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Training & development lecture8


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  • 1. Training & Development Lecture 10
  • 2. Definition Smith (1996) defines training as a planned process to achieve effective performance in an activity or range of activities. There is a common view that training consists of formal activities that allow people to acquire or refine knowledge, skills and attitudes needed for their current jobs It is about bridging the training gap
  • 3. Learning It is about bringing about relative permanent change as a result of experience. Social learning theory(Bandura)- states that learning is a continuous interaction between the individual and the particular social environment in which he/she functions.
  • 4. Continued.. Four process involved in learning as per the social learning theory 1. Attention process 2. Retention process 3. Motor Reproduction process 4. Reinforcement process.
  • 5. Lewin's Learning model Unfreezing Moving Refreezing Need to establish new norms Heightened motivation Establishing new norms and roles, Accepting and giving feedback experimenting Developing differentiated roles Stabilizing norms Adjusting self-image
  • 6. Behavior Modification It refers to the practical application of reinforcement theory in organizational setup. Five step model of it application followed universally
  • 7. Steps for behavior mod. model Stage1 –identification of critical behavior Stage2- developing baseline data Stage 3-Identifying baseline consequence(ABC model) Stage 4- Developing and implementing interventions. Stage 5- Evaluating performance improvement
  • 8. developing baseline data Identification of critical behavior Identifying baseline consequence Developing Interventions Apply Appropriate strategy Chart the frequency of the response after interventions Maintenance of the desired behavior (schedules reinforcement Evaluating Performance improvement Problem solved No Yes Behavioral events, performance and organizational consequences A-B-C Consider environmental variables Structure ,technology, task, processes,groups Percentage and frequency Modeling and Shaping Positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, punishment,extinction Model of Behavior modification
  • 9. Characteristics to effective Training Practices Top Management is committed to training & development Training is tied to business strategy and objective A comprehensive and systematic approach to training: training and re training is done at all levels and as an on going process To provide sufficient time and money.
  • 10. Levels of Training Needs Organizational level – requiring modification in culture Job or occupational level – most redefined in terms of competencies required to meet new standards Individual employee - shortfall in performance remedied
  • 11. Assessing Training Needs and Designing Training Programs The assessment phase serves the foundation of the entire training effort. The purpose of the training program is to define what is it the employee should learn in relation to the desired job behavior.
  • 12. Needs Assessment Model Organizational Analysis Objectives Resources Internal environment Person Analysis Actual Performance(AP) Operational Analysis Expected Performance Requirement (EP) KSAs Training Needs Training Objectives Performance Discrepancy (PD) PD = EP -AP
  • 13. Steps in the implementation of a training program Instructional System Design (Addie Model) An analysis of the training needs A design program of training to meet the needs Develop model Implementation of the training program An evaluation of the training program
  • 14. Factors Affecting the training Plan The objectives of the training The contents of the training The recipients of the training The likely cost involved The cost of not training The likely benefits and how can they be evaluated Various training methods available Location of training The availability of the trainer
  • 15. Training requirement analysis •Participants characteristics •Training environment •Broad training objectives Determination of the specific task requirement Determination of Org development needs Determining the specific training requirements •Terminal job requirement •Behavioral specifications •Terminal achievement criteria
  • 16. Instructional materials Preparation • Events objective • Sequence • Detailed instructional content Developmental testing of training material Field testing of the complete program Implementation Evaluation
  • 17. Nine requirements of a systematic training program It should be realistic It should be a conscious effort Provide time,skill&knowledge of the trainer in such measures that the participants can convert each training event into an experience for themselves. Protect the participants and the setting from the harm and expensive error arising from lack of practice. Expose the participants to skill and ideas beyond those available in their normal settings
  • 18. Provide the opportunity for experimentation beyond the tolerances of an organization and for feedback of results Give participants the experience of belonging to groups outside their everyday settings,especially with people in the same field and occupation. Provide opportunities to step back from day to day activities,think about the task and role as a whole,analyze priorities and division of time, and how the new ways to fit into a participants pattern of life. Provide opportunities for a very intensive stretching experiences for participants through specialized programs with highly skilled trainers
  • 19. Training methods Simulating Real life 1. Role playing 2. Games 3. In basket exercise
  • 20. Continued… 1. Role playing: Help participants experience what something sounds and feels like. It is elaborately preplanned Mainly useful for training behavioral dimensions
  • 21. Continued.. 2. Simulation Games: These focus primarily on the process of interpersonal relations,on how decisions are made and with what consequences ,rather than on the substance of the decision. Games have set rules and predictable results.
  • 22. Continued.. 3. In basket Exercise: More elaborate simulations create a complex organization,rotate participants through key roles in it,and have them deal with specific task in settings of a kind they will encounter in real life.
  • 23. Incidents and cases Gives a wider scope of working Help participants develop a habit of taking more factors into account than they usually do,analyze them care fully and put them together in an integrated picture for guiding understanding and action.
  • 24. Individualized training Tutoring and coaching individuals through reading and writing assignments It enables each participants to determine the pace of training A tutor adapts his or her activities to the participants condition
  • 25. Other Methods Seminar Workshops Group Discussions Lectures Distance learning Laboratory Training Job Rotation Projects
  • 26. Evaluation of the training program Evaluation of the training can be done at various levels 1. Reaction Level-reviewing trainees reaction to the training and the trainer 2. Learning Level-changes in knowledge,skill and attitudes 3. Job Behavioral Level- change in job behavior 4. Organizational Level-effect on the organization 5. Ultimate level- benefit to the organization and the individual
  • 27. Transfer of Training It refers to the extend to which knowledge, skill, abilities or other characteristics learned in training can be applied on the job It can be a : Positive transfer Negatives transfer Neutral
  • 28. Training Initiatives Learning organizations: E.g.:HPCL 1. People express their capacity to create desired results 2. New and expansive patterns of thinking are nurtured 3. Collective aspirations are set free 4. People learn together 5. Learning does not start and end but is continuous process over the life time
  • 29. Elements of a learning organization Building a shared vision Continuously developing personal skills and vision Capability to reflect about theirs company Team learning Systematic learning
  • 30. Continued… Transfer of knowledge through Academy- industry interface Eg:Management Development Institute &Indian Institute of Petroleum Management Multi-skilling,Retraining and Deployment Eg: BHEL Developing Global Learning and Training Capabilities Eg: Motorola
  • 31. Career Development Career is a sequence of job occupied by a person during the course of a lifetime. Career development looks at the long term career effectiveness and success of organizational personnel Organizations Career Development: tracking career paths to ensure capable managerial and technical talent to meet organizational needs Individual Career Development: focuses on assisting individual to identify their career goals and to determine what they need to do to achieve it.
  • 32. Need of Career Development Ensures needed talent will be available Improves the organizations Ability to attract and retain high talent Ensures growth opportunity for all employees Reduces Employee frustration
  • 33. Career Stages Exploration Establishment Mid-career Late Career Decline
  • 34. Types of Careers Steady-State -One-time commitment to certain kind of job that is maintained throughout one’s working life. Linear- A person progresses through a sequence of jobs and each job entails progress over the prior one in terms of responsibility, skills needed, level in the hierarchy of an organization, and so on. Spiral- A person holds different types of jobs that build on each other but tend to be fundamentally different Transitory- Person changes jobs frequently and each job is different from the one before
  • 35. Effective Organizational Career Development Challenging jobs Dissemination of career options information Job posting Assessment centers Career Counseling Career Development Workshops Continuing training Job Changes
  • 36. Individual’s Career development Identify and organize your skills Convert these inventories in general career fields Test these possibilities against the realities of the organizations and the job market