0 Negotiation is one of the
approaches used to
make decisions and
manage disputes. It is
also the major building
block for many other
Where Negotiation occurs?
Negotiation occurs between
0 parents and children
0 managers and staff
0 employers and employees
0 professionals and clients
0 within and between organizations and between
agencies and the public.
0 It is the process of
setting goals, developing
strategies, and outlining
tasks and schedules to
accomplish the goals
0 There are some reasons
due to which negotiation
can not be successful,
reasons may be related
to negotiating style or
may be due to improper
Model of Negotiating Style
0 The Model of Negotiating Styles modeled by Rollin
and Christine Glaser ( 1982) has been used
extensively and serves as a basis for discussing style
problems in negotiation.
0 A negotiating style refers to a negotiator's
characteristic way of dealing with others during a
N – 1
Win at any cost
Build or maintain a
(lose - win)
(no winner- no
Problems encountered due to
Starting with a win-lose approach
Inability to change negotiating style
Making concessions for the sake of client relationship
Bargaining instead of negotiating
Problems encountered due to
lack of planning
Establishing objectives as a fixed point instead of a range
Not choosing team members wisely
Failing to establish priorities
Not planning for possible concessions
Attempting to negotiate with unclear authority
Steps in Negotiation Planning
It is important to select only team members who
have the capability of using more than one style.
List any issue likely to be important to the
negotiation or that the other side might bring up.
Don't open up issues that involve a weakness you
All issues should be rated as follows:
Musts: If the negotiator doesn't get any one of the Must Issues; it
is some degree of failure.
Wants: These are issues to actively "fight" for. But, if the
negotiator does not get one or more of them, the negotiation is
Gives: These are issues that would be "nice to have." The only
reason to fight for them is to create value for the other side, as
you give them up. Give issues are needed to have some items to
Each issue (or need) must have a value. Thus, the
negotiator should know the value of each issue and
what their value to the other side could be.
It is essential to clearly establish the objectives for
each issue. These should be as quantifiable as possible
and set an upper and lower limit.
This is an ongoing step. The negotiator needs
information to back-up statements about the issues and to
discount the other side's statements.
Other Side's Issues and Objectives
Anticipate the other side's issues and objectives. The
degree to which the negotiator is able to do this will be a
signal that the planning has been successful.
The secret of effective negotiation is
dealing from strength, and strength
comes from preparation.
You can't get what you
don't ask for
Don't give without