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Training & Development
Lecture 10
Definition
Smith (1996) defines training as a planned process
to achieve effective performance in an activity or
range of ...
Learning
It is about bringing about relative
permanent change as a result of experience.
Social learning theory(Bandura)- ...
Continued..
Four process involved in learning as per
the social learning theory
1. Attention process
2. Retention process
...
Lewin's Learning model
Unfreezing Moving Refreezing
Need to establish
new norms
Heightened motivation
Establishing new nor...
Behavior Modification
It refers to the practical application of
reinforcement theory in organizational
setup.
Five step mo...
Steps for behavior mod. model
Stage1 –identification of critical behavior
Stage2- developing baseline data
Stage 3-Identif...
developing baseline
data
Identification of
critical behavior
Identifying baseline
consequence
Developing Interventions
App...
Characteristics to effective
Training Practices
Top Management is committed to training
& development
Training is tied to ...
Levels of Training Needs
Organizational level – requiring modification in
culture
Job or occupational level – most redefin...
Assessing Training Needs and
Designing Training Programs
The assessment phase serves the foundation
of the entire training...
Needs Assessment Model
Organizational Analysis
Objectives
Resources
Internal environment
Person Analysis
Actual Performanc...
Steps in the implementation of a
training program
Instructional System Design
(Addie Model)
An analysis of the training ne...
Factors Affecting the training
Plan
The objectives of the training
The contents of the training
The recipients of the trai...
Training requirement analysis
•Participants characteristics
•Training environment
•Broad training objectives
Determination...
Instructional materials Preparation
• Events objective
• Sequence
• Detailed instructional content
Developmental testing o...
Nine requirements of a
systematic training program
It should be realistic
It should be a conscious effort
Provide time,ski...
Provide the opportunity for experimentation beyond
the tolerances of an organization and for feedback of
results
Give part...
Training methods
Simulating Real life
1. Role playing
2. Games
3. In basket exercise
Continued…
1. Role playing:
Help participants experience what
something sounds and feels like.
It is elaborately preplanne...
Continued..
2. Simulation Games:
These focus primarily on the process of
interpersonal relations,on how decisions are
made...
Continued..
3. In basket Exercise:
More elaborate simulations create a complex
organization,rotate participants through ke...
Incidents and cases
Gives a wider scope of working
Help participants develop a habit of taking
more factors into account t...
Individualized training
Tutoring and coaching individuals through
reading and writing assignments
It enables each particip...
Other Methods
Seminar
Workshops
Group Discussions
Lectures
Distance learning
Laboratory Training
Job Rotation
Projects
Evaluation of the training
program
Evaluation of the training can be done at various
levels
1. Reaction Level-reviewing tr...
Transfer of Training
It refers to the extend to which knowledge,
skill, abilities or other characteristics
learned in trai...
Training Initiatives
Learning organizations:
E.g.:HPCL
1. People express their capacity to create desired
results
2. New a...
Elements of a learning
organization
Building a shared vision
Continuously developing personal skills
and vision
Capability...
Continued…
Transfer of knowledge through Academy-
industry interface
Eg:Management Development Institute &Indian
Institute...
Career Development
Career is a sequence of job occupied by a person
during the course of a lifetime.
Career development lo...
Need of Career Development
Ensures needed talent will be available
Improves the organizations Ability to attract
and retai...
Career Stages
Exploration
Establishment
Mid-career
Late Career
Decline
Types of Careers
Steady-State -One-time commitment to certain kind of job that is maintained
throughout one’s working life...
Effective Organizational Career
Development
Challenging jobs
Dissemination of career options information
Job posting
Asses...
Individual’s Career development
Identify and organize your skills
Convert these inventories in general career
fields
Test ...
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Transcript of "Training & development lecture8"

  1. 1. Training & Development Lecture 10
  2. 2. Definition Smith (1996) defines training as a planned process to achieve effective performance in an activity or range of activities. There is a common view that training consists of formal activities that allow people to acquire or refine knowledge, skills and attitudes needed for their current jobs It is about bridging the training gap
  3. 3. Learning It is about bringing about relative permanent change as a result of experience. Social learning theory(Bandura)- states that learning is a continuous interaction between the individual and the particular social environment in which he/she functions.
  4. 4. Continued.. Four process involved in learning as per the social learning theory 1. Attention process 2. Retention process 3. Motor Reproduction process 4. Reinforcement process.
  5. 5. Lewin's Learning model Unfreezing Moving Refreezing Need to establish new norms Heightened motivation Establishing new norms and roles, Accepting and giving feedback experimenting Developing differentiated roles Stabilizing norms Adjusting self-image
  6. 6. Behavior Modification It refers to the practical application of reinforcement theory in organizational setup. Five step model of it application followed universally
  7. 7. Steps for behavior mod. model Stage1 –identification of critical behavior Stage2- developing baseline data Stage 3-Identifying baseline consequence(ABC model) Stage 4- Developing and implementing interventions. Stage 5- Evaluating performance improvement
  8. 8. developing baseline data Identification of critical behavior Identifying baseline consequence Developing Interventions Apply Appropriate strategy Chart the frequency of the response after interventions Maintenance of the desired behavior (schedules reinforcement Evaluating Performance improvement Problem solved No Yes Behavioral events, performance and organizational consequences A-B-C Consider environmental variables Structure ,technology, task, processes,groups Percentage and frequency Modeling and Shaping Positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, punishment,extinction Model of Behavior modification
  9. 9. Characteristics to effective Training Practices Top Management is committed to training & development Training is tied to business strategy and objective A comprehensive and systematic approach to training: training and re training is done at all levels and as an on going process To provide sufficient time and money.
