Federation: Baking Fundamentals © 2007 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved
    6. 6. Granulated/Powdered Sugars  Most sugars are processed from sugar cane and sugar beets  Sugar has been important in history  Granulated sugar crystal sizes:  Standard  Extra fine  Powdered sugar:  Mixed with 3% cornstarch  Sifted into 4X, 6X, or 10XAmerican Culinary Federation: Baking Fundamentals © 2007 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved
    7. 7. Granulated/Powdered Sugars (continued)  Brown sugar  Made by spraying molasses onto granulated sugar  Light and dark varieties  Other granulated sugars:  Turbinado sugar  Muscovado sugar  Baker’s special sugarAmerican Culinary Federation: Baking Fundamentals © 2007 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved
    8. 8. Sugar Substitutes  Saccharin  Aspartame  Acesulfame potassium  Sucralose  Various blendsAmerican Culinary Federation: Baking Fundamentals © 2007 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved
    9. 9. Other Sweetening Agents  Molasses  Unsulphured  Sulphured  Blackstrap  Maple sugar  Honey  Lactose (milk sugar)  Maltose  Corn syrupAmerican Culinary Federation: Baking Fundamentals © 2007 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved
    10. 10. Relative Sweetness Types of Sugar Relative Sweetness Sugar (cane or beet) 100 Invert sugar 130 Corn syrup 60 Lactose 15American Culinary Federation: Baking Fundamentals © 2007 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved 1
    11. 11. Fats and Oils  Essential nutrients in both human and animal diets  Important properties:  Most concentrated source of energy of any foodstuff  Better heat transfer than water  Enhance browning in baked goods  Retain moisture through emulsification  Enhance flavorAmerican Culinary Federation: Baking Fundamentals © 2007 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved 1
    12. 12. Fats and Oils (continued)  Animal origin:  Vegetable origin:  Lard  Cottonseed oil  Tallow  Soybean oil  Butter  Corn oil  Palm oil  Sunflower oil  Sesame oil  Peanut oil  Olive oilAmerican Culinary Federation: Baking Fundamentals © 2007 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved 1
    13. 13. Fats and Oils (continued)  Hydrogenated oils (solidified oils):  Frying shortening  Pastry shortening  Cake and icing shortening  Margarine  Properties of fats and oils  Emulsification  ShorteningAmerican Culinary Federation: Baking Fundamentals © 2007 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved 1
    14. 14. Eggs  Important properties:  Leaven  Emulsify  Build structure  Tenderize  Add moisture  Impart flavor/color  Must be kept refrigeratedAmerican Culinary Federation: Baking Fundamentals © 2007 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved 1
    15. 15. Eggs (continued)  Frozen egg products:  Whole eggs  Egg whites  Egg yolks  Powdered egg products  Whole eggs  Egg whitesAmerican Culinary Federation: Baking Fundamentals © 2007 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved 1
    16. 16. Summary  Sugars are naturally occurring sweeteners in all fruits and vegetables  Sugars not only add taste, but help to retain moisture in baked goods (increasing shelf life)  Other sweeteners include molasses, maple sugar, honey, lactose (milk sugar), maltose, and corn syrup  Fats and oils are essential nutrients in our diets, providing a significant energy source  Fats and oils can emulsify and provide shortening of baked goods  Eggs contain both protein and fats, which can be used to leaven, emulsify, build structure, tenderize, add moisture, and impart flavor/colorAmerican Culinary Federation: Baking Fundamentals © 2007 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved 1
    17. 17. Exercises  Review of different types of granulated sugars  Carmelization of sugar  Sugars ability to retain moisture  Review of different types of sugar substitutes  Review of other sweeteners  Carmelization of lactose  Review of different types of fats and oils  Emulsification  Review of different types of egg productsAmerican Culinary Federation: Baking Fundamentals © 2007 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved 1
    18. 18. Equipment Needed  Ingredients  Pans/bowls (as needed)  WhipsAmerican Culinary Federation: Baking Fundamentals © 2007 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved 1
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