ASEMINAR REPORT ONDISASTER MANAGEMENTSUBMITTED TOIN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THEAWARD OF DEGREE OF B. TECH. (CE) 2012-2013SUBMITTED BYBHUPENDRA SINGHRAJPUROHIT (09/CE/009)UNDER THE GUIDANCE OFMr. ANKIT SARASWAT(DEPT. OF CIVILENGINEERING)
CONTENT1. INTRODUCTION2. DISASTER IN INDIA3. INDIA’S VULNERABILITY TO DISASTER4. AREAS OF CONCERN5. NODEL AGENCIES OF DISASTER MANAGEMENT6. DYNAMICS OF DISASTER7. NEW DIRECTION FOR DISASTER MANAGEMENT ININDIA8. FUTURE DIRECTION9. INVEST IN PREPAREDNESS10. BEST PRACTICES11. LESSION LEARNT
INTRODUCTIONWHO defines Disaster as “anyoccurrence, that cause damage,ecological disruption, loss of humanlife, deterioration of health and healthservices, on a scale sufficient towarrant an extraordinary responsefrom outside the affected communityor area”.Disaster are mainly two types.
1. NATURAL DISASTER-1. Major Natural DisasterA. Cyclones, TornadoesB. Drought, FloodC. Earthquake, Tsunami2. Minor Natural DisasterA. Cold WavesB. ThunderstormsC. Heat Waves
DISASTER IN INDIA1.Moving away from the Great Bengal famineof 1769-1770 in which a third of thepopulation perished.2.1984 Bhopal Gas Tragedy3.2001 Gujarat Earthquake4.2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami3.The drought years of 1965, 1972, 1979,1987, 2002
INDIA’S VULNERABILITY TO DISASTERS1.57% land is vulnerable to earthquakes. Ofthese, 12% is vulnerable to severeearthquakes.2.68% land is vulnerable to drought.3.12% land is vulnerable to floods.4.8% land is vulnerable to cyclones.5.A part from natural disasters, some citiesin India are also vulnerable to chemicaland industrial disasters and man-madedisasters.
Seismic Activity in IndiaSeismic Activity in India180 AD - 2004180 AD - 2004
AREAS OF CONCERN1.Activating an Early Warning Systemnetwork and its close monitoring2.Mechanisms for integrating the scientific,technological and administrative agenciesfor effective disaster management3.Terrestrial communication links whichcollapse in the event of a rapid onsetdisaster4.Vulnerability of critical infrastructures(power supply, communication, watersupply, transport, etc.) to disaster events
AREAS OF CONCERN6.Preparedness and Mitigation very oftenignored.7.Lack of integrated efforts to collect andcompile data, information and localknowledge on disaster history andtraditional response patterns.8.Need for standardised efforts in compilingand interpreting geo-spatial data, satelliteimagery and early warning signals.9.Weak areas continue to be forecasting,modeling, risk prediction, simulation andscenario analysis, etc.
NODAL AGENCIES FOR DISASTERMANAGEMENT1. Floods : Ministry of Water Resources, CWC2. Cyclones : Indian Meteorological Department3. Earthquakes : Indian Meteorological Department4. Epidemics : Ministry of Health and Family Welfare5. Avian Flu: Ministry of Health, Ministry of Environment,Ministry of Agriculture and Animal Husbandry6. Chemical Disasters : Ministry of Environment and Forests7. Industrial Disasters : Ministry of Labour8. Rail Accidents : Ministry of Railways9. Air Accidents : Ministry of Civil Aviation10. Fire : Ministry of Home Affairs11. Nuclear Incidents : Department of Atomic Energy12. Mine Disasters : Department of Mines
DYNAMICS OF DISASTER1.There is a high probability of a lowprobability event happening somewheresometime soon…2.The unpredictability of disaster events andthe high risk and vulnerability profilesmake it imperative to strengthen disasterpreparedness, mitigation and enforcementof guidelines, building codes andrestrictions on construction of buildings inflood-prone areas and storm surge pronecoastal areas.
NEW DIRECTIONS FOR DISASTERMANAGEMENT IN INDIA1.The National Disaster ManagementAuthority (NDMA) has been set up as theapex body for Disaster Management inIndia, with the Prime Minister as itsChairman.2.Disaster Management Authorities will beset up at the State and District Levels tobe headed by the Chief Ministers andCollectors/Zilla Parishad Chairmenrespectively.
FUTURE DIRECTION1.Encourage and consolidate knowledgenetworks2.Mobilise and train disaster volunteers formore effective preparedness, mitigation andresponse (NSS, NCC, Scouts and Guides,Civil Defence, Home-guards)3.Increased capacity building leads to fastervulnerability reduction.4.Learn from best practices in disasterpreparedness, mitigation and disaster
FUTURE DIRECTION6.Indigenous knowledge systems and copingpractices7.Living with Risk: Community BasedDisaster Risk Management8.Inclusive, participatory, gender sensitive,child friendly, eco-friendly and disabledfriendly disaster management9. Knowledge Management: Documentationand dissemination of good practices10. Public Private Partnership
INVEST IN PREPAREDNESS1.Investments in Preparedness and Prevention(Mitigation) will yield sustainable results, ratherthan spending money on relief after a disaster.2.Most disasters are predictable, especially intheir seasonality and the disaster-prone areaswhich are vulnerable.3.Communities must be involved in disasterpreparedness.
BEST PRACTICES1.On 12 November, 1970 a major cyclone hitthe coastal belt of Bangladesh at 223 km/hr.with a storm surge of six to nine metersheight, killing an estimated 500,000 people.2.Due to the Cyclone Preparedness Program,the April 1991 cyclone with wind speed of 225km/hr. killed only 138,000 people eventhough the coastal population had doubled bythat time.3.In May 1994, in a similar cyclone with a windspeed of 250 km/hr. only 127 people lost theirlives.4.In May 1997, in a cyclone with wind speed of
LESSONS LEARNT1.Be Prepared : Preparedness andMitigation is bound to yield more effectivereturns than distributing relief after adisaster.2.Create a Culture of Preparedness andPrevention.3.Evolve a code of conduct for all stake-holders