Ingredients

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Ingredients

  1. 1. Ingredients4 Copyright © 2013 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  2. 2. 4 Ingredients Wheat Flour • Wheat flour is the most important ingredient in theCopyright © 2013 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved bakeshop. • In baked products, wheat flour provides: • Structure • Thickening • Nutritive value
  3. 3. 4 Ingredients Wheat Varieties • Hard wheats contain greater quantities of the proteinsCopyright © 2013 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved glutenin and gliadin, and are used to produce strong flours. • Strong flours are used to make breads and yeast products. • Soft wheats are used to produce weak flours often used in cakes, cookies, and pastries.
  4. 4. 4 Ingredients Wheat Varieties The six principal classes of wheat grown in NorthCopyright © 2013 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved America are: •Hard red winter •Hard red spring •Hard white •Soft white •Soft red winter •Durum
  5. 5. 4 Ingredients Composition of Wheat • Bran is the hard outer covering ofCopyright © 2013 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved the kernel. It is present in whole wheat flour and is high in fiber, B vitamins, fat, protein, and minerals. • Germ is the part of the kernel that becomes a new wheat plant if sprouted. It is high in protein, vitamins, minerals, and fat. • Endosperm is the white, starchy part of the kernel that remains when the bran and germ are removed.
  6. 6. 4 Ingredients Flour Grades • Patent flourCopyright © 2013 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved • Clear flour • Straight flour Extraction refers to the amount of flour milled from a given amount of grain. It is expressed as a percentage of the total amount of grain.
  7. 7. 4 Ingredients Composition of Flour • Starch: white flour consists of about 68-76%Copyright © 2013 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved starch. • Protein: 6 to 18% of white flour is protein. Glutenin and gliadin are 80% of that protein. • Moisture: 11 to 14% • Gums: pentosans 2 to 3% • Fats: 1% • Ash: mineral content of flour 0.3 to 1.5% • Pigments: carotenoids, orange-yellow.
  8. 8. 4 Ingredients Types of Patent Flour • Bread flourCopyright © 2013 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved • Cake flour • High gluten flour • Pastry flour Bread flour Cake flour Pastry flour
  9. 9. 4 Ingredients Hand Test for Flour Strength • Small bakeries keep three white flours on hand.Copyright © 2013 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved You should be able to identify them by sight and touch.
  10. 10. 4 Ingredients Other Wheat Flours • All purpose flourCopyright © 2013 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved • Durum flour • Self rising flour • Whole wheat flour • Bran flour • Cracked wheat Whole wheat flour
  11. 11. 4 Ingredients Other Flours, Meals, Starches • RyeCopyright © 2013 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved • Corn • Spelt • Oats • Buckwheat • Soy • Rice • Starches • Cornstarch • Waxy maize • Instant
  12. 12. 4 Ingredients Sugars • Add sweetness and flavor.Copyright © 2013 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved • Create tenderness and fineness of texture. • Give crust color. • Increase keeping qualities. • Act as a creaming agent with fats. • Act as a foaming agent with eggs. • Provide food for yeast.
  13. 13. 4 Ingredients Sugars The chemical name for sugar obtained from sugarCopyright © 2013 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved cane or sugar beets is sucrose. •Lactose is the sugar found in milk. •Maltose is the malt sugar. •Fructose is the simple sugar found in fruit.
  14. 14. 4 Ingredients Sugars When a sucrose solution is heated with an acid,Copyright © 2013 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved some of the sucrose breaks down into equal parts of two simple sugars, dextrose, and levulose. Equal parts of dextrose and levulose is called invert sugar.
  15. 15. 4 Ingredients Types of Sugars • Granulated sugars include:Copyright © 2013 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved • Regular granulated sugar. • Very fine sugars called caster sugar. • Sanding sugars (coarse sugar used for coating). • Pearl sugar (also called sugar nibs).
  16. 16. 4 Ingredients Types of Sugars • Powdered sugar or Confectioner’s sugar: ground to a fine powder and mixed with a small amount of starch to prevent caking.Copyright © 2013 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved • Dehydrated fondant: a dried form of fondant icing. • Brown sugar: contains varying amounts of caramel, molasses, and other impurities. • Demerara sugar: a crystalline brown sugar. • Non-Nutritive sweeteners-sugar substitutes.