  10. 10. Levels of Training Needs Organizational level – requiring modification in culture Job or occupational level – most redefined in terms of competencies required to meet new standards Individual employee - shortfall in performance remedied
  11. 11. Assessing Training Needs and Designing Training Programs The assessment phase serves the foundation of the entire training effort. The purpose of the training program is to define what is it the employee should learn in relation to the desired job behavior.
  12. 12. Needs Assessment Model Organizational Analysis Objectives Resources Internal environment Person Analysis Actual Performance(AP) Operational Analysis Expected Performance Requirement (EP) KSAs Training Needs Training Objectives Performance Discrepancy (PD) PD = EP -AP
  13. 13. Steps in the implementation of a training program Instructional System Design (Addie Model) An analysis of the training needs A design program of training to meet the needs Develop model Implementation of the training program An evaluation of the training program
  14. 14. Factors Affecting the training Plan The objectives of the training The contents of the training The recipients of the training The likely cost involved The cost of not training The likely benefits and how can they be evaluated Various training methods available Location of training The availability of the trainer
  15. 15. Training requirement analysis •Participants characteristics •Training environment •Broad training objectives Determination of the specific task requirement Determination of Org development needs Determining the specific training requirements •Terminal job requirement •Behavioral specifications •Terminal achievement criteria
  16. 16. Instructional materials Preparation • Events objective • Sequence • Detailed instructional content Developmental testing of training material Field testing of the complete program Implementation Evaluation
  17. 17. Nine requirements of a systematic training program It should be realistic It should be a conscious effort Provide time,skill&knowledge of the trainer in such measures that the participants can convert each training event into an experience for themselves. Protect the participants and the setting from the harm and expensive error arising from lack of practice. Expose the participants to skill and ideas beyond those available in their normal settings
  18. 18. Provide the opportunity for experimentation beyond the tolerances of an organization and for feedback of results Give participants the experience of belonging to groups outside their everyday settings,especially with people in the same field and occupation. Provide opportunities to step back from day to day activities,think about the task and role as a whole,analyze priorities and division of time, and how the new ways to fit into a participants pattern of life. Provide opportunities for a very intensive stretching experiences for participants through specialized programs with highly skilled trainers
  19. 19. Training methods Simulating Real life 1. Role playing 2. Games 3. In basket exercise
  20. 20. Continued… 1. Role playing: Help participants experience what something sounds and feels like. It is elaborately preplanned Mainly useful for training behavioral dimensions
  21. 21. Continued.. 2. Simulation Games: These focus primarily on the process of interpersonal relations,on how decisions are made and with what consequences ,rather than on the substance of the decision. Games have set rules and predictable results.
  22. 22. Continued.. 3. In basket Exercise: More elaborate simulations create a complex organization,rotate participants through key roles in it,and have them deal with specific task in settings of a kind they will encounter in real life.
  23. 23. Incidents and cases Gives a wider scope of working Help participants develop a habit of taking more factors into account than they usually do,analyze them care fully and put them together in an integrated picture for guiding understanding and action.
  24. 24. Individualized training Tutoring and coaching individuals through reading and writing assignments It enables each participants to determine the pace of training A tutor adapts his or her activities to the participants condition
  25. 25. Other Methods Seminar Workshops Group Discussions Lectures Distance learning Laboratory Training Job Rotation Projects
  26. 26. Evaluation of the training program Evaluation of the training can be done at various levels 1. Reaction Level-reviewing trainees reaction to the training and the trainer 2. Learning Level-changes in knowledge,skill and attitudes 3. Job Behavioral Level- change in job behavior 4. Organizational Level-effect on the organization 5. Ultimate level- benefit to the organization and the individual
  27. 27. Transfer of Training It refers to the extend to which knowledge, skill, abilities or other characteristics learned in training can be applied on the job It can be a : Positive transfer Negatives transfer Neutral
  28. 28. Training Initiatives Learning organizations: E.g.:HPCL 1. People express their capacity to create desired results 2. New and expansive patterns of thinking are nurtured 3. Collective aspirations are set free 4. People learn together 5. Learning does not start and end but is continuous process over the life time
  29. 29. Elements of a learning organization Building a shared vision Continuously developing personal skills and vision Capability to reflect about theirs company Team learning Systematic learning
  30. 30. Continued… Transfer of knowledge through Academy- industry interface Eg:Management Development Institute &Indian Institute of Petroleum Management Multi-skilling,Retraining and Deployment Eg: BHEL Developing Global Learning and Training Capabilities Eg: Motorola
  31. 31. Career Development Career is a sequence of job occupied by a person during the course of a lifetime. Career development looks at the long term career effectiveness and success of organizational personnel Organizations Career Development: tracking career paths to ensure capable managerial and technical talent to meet organizational needs Individual Career Development: focuses on assisting individual to identify their career goals and to determine what they need to do to achieve it.
  32. 32. Need of Career Development Ensures needed talent will be available Improves the organizations Ability to attract and retain high talent Ensures growth opportunity for all employees Reduces Employee frustration
  33. 33. Career Stages Exploration Establishment Mid-career Late Career Decline
  34. 34. Types of Careers Steady-State -One-time commitment to certain kind of job that is maintained throughout one’s working life. Linear- A person progresses through a sequence of jobs and each job entails progress over the prior one in terms of responsibility, skills needed, level in the hierarchy of an organization, and so on. Spiral- A person holds different types of jobs that build on each other but tend to be fundamentally different Transitory- Person changes jobs frequently and each job is different from the one before
  35. 35. Effective Organizational Career Development Challenging jobs Dissemination of career options information Job posting Assessment centers Career Counseling Career Development Workshops Continuing training Job Changes
  36. 36. Individual’s Career development Identify and organize your skills Convert these inventories in general career fields Test these possibilities against the realities of the organizations and the job market
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