  17. 17. 4 Ingredients Syrups Syrups consist of one or more types of sugar dissolved in water.Copyright © 2013 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved • Simple syrup: dissolved sucrose in water. • Molasses: concentrated sugarcane syrup. • Glucose Corn Syrup: manufactured from cornstarch. • Honey. • Malt syrup: extracted from barley.
  18. 18. 4 Ingredients Fats The major function of fats in baked items are:Copyright © 2013 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved • To tenderize gluten. • To add moistness and richness. • To increase keeping quality. • To add flavor. • To assist in leavening when used as a creaming agent. • To add flakiness.
  19. 19. 4 Ingredients Fats • Shortenings: any of a group of solid fats, usually white and tasteless, that are especially formulated for baking (shortens gluten strands).Copyright © 2013 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved • High ratio shortenings: devised for use in making cake batters that contain a high ratio of sugar. • High Ratio Liquid Shortenings. • Butter: Adds flavor and melts in the mouth at body temperature. • Margarine: manufactured from various animal and vegetable fats plus flavoring, emulsifiers, and coloring. • Oils. • Lard: rendered fat from hogs.
  20. 20. 4 Ingredients Milk and Milk Products The functions of milk in baked products are:Copyright © 2013 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved • The water content in milk enables gluten development. • Adds texture. • Adds flavor. • Provides crust color. • Provides keeping quality. • Provides nutritive value.
  21. 21. 4 Ingredients Eggs Functions of eggs in baking:Copyright © 2013 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved • Structure • Emulsifying fats and liquids • Leavening • Shortening action • Moisture • Flavor • Color • Nutritive value
  22. 22. Ingredients Composition of Eggs4 Copyright © 2013 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  23. 23. 4 Ingredients Composition of Eggs A whole egg consists of:Copyright © 2013 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved • Yolk: High in fat and protein, contains iron and vitamins. • White: primarily albumin protein. • Shell: porous and allows egg to lose moisture and absorb odors and flavors. • Chalazae: holds yolk in center. • Membrane. • Air cell.
  24. 24. 4 Ingredients Market Form of Eggs • FreshCopyright © 2013 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved Courtesy of USDA. • Frozen • Dried
  25. 25. 4 Ingredients Egg Sizes • One whole egg = 1.67 oz. (47 g)Copyright © 2013 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved • One egg white = 1 oz. (28 g) • One yolk = 0.67 oz. (19 g) • 9½ whole eggs = 1 lb. (21 whole eggs = 1 kg) • 16 whites = 1 lb. (36 whites = 1 kg) • 24 yolks = 1 lb. (53 yolks = 1 kg)
  26. 26. 4 Ingredients Leavening Agents Leavening is the production or incorporation ofCopyright © 2013 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved gases in a baked product to increase volume and to produce shape and texture.
  27. 27. 4 Ingredients Yeasts • Fermentation is the process by which yeast acts onCopyright © 2013 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved sugars and changes them into carbon dioxide. • Yeast is a living organism. It is sensitive to temperature. Temperature 34°F (1°C) Inactive (storage temperature) 60°-70°F (15°-20°C) Slow action 70°-90°F (20°-32°C) Best growth (fermentation and proofing temperatures for bread doughs) Above 100°F (38°C) Reaction slows 140°F (60°C) Yeast is killed
  28. 28. 4 Ingredients Types of Yeast • Fresh or compressed yeast: moist and perishable, and is preferred by professionals.Copyright © 2013 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved It must be refrigerated as it only lasts 2 weeks. • Active dry yeast: a dry, granular form of yeast. It requires rehydration. • Instant dry yeast: dry granular form of yeast but does not require rehydration. Contains little dead yeast so produces gases much quicker than active dry yeast.
  29. 29. 4 Ingredients Chemical Leaveners • Baking Soda (sodium bicarbonate): if moisture and anCopyright © 2013 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved acid are present, soda releases carbon dioxide gas. • Baking Powder: a mixture of baking soda plus one or more acids. • Double-acting baking powder has two acids that release gases with moisture and heat. • Baking ammonia: a mixture of ammonium carbonate, ammonium bicarbonate, and ammonium carbamate.
  30. 30. 4 Ingredients Air • Air is incorporated into all doughs and batters duringCopyright © 2013 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved mixing. • The formation of air cells is important even in products leavened by yeast or baking powder because the air cells collect and hold the leavening gases.
  31. 31. 4 Ingredients Methods of Incorporating Air • Creaming: the process of beating fat and sugar togetherCopyright © 2013 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved to incorporate air. • Foaming: the process of beating eggs, with or without sugar, to incorporate air.
  32. 32. 4 Ingredients Steam • When water turns to steam, it expands to 1100 times itsCopyright © 2013 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved original volume. • Because all baked products contain some moisture, steam is an important leavening agent.
  33. 33. 4 Ingredients Gelling Agents • Gelatin is a water-soluble protein extracted from animalCopyright © 2013 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved connective tissue. • Two forms available for bakeshop: 1. Powdered 2. Leaf gelatin, sheet gelatin
  34. 34. 4 Ingredients Gelling Agents Using gelatin in formulas:Copyright © 2013 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved • Soften gelatin in water or other liquid. It absorbs 5 times its weight in water (blooming). • Softened gelatin is added to hot ingredients or is heated with other ingredients until it dissolves. • The mixture is chilled until it sets.
  35. 35. 4 Ingredients Gelling Agents Pectin is a vegetable gum that can absorb a greatCopyright © 2013 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved deal of water and is used for thickening or gelling liquids. •Pectin is extracted from fruits and used to thicken or gel fruit preserves, jams, and jellies. •In order for pectin to gel, high sugar content and an acid are necessary.
  36. 36. 4 Ingredients Fruits and Nuts Nuts commonly used in bakeshop:Copyright © 2013 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved Almonds Brazil nuts Cashews Hazelnuts Macadamia nuts Pecans Pine nuts Pistachios Walnuts
  37. 37. 4 Ingredients Nut Products • Almond pasteCopyright © 2013 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved • Kernel paste • Macaroon paste • Marzipan • Praline paste
  38. 38. 4 Ingredients Chocolate and Cocoa Chocolate and cocoa are derived from cocoa or cacaoCopyright © 2013 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved beans. The beans are fermented, roasted, and ground, yielding chocolate liquor, which contains cocoa butter. •Cocoa is the dry powder that remains after part of the cocoa butter is removed from the chocolate liquor. •Dutch process cocoa is processed with an alkali to make it darker and more easily dissolved in liquids.
  39. 39. 4 Ingredients Chocolate and Cocoa • Unsweetened chocolate is straight chocolate liquor.Copyright © 2013 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved • Sweet chocolate is bitter chocolate with the addition of sugar and cocoa butter. • Milk chocolate is sweet chocolate to which milk solids have been added. • Cocoa Butter is the fat pressed out of the chocolate liquor. • White chocolate is made of cocoa butter, sugar, and milk solids. Technically, it should not be called chocolate because it does not contain cocoa solids.
  40. 40. 4 Ingredients Chocolate and Cocoa Cocoa contains starch, which absorbs moisture (drier) in aCopyright © 2013 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved batter. When adding cocoa to a formula, use the rule of thumb: •Reduce the flour by 3/8 (37.5%) of the weight of cocoa added.
  41. 41. 4 Ingredients Salt, Spices, and Flavorings Salt:Copyright © 2013 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved • Strengthens gluten structure and makes it more stretchable. • Inhibits yeast growth.
  42. 42. 4 Ingredients Salt, Spices, and Flavorings Spices are plant or vegetable substances used toCopyright © 2013 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved flavor foods. The most important spices and seeds in the bakeshop are:  Allspice  Ginger  Anise  Mace  Caraway  Nutmeg  Cardamom  Poppy seeds  Cinnamon  Sesame seeds  Cloves  Zest of lemon and orange
  43. 43. 4 Ingredients Salt, Spices, and Flavorings Vanilla is the most important flavoring in the pastryCopyright © 2013 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved shop: •Vanilla beans •Vanilla extract
  44. 44. 4 Ingredients Salt, Spices, and Flavorings • Extracts are flavorful oils and other substancesCopyright © 2013 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved dissolved in alcohol. • Emulsions are flavorful oils mixed with water with the aid of emulsifiers such as vegetable gums.
  45. 45. 4 Ingredients Salt, Spices, and Flavorings Two categories of flavorings:Copyright © 2013 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved • Natural • Artificial
  46. 46. 4 Ingredients Salt, Spices, and Flavorings AlcoholsCopyright © 2013 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved • Alcoholic beverages are useful flavoring ingredients in the pastry shop. • Sweet alcohols and liqueurs (e.g., cassis, orange). • Non-sweet alcohols (e.g., rum, cognac). • Wines (e.g., Marsala, Madeira).

